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1.
Microbiol Res ; 254: 126912, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742105

RESUMO

Sapindus saponins extracted from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. have been reported to exert antibacterial activity against Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes). However, there are no reports about their potentials against its biofilm, which is a major contributor to the antibiotic resistance of C. acnes. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antibiofilm activity and action of the combination of Sapindoside A and B (SAB) against C. acnes. SAB with sub-MICs significantly inhibited the early-formed and mature biofilm of C. acnes and decreased the adhesion and cell surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.05). Also, SAB greatly reduced the production of exopolysaccharide and lipase (p < 0.05), and the binding mode of SAB and lipase was predicted by molecular docking, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Biofilm observed with electron microscopies further confirmed the high antibiofilm activity of SAB against C. acnes. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of biofilm biosynthesis-associated genes was observed. The combination index explained the synergistic effects of SAB leading to the above results, and the contribution of SA was greater than that of SB. The current results showed that SAB had synergistic antibiofilm activity against C. acnes, and the Sapindoside A played a major role, indicating that SAB could be a natural antiacne additive against C. acnes biofilm-associated infections.

2.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753394

RESUMO

Various studies have manifested that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the modulation of the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma (OS). However, whether miR-22-3p is associated with OS growth remains unclear. In the study, the potential molecular mechanisms of miR-22-3p in OS was explored. It was affirmed that miR-22-3p was associated with distant metastasis and tumor size in OS patients, and reduced in OS tissues and cells while transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) was elevated. Elevated miR-22-3p repressed OS cell progression, and the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, while elevated TCF7L2 was opposite. MiR-22-3p targeted TCF7L2 in OS. In functional rescue experiments, knockdown of miR-22-3p on OS progression and promotion of Wnt/ß-catenin were reversed by simultaneous knockdown of TCF7L2. Transplantation experiments in nude mice showed that elevated miR-22-3p repressed OS tumor growth and decreased TCF7L2, Wnt and ß-catenin. Shortly, this study suggest that miR-22-3p refrains the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway by targeting TCF7L2 and thereby preventing OS deterioration. MiR-22-3p/TCF7L2 axis is supposed to be a candidate molecular target for future OS treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804175

RESUMO

Cerebral ischemia is a series of harmful reactions, such as acute necrosis of tissue, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and blood-brain barrier injury, due to the insufficient blood supply to the brain. Inflammatory response and gut microbiota imbalance are important concomitant factors of cerebral ischemia and may increase the severity of cerebral ischemia through the gut-brain axis. Qishiwei Zhenzhu pills (QSW) contain more than 70 kinds of medicinal materials, which have the effects of anti-cerebral infarction, anti-convulsion, anti-dementia, and so on. It is a treasure of Tibetan medicine commonly used in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Tibetan areas. In this study, we gave rats QSW (66.68 mg/kg) once by gavage in advance and then immediately established the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. After 24 hours of treatment, the neuroprotection, intestinal pathology, and gut microbiota were examined. The results showed that QSW could significantly reduce the neurobehavioral abnormalities and cerebral infarction rate in MCAO rats. Furthermore, qPCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry results showed that QSW could effectively inhibit IL-6, IL-1ß, and other inflammatory factors so as to effectively reduce the inflammatory response of MCAO rats. Furthermore, QSW could improve intestinal integrity and reduce intestinal injury. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that QSW could significantly improve the gut microbiota disorder of MCAO rats. Specifically, at the phylum level, it can regulate the abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the gut microbiota of rats with MCAO. At the genus level, it can adjust the abundance of Escherichia and Shigella. At the species level, it can adjust the abundance of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri. All in all, this study is the first to show that QSW can reduce the severity of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating gut microbiota and inhibiting the inflammatory response.

5.
Appl Opt ; 60(31): 9672-9680, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807150

RESUMO

For reshaping aperture size and correcting low-order aberration of laser beams with large aspect ratios, a simplified analytical method is proposed to design an anamorphic refractive shaping system, which is composed of double-plane symmetric lenses. The simplified method enables performing a global study of aberrations via calculating the analytical primary wave aberration function under paraxial approximation. The aberration balance is analyzed with a three-lens laser collimating system and a compact four-lens laser expanding system. Lens bending and conic surfaces are introduced to decrease ray errors. Through the simplified analytical method, anamorphic refractive shaping systems for laser beams with large aspect ratios can be adequately analyzed and conveniently designed.

6.
Microbiol Res ; 255: 126924, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837782

RESUMO

Sapindus saponins extracted from S. mukorossi have been reported to exert antibacterial activities against skin pathogenic bacteria, but their antibacterial mechanism is still at an exploratory stage. The objective of this study was to explore the synergistic antibacterial mechanism of the combination of two Sapindus saponins, namely Sapindoside A and B (SAB) against Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) 6919 via targeting the fatty acid compositions and membrane properties. After exposure to SAB, C. acnes cells increased the cell surface hydrophobicity and reduced the cell membrane fluidity by changing the composition of membrane fatty acids. In the fatty acid compositions, the content of two main fatty acids 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (isoC15:0) and octadecanoic acid (C18:0) reduced and improved respectively with the addition of SAB, and fatty acid biosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.05). Further, molecular docking demonstrated that SAB interacted with FabD, which is an essential enzyme for bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis, via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In the above results, the contribution of SA to SAB was greater than that of SB. In summary, the results revealed that SAB changed the fatty acid compositions of C. acnes, further disrupting the cell membrane properties, and SA played a major role, suggesting that SAB could be a natural antiacne additive against C. acnes-associated infections.

7.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(44): 9637-9640, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714900

RESUMO

Two new quassinoids (1 and 2) were isolated from the twigs of Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. Perforalactone E (2) possesses an uncommon hexacyclic 1α,12α:5α,13α-dicyclo-9ßH-picrasane skeleton. Its structure was determined based on spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 could significantly induce lysosomal biogenesis through transcriptional activation of lysosomal genes.

8.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(8): 710-6, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472759

RESUMO

The schematic diagram is an indispensable part of research article in life science,which can effectively and intuitively show the specific content of the article with simple composition. As an intuitive expression of the interdisciplinary subject at the early stage, the schematic diagram in the literature has gained an all-round improvement in the quality along with the deve-lopment of computer technology and modern drawing tools. In contrast,the level of the schematic diagram appears to be lagged behind in the field of acupuncture research papers. In order to improve the drawing level of this field, we took the Five Shu-points of Hand and Foot Jueyin Meridian as an example, and drew some vector diagrams of their anatomical structures including the body surface, skeleton, nerves, arteries and veins by using the Adobe Illustrator image software, through which we sum up a simple and easy-to-learn process including application skills and key points needing attention. We hope these methods can play a role in the acupuncture research in the future.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Meridianos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Software
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(9): 927-932, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the association of animal protein diet with the recurrence of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/skin rash and the risk factors for recurrence of HSP. METHODS: A prospective analysis was performed for 121 children with HSP who were admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital from October to December 2020. The children were given the doctor's advice of the same diet (animal protein diet could be added after 1 week without new-onset skin rash). Follow-up was performed at the outpatient service for half a year. According to the presence or absence of animal protein intake, the children were divided into an observation group with 65 children and a control group with 56 children. The times of skin rash recurrence, the incidence of HSP recurrence, and the incidence of kidney injury were compared between the two groups. According to the presence or absence of recurrence, the children were divided into a recurrence group with 32 children and a non-recurrence group with 89 children. A questionnaire on food frequency was used to record the daily intake of animal protein in the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for recurrence of HSP in children. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the observation and control groups in the times of skin rash recurrence, the incidence rate of HSP recurrence, and the incidence rate of kidney injury (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the daily intake of animal protein between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups (P>0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that presence of kidney injury at initial onset, respiratory infection after cure for the first time, and lack of exercise control after cure for the first time were independent risk factors for the recurrence of HSP in children (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant association between animal protein diet and the recurrence of HSP or skin rash. Timely treatment of kidney injury, avoidance of infection after cure, and limitation of strenuous exercise may help to reduce the recurrence rate of HSP in children. Citation.


Assuntos
Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Rim , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1238, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539834

RESUMO

The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is currently increasing. Early detection is important for the treatment and prognosis of patients with AMI. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) may be used as an early marker of AMI due to its high sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value. Therefore, in the present study, H-FABP was used as a biomarker in a double-antibody sandwich method and colloidal gold-based lateral flow immunoassay to develop a rapid detection kit for H-FABP with a processing time of only 5 min. The sensitivity of the kit in plasma and whole blood was 1 ng/ml and this method had good specificity, exhibiting no cross-reaction with cardiac troponin I, myoglobin or creatine kinase-Mb. The kits had good shelf life and stability, as they were able to be stored at 40˚C for 30 days. A total of 12 clinical samples were collected for detection and the coincidence rate with the ELISA method was up to 91.67%. Therefore, the present study provided a simple, rapid and economical early-detection in-home testing kit.

11.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 14(9): 1384-1391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540614

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the application of anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in posterior capsule opacification (PCO) severity assessment and analyse the relationship between PCO severity and intraocular lens (IOL) characters. METHODS: PCO patients were prospectively recruited. Cross-sectional images of the anterior segment at horizontal and vertical meridians were acquired with AS-OCT. The area of the IOL-PC (posterior capsular) space and PCO severity (area, thickness, and density at 3 mm and 5 mm IOL optic regions) were measured. The relationship between PCO severity and visual acuity, comparisons of PCO severity and IOL-PC space using varied IOL designs were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred PCO eyes were enrolled. IOL-PC space, PCO thickness and area were positively correlated with axial length. In addition, PCO area and thickness were positively correlated with visual acuity when it was ≤0.52 logMAR. The cut-off level of visual acuity should be 0.52 logMAR. With varied IOL designs, 3-piece C haptic IOL showed a smaller PCO area and thickness than the 1-piece 3 haptic IOL and 1-piece 4 haptic IOL. PCO area and thickness values for an IOL with a diameter ≤11.0 mm was greater than for an IOL with a diameter of 12.5 mm, and the differences were statistically significant. PCO area and thickness increased when IOL haptic angulation increased (from 0 to 12 degrees). CONCLUSION: In PCO eyes, cut-off level of visual acuity is 0.52 logMAR. With more severe PCO, visual acuity maybe not enough to describe the visual function impairment. PCO severity and IOL-PC space are significantly correlated with axial length and IOL design and material.

12.
Neuroreport ; 32(15): 1248-1254, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic effects of a newly discovered osteopontin-derived synthetic peptide "RSKKFRR" in a rat model of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups. The model of ischemic stroke was made up of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO). The rats were divided into sham operation group (Sham), control group (MACO + PBS) and treatment group (MACO + OPNpt9), eight rats in each group. In the control group and the treatment group, PBS or OPNpt9 was injected into the nasal cavity after MACO once a day, and the area of new blood vessels and the recovery of nerve function were observed 14 days later. Whether the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs were promoted by OPNpt9 was tested. The expression levels of related proangiogenic factors were also detected. RESULTS: OPNpt9 was found to contribute to cerebral microvascular remodeling and neurological improvement in ischemic rats while promoting endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in vitro. These effects were mediated by activation of the p-ERK/MMP-9/VEGF pathway. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, OPNpt9 promotes angiogenesis and neurological recovery after ischemic stroke.

13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated neutrophil-derived exosomes reportedly contribute to the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), thereby aggravating the airway wall remodeling during asthma; however, the specific mechanism remains unclear. METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-EXO and si-CRNDE-EXO were extracted from the media of human neutrophils treated with LPS and LPS + si-CRNDE (a siRNA targets long non-coding RNA CRNDE), respectively. Human ASMCs were co-cultured with LPS-EXO or si-CRNDE-EXO, and cell viability, proliferation, and migration were measured. The interplay of CRNDE, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKß), and nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group C member 2 (TAK1) was explored using RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and Co-IP assays. A mouse model of asthma was induced using ovalbumin. RESULTS: CRNDE was upregulated in LPS-EXO and successfully transferred from LPS-treated neutrophils to ASMCs through exosome. Mechanically, CRNDE loaded in LPS-EXO reinforced TAK1-mediated IKKß phosphorylation, thereby activating the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Functionally, silencing CRNDE in LPS-EXO, an IKKß inhibitor, and an NF-κB inhibitor all removed the upregulation of cell viability, proliferation, and migration induced by LPS-EXO in ASMCs. In the end, the in vivo experiment demonstrated that CRNDE knockdown in neutrophils effectively reduced the thickness of bronchial smooth muscle in a mouse model for asthma. CONCLUSION: Activated neutrophils-derived CRNDE was transferred to ASMCs through exosomes and activated the NF-κB pathway by enhancing IKKß phosphorylation. The latter promoted the proliferation and migration of ASMCs and then contributed to airway remodeling in asthma.

14.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(39): 8492-8496, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549771

RESUMO

Highly enantioselective formal [3 + 2] cycloaddition of N-2,2,2-trifluoroethylisatin ketimines with aurone derivatives of low reactivity using chiral dinuclear zinc catalysts has been developed via a Brønsted base and Lewis acid cooperative activation model. These transformations involving a domino Michael/Mannich reaction sequence led to efficient construction of a range of chiral spiro[benzofuran-pyrrolidine] scaffolds bearing three biologically relevant heterocyclic moieties and two adjacent spiro quaternary stereocenters in high yields (up to 95%) and with good enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee).

15.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333799

RESUMO

Among numerous bioluminescent organisms, firefly is the most studied one. Recent experiment proposed that sulfoluciferin (SLH2 ) may serve as a storage form of luciferin (LH2 ). In the present article, we employed density functional theory calculation to uncover the mechanism and detailed process of the storage and release reactions. Due to lack of available crystallographic structure of the related enzyme, the calculation was performed on a model system. For the storage reaction, possible amino acid residues were used for imitating the protein environment. For the release reaction, the dielectric constant of 3.0 was employed to simulate the polarity of the protein cavity. The computational results indicated that the reactions from LH2 to SLH2 and from SLH2 to LH2 are both exergonic, which favor the storage and release processes and coincide with the experimental observation. Basing on experimental and current theoretical study, we supplemented the stages of LH2 storage and release in the entire bioluminescent cycle of firefly. The current theoretical calculation could inspire the study on LH2 storage and release of other bioluminescent organisms.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4527-4537, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414753

RESUMO

Global climate change has significantly changed precipitation patterns. Soil respiration (SR), as an important pathway through which CO2 is released from the soil carbon pool into the atmosphere, may affect the carbon cycle process of terrestrial ecosystems and have a feedback effect on global climate change in response to precipitation change. However, at present there is limited understanding of how SR is affected by precipitation change. Field precipitation control experiments were conducted (with -40%, -20%, natural, 20%, and 40% precipitation) on desert grassland in the west of the Loess Plateau, to investigate the influence of precipitation change on SR dynamics and its relationship with soil water content, soil temperature, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, carbon-nitrogen ratio, and other factors. The results show that the diurnal variations of SR under different precipitation treatments were consistent in unimodal and bimodal models over three years. SR showed an increasing trend with added precipitation, relative to the control, and significant differences were observed between the second year (wetter) and the third year (drier) of the precipitation-manipulation experiment, indicating that precipitation changes had a legacy effect on SR. At the same time, SR was lowest under the -40% treatment and highest under the 40% treatment during the wetter year. The negative response of SR to precipitation exclusion treatments was stronger than the positive response to precipitation addition treatments. SR in drier years was significantly higher under precipitation addition treatments than the control, and the positive response of SR to increased precipitation treatment was significantly stronger than that under decreased precipitation treatment. In addition, soil water content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, and carbon-nitrogen ratio were the environmental factors that obviously affected SR and increased with additional precipitation. SR increased with increases in soil water content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon, and carbon-nitrogen ratio, but decreased with increases in microbial biomass carbon. Among these factors, soil water content had the highest interpretation rate for SR, indicating that soil water content was the main environmental factor controlling SR in desert grassland. In both wetter and drier years, the amplitude of plant biomass input was lower than the amplitude of SR output under precipitation change, indicating that precipitation change may be unfavorable to soil carbon sequestration, especially in drier years, when precipitation change has a stronger influence on carbon pool output. Therefore, precipitation changes on SR in desert grassland in various dry and wet years may have different influences on the carbon cycle process of ecosystems, thus providing a reference for regional carbon budget assessment.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Respiração
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 8520967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394834

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients exhibit different degrees of cognitive impairment, which is related to the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and the deposition of iron in the brain. As a central regulator of iron homeostasis, whether hepcidin is involved in OSA-induced cognitive impairment has not been clarified. In order to simulate OSA, we established the mouse model by reducing the percentage of inspired O2 (FiO2) from 21% to 5%, 20 times/h for 8 h/day. We found hepcidin was rising during CIH, along with increasing iron levels and neuron loss. Then, we constructed a mouse with astrocyte-specific knockdown hepcidin gene (shHamp). During CIH exposure, the shHamp mice showed a lower level of total iron and neuronal iron in the hippocampus, via stabilizing ferroportin 1 (FPN1) and decreasing L-ferritin (FTL) levels, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, the shHamp mice showed a decrease of ROS by downregulating the elevated NADPH oxidase (NOX2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels mediated by CIH. In addition, the shHamp mice presented improved cognitive deficit by improving synaptic plasticity and BDNF expression in the hippocampus when subjected to CIH. Therefore, our data revealed that highly expressed hepcidin might promote the degradation of FPN1, resulting in neuronal iron deposition, oxidative stress damage, reduced synaptic plasticity, and impaired cognitive performance during CIH exposure.

18.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153690, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cortex Phellodendri amurensis (CPA) has high medicinal value in the treatment of kidney-yin deficiency diseases. However, due to the lack of research on the therapeutic material basis of CPA, the current quality control standard for CPA is defective, and the effect of the nourishing kidney-yin of CPA was limited. PURPOSE: Based on the principle of correspondence between the syndrome and prescriptions, we studied the CPA in ZhibaiDihuang pill (ZBDH) to identify quality markers (Q-markers) of CPA in ZBDH for treating kidney-yin deficiency and seek the potential Q-markers of CPA under nourishing kidney-yin effect combined with the analysis of single CPA. METHODS: Taking Chinmedomics as the core strategy, metabonomics analysis and effective component identification were performed by UPLC-MS. RESULTS: A total of 121 chemical components of ZBDH were identified, among which the contents of berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine changed the most obviously with the addition of CPA. Forty-five components were identified in the blood in the markedly effective state, including berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine. The therapeutic material basis of ZBDH in the treatment of kidney-yin deficiency was found, and 6 components were found to derive from CPA, including magnoflorine and jatrorrhizine. In addition, seventeen components were identified in the blood in the single CPA treatment, including berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine. CONCLUSIONS: Magnoflorine and jatrorrhizine were the Q-markers of CPA for treating kidney-yin deficiency in the formula of ZBDH and they were also potential Q-markers of the nourishing kidney-yin of CPA.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Phellodendron/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(8): 3866-3874, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309273

RESUMO

Ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) removal capacities of the A2/O and inverted A2/O processes were analyzed with the same inlet and parallel operation during winter. When the operating water temperature was 14℃, the inverted A2/O process exhibited lower NH4+-N removal from the volumetric load[0.13 kg ·(m3 ·d)-1vs. 0.29 kg ·(m3 ·d)-1] and a lower ammonia oxidation rate (AOR)[0.07 kg ·(kg ·d)-1 vs. 0.11 kg ·(kg ·d)-1] than the A2/O process, whereas the two processes exhibited similar performance at 26℃.The quantitative results for the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) population were almost the same in the two parallel processes (3.2%±0.24% for the inverted A2/O process and 3.4%±0.31% for the A2/O process). Clone library analysis showed that at low temperatures, the inverted A2/O process had a lower capacity for ammonia nitrogen removal than A2/O process. This is because the particular AOB species[spirillum (Nitrosospira)] facilitated the slower AOR type (K-growth strategy) of nitrosation in the inverted A2/O process, whereas in the A2/O process, the faster AOR type (r-growth strategy) of nitrosation was facilitated by bacterium (Nitrosomonas). At 26℃, the dominant species in the two processes were Nitrosomonas. Through comprehensive analysis of the pollutants during the removal process, we found that although temperature is the leading cause of AOB advantage in species succession, the changes in the inverted A2/O process structure, caused by the aerobic unit, resulted in high COD load and high NH4+-N concentration, which were unfavorable for the growth of AOB. This shows that under conventional sewage conditions, the K-growth strategy is advantageous for the AOB species. Therefore, the structure of the inverted A2/O process for heterotrophic bacteria (phosphorus accumulating bacteria and denitrifying bacteria) indirectly affects the population distribution and succession of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, through COD load and other factors, thereby leading to weakened nitrification capacity at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Amônia , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução
20.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(4): 15579883211036786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330182

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date estimates on the disease burden of BPH in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019. Data about incidence, year lived with disability (YLD), and their age-standardized rates (ASRs) for 21 regions, 5 Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles, 204 countries and territories, and 12 age categories from 1990 to 2019 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. Estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) of the ASRs and the associations between SDI and the ASRs were estimated. The effects of population growth, population aging, and age-specific rate on the changes in the absolute numbers of incidence and YLD were quantified. Globally, there were 11.26 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 8.79, 14.46) new cases and 1.86 million (95%UI: 1.13, 2.78) YLD due to BPH in 2019. The global ASRs of incidence (EAPC: -0.031, 95% CI: -0.050, -0.012) and YLD (EAPC: -0.058, 95% CI: -0.084, -0.031) decreased slightly from 1990 to 2019, whereas the absolute numbers increased dramatically from 1990 (incidence by 105.7% and YLD by 110.6%), mainly driven by the population growth (53.5% for incidence and 54.4% for YLD) and population aging (55.7% for incidence and 63.2% for YLD). The burden of BPH varied markedly among different regions, socioeconomic status, and countries. As the population is growing and aging, great efforts are required to develop effective prevention, treatment and management strategies to meet the high and increasing burden of BPH worldwide.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperplasia Prostática/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Incidência , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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