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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 856845, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573778

RESUMO

Introduction: Rapid, sensitive, and specific laboratory assays are critical for the diagnosis and management of central nervous system (CNS) infections. The purpose of this study is to explore the intellectual landscape of research investigating methods for the detection of pathogens in patients with CNS infections and to identify the development trends and research frontier in this field. Methods: A bibliometric study is conducted by analyzing literature retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection Database for the years 2000 to 2021. CiteSpace software is used for bibliometric analysis and network visualization, including co-citation analysis of references, co-occurrence analysis of keywords, and cooperation network analysis of authors, institutions, and countries/regions. Results: A total of 2,282 publications are eventually screened, with an upward trend in the number of publications per year. The majority of papers are attributed to the disciplines of MICROBIOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, IMMUNOLOGY, NEUROSCIENCES & NEUROLOGY, and VIROLOGY. The co-citation analysis of references shows that recent research has focused on the largest cluster "metagenomic next-generation sequencing"; the results of the analysis of the highest-cited publications and the citation burst of publications reveal that there is a strong interest stimulated in metagenomic next-generation sequencing. The co-occurrence analysis of keywords indicates that "infection", "pathogen", "diagnosis", "gene", "virus", "polymerase chain reaction", "cerebrospinal fluid", "epidemiology", and "metagenomic next-generation sequencing" are the main research priorities in the field of pathogen detection for CNS infections, and the keyword with the highest strength of burst is "metagenomic next-generation sequencing". Collaborative network analysis reveals that the USA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of USA, and XIN WANG and JENNIFER DIEN BARD are the most influential country, institution, and researchers, respectively. Conclusions: Exploring more advanced laboratory assays to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pathogens is essential for CNS infection research. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing is emerging as a novel useful unbiased approach for diagnosing infectious diseases of the CNS.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427224

RESUMO

The de facto review-involved recommender systems, using review information to enhance recommendation, have received increasing interest over the past years. Thereinto, one advanced branch is to extract salient aspects from textual reviews (i.e., the item attributes that users express) and combine them with the matrix factorization (MF) technique. However, the existing approaches all ignore the fact that semantically different reviews often include opposite aspect information. In particular, positive reviews usually express aspects that users prefer, while the negative ones describe aspects that users dislike. As a result, it may mislead the recommender systems into making incorrect decisions pertaining to user preference modeling. Toward this end, in this article, we present a review polarity-wise recommender model, dubbed as RPR, to discriminately treat reviews with different polarities. To be specific, in this model, positive and negative reviews are separately gathered and used to model the user-preferred and user-rejected aspects, respectively. Besides, to overcome the imbalance of semantically different reviews, we further develop an aspect-aware importance weighting strategy to align the aspect importance for these two kinds of reviews. Extensive experiments conducted on eight benchmark datasets have demonstrated the superiority of our model when compared with several state-of-the-art review-involved baselines. Moreover, our method can provide certain explanations to real-world rating prediction scenarios.

4.
Oecologia ; 198(4): 1011-1018, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399127

RESUMO

How do offspring size and number vary along elevational gradients? This is a striking but rarely addressed question in life-history evolution. Here we comparatively explore it using phylogenetically paired passerine birds of lowland China vs. the Tibetan plateau spanning an elevational range of 18-4500 m. Toward the Tibetan plateau, egg size increased, clutch size decreased and total clutch volume (= clutch size × egg size) did not change, when accounting for major confounding factors. Larger eggs and smaller clutches can be a response to harsh abiotic conditions at higher elevations and the corresponding reduction in food resources required for raising young, respectively. There was a negative correlation between egg size and clutch size after controlling for elevation effect on either trait, suggesting that the trade-off contributed to the expression of these two traits across elevations, given the lack of an elevational trend in total clutch volume. Tibetan birds had a shorter breeding season, prolonged incubation and nestling period than their lowland counterparts. While fewer clutches over the short breeding season may facilitate the increase in egg size, the concentration of annual reproductive investment did not seem to act on clutch size; despite the smaller clutches, hard environments may impose greater costs of parental care on Tibetan birds. The current research provides insight into the evolution of avian life histories across elevations.


Assuntos
Ovos , Reprodução , China , Tamanho da Ninhada/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Tibet
5.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(2): 112, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115509

RESUMO

Niclosamide, a cell-permeable salicylanilide, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for its anthelmintic efficiency. A growing body of evidence in recent years suggests that niclosamide exhibits potential tumor-suppressive activity. However, the role and molecular mechanism of niclosamide in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. In this study, niclosamide inhibited proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs), induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated pathway, and suppressed cell migration and invasion by antagonizing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Also, niclosamide inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, niclosamide exerted these therapeutic effects via targeting ß-catenin. Niclosamide did not reduce ß-catenin mRNA expression in PCCs, but significantly downregulated its protein level. Moreover, niclosamide induced ß-catenin phosphorylation and protein degradation. Interestingly, niclosamide also induced GSK-3ß phosphorylation, which is involved in the ubiquitination degradation of ß-catenin. Pharmacological activation of ß-catenin by methyl vanillate and ß-catenin overexpression abolished the inhibitory effects of niclosamide. Furthermore, niclosamide potentiated the antitumor effect of the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine and reduced the ability of cancer immune evasion by downregulating the expression levels of PD-L1, which is involved in T cell immunity. Thus, our study indicated that niclosamide induces GSK-ß-mediated ß-catenin degradation to potentiate gemcitabine activity, reduce immune evasion ability, and suppress pancreatic cancer progression. Niclosamide may be a potential therapeutic candidate for pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Camundongos , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(5): 2061-2069, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables threaten food safety. Cleaning before eating is a usual way to remove pesticide residues, so it is very important to find the most efficient cleaning conditions for public health. However, many previous cleaning studies only focused on a single variable which required a large amount of time manpower and material resources. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology can avoid the earlier-mentioned problems and have potential in studying the influence and interaction of multiple factors. In this study, the effect of five factors on the removal of triadimefon and boscalid from rape by ultrasonic washing was evaluated through PBD: pH of water, ultrasonic cleaning time, water temperature, initial residual concentration and volume of water. RESULTS: Temperature had a significant effect on the rate of triadimefon removal while the other four factors impacted boscalid removal greatly. A higher temperature was better for the removal rate of triadimefon. Under alkaline environment, when initial residual concentration and cleaning time increased with decreasing water volume, the removal rate of boscalid increased. Furthermore, the interactions among factors were obtained. The regression coefficients of fitting equations about triadimefon and boscalid were 0.9657 and 0.9738, respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing pH of water, cleaning time, water volume and temperature during the washing process of rape through PBD designed experiments represents a valid strategy for improving the removal rate of two pesticides residue. This study provides a reference for ultrasonic cleaning conditions by a sink dishwasher, which has a positive effect on food safety. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Estupro , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Ultrassom , Verduras
7.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 31: 227-238, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847029

RESUMO

Recent studies have pointed out that many well-developed Visual Question Answering (VQA) models are heavily affected by the language prior problem. It refers to making predictions based on the co-occurrence pattern between textual questions and answers instead of reasoning upon visual contents. To tackle this problem, most existing methods focus on strengthening the visual feature learning capability to reduce this text shortcut influence on model decisions. However, few efforts have been devoted to analyzing its inherent cause and providing an explicit interpretation. It thus lacks a good guidance for the research community to move forward in a purposeful way, resulting in model construction perplexity towards overcoming this non-trivial problem. In this paper, we propose to interpret the language prior problem in VQA from a class-imbalance view. Concretely, we design a novel interpretation scheme whereby the loss of mis-predicted frequent and sparse answers from the same question type is distinctly exhibited during the late training phase. It explicitly reveals why the VQA model tends to produce a frequent yet obviously wrong answer, to a given question whose right answer is sparse in the training set. Based upon this observation, we further propose a novel loss re-scaling approach to assign different weights to each answer according to the training data statistics for estimating the final loss. We apply our approach into six strong baselines and the experimental results on two VQA-CP benchmark datasets evidently demonstrate its effectiveness. In addition, we also justify the validity of the class imbalance interpretation scheme on other computer vision tasks, such as face recognition and image classification.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(23): 25089-25105, 2021 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863080

RESUMO

Puerarin (8-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-4', 7-dihydroxyisoflavone), a natural flavonoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Radix puerariae, have been demonstrated has potential anti-tumor effects via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. However, the effect and molecular mechanism of puerarin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unknown. In this study, the tumor-suppressive effects of puerarin were determined by both in-vitro and in-vivo assays. The effects of puerarin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells (PCCs), and tumor growth and metastasis in PDAC xenograft mouse model were performed. Puerarin treatment significantly repressed PCC proliferation. Puerarin induced the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis of PCCs by causing a Bcl-2/Bax imbalance. Moreover, puerarin inhibited PCC migration and invasion by antagonizing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In nude mouse model, PDAC growth and metastasis were reduced by puerarin administration. Mechanistically, puerarin exerted its therapeutic effects on PDAC by suppressing Akt/mTOR signaling. Importantly, puerarin bound to the kinase domain of mTOR protein, affecting the activity of the surrounding amino acid residues associated with the binding of the ATP-Mg2+ complex. Further studies showed that the inhibitory effects of puerarin on PCCs were abolished by a mTOR activator, indicating a crucial role of mTOR in anti-tumor effects of puerarin in PDAC. As a result, puerarin hindered glucose uptake and metabolism by downregulating the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) dependent upon HIF-1α and glucose transporter GLUT1. Therefore, these findings indicated that puerarin has therapeutic potential for the treatment of PDAC by suppressing glucose uptake and metabolism via Akt/mTOR activity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transplante de Neoplasias
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(47): e27763, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) therapy is a routine supportive method for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, the incidence of EN intolerance is prevalent, because most ICU patients suffer intestinal mucosal barrier damage and gastrointestinal motility disorder. There is no definite index to predict EN intolerance, and the current treatment methods are not effective in alleviating EN intolerance. Gut microbiota is an important component of the intestinal micro-ecological environment, and alterations in its structure and composition can reflect changes in intestinal function and microenvironment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of EN on the gut microbiota of ICU patients by monitoring the dynamic alterations of gut microbiota and to screen out the microbial markers that can be used to predict the incidence of EN intolerance. METHODS: One hundred ICU patients with trauma or in a period of acute stress after surgery will be enrolled, and their fecal samples will be collected at different timepoints for microbial sequencing and analysis. General clinical data (demographic information, surgical data, laboratory parameters, illness severity scores, and therapeutic drugs), nutritional status data (nutritional status assessment and nutrition therapy monitoring data), as well as clinical outcomes, will be recorded. The microbial and clinical data will be combined to analyze the baseline characteristics and dynamic alterations of gut microbiota along with the incidence of EN intolerance. Data related to the gut microbiota will be statistically analyzed by R software, and other data performed by SPSS23.0 software. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of EN on gut microbiota and microbial markers predicting the intolerance of EN will lead us to develop a new nutrition intervention strategy for ICU patients. Furthermore, the results of this study will provide a basis for the discovery of potential probiotics used for the prevention and treatment of EN intolerance.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Apoio Nutricional , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(47): 56476-56484, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792326

RESUMO

Addressing the interactions between optical antennas and ensembles of emitters is particularly challenging. Charge transfer and Coulomb interactions complicate the understanding of the carrier dynamics coupled by antennas. Here, we show how Au antennas enhance the luminescence of CdSe/CdS quantum dot assemblies through carrier dynamics control within the framework of the local Kirchhoff law. The Au antennas inject hot electrons into quantum dot assemblies via plasmon-induced hot electron transfer that increases the carrier concentration. Also, the localized surface plasmon resonances of Au antennas favorably tilt the balance between nonradiative Auger processes and radiative recombination in the CdSe core. Eventually, a high bright (125,091.6 cd/m2) deep-red quantum dot light-emitting diode is obtained by combining with Au antennas. Our findings suggest a new understanding of light emission of assembled emitters coupled by antennas, which is of essential interest for the description of light-matter interaction in advanced optoelectronics.

11.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 41(5): 771-778, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the neuroprotective mechanisms of Tongluo Huatan capsule (THC) in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD). METHODS: A rat model of VD was established by repeated clamping of bilateral common carotid arteries with the intraperitoneal injection of sodium nitroprusside solution. VD rats were administered THC, memantine hydrochloride, or distilled water daily for 14 d after operation. Learning and memory abilities were assessed using the step-down passive avoidance test, novel object recognition (NOR) test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Pathological changes in the hippocampus were observed through hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining. The expression levels of clathrin, RAB5B, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were measured by immunohistochemistry staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. RESULTS: Rats in VD group showed impaired learning and memory abilities (step-down passive avoidance, NOR, and MWM) and abnormalities in neuronal morphology (light microscopy) in the hippocampus. The mRNA or protein expression levels of clathrin and RAB5B were decreased, and NMDAR1 was increased in hippocampal tissues (P < 0.05). Administration of THC promoted the learning and memory abilities and the morphological structure of hippocampal neurons in VD rats. Besides, THC enhanced mRNA or protein expression levels of clathrin and RAB5B, and decreased NMDAR1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: THC may improve cognitive functions by regulating the endocytosis of NMDA receptors mediated by clathrin.


Assuntos
Demência Vascular , Animais , Clatrina/genética , Clatrina/metabolismo , Cognição , Demência Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Demência Vascular/genética , Demência Vascular/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Endocitose , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(37): 44760-44767, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505502

RESUMO

The optical plasmonic cavity (OPC) including the metallic optical nanoantennas and a metal film exhibits extreme field enhancement for the increased spontaneous emission rate of emitters. The resonance wavelength of the OPC can be easily controlled by the volume of the OPC and the localized surface plasmonic resonances (LSPRs) of the nanoantennas, facilitating the effective coupling of OPC and the emitters. However, involving the OPC into the light emission-enhanced solution-processed devices is still a difficult challenge. The trade-off between the metallic structure of OPC and the solution procedures limits the performance enhancement of the electrical-driven devices. In this work, we construct a device-compatible OPC that allows the characterization of the carrier dynamics of quantum dot (QD) films in the real devices in-suit. The radiative recombination rate and relaxation rate of carriers in QDs are increased by the LSPR effect of the silver nanocubes for luminescence enhancement. The OPC further increases the spontaneous emission rate of QD films, achieving a Purcell factor of 166 and improving the electroluminescence of the OPC-based QD light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The design of the OPC-involved QLEDs offers a solution for addressing the limitation of fabrication of OPC-combined solution-processed optoelectronic light sources.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18173, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518559

RESUMO

Itaconic acid is produced by immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1)-coded enzyme in activated macrophages and known to play an important role in metabolism and immunity. In this study, mechanism of itaconic acid functioning as an anti-inflammatory metabolite was investigated with molecular biology and immunology techniques, by employing IRG1-null (prepared with CRISPR) and wild-type macrophages. Experimental results showed that itaconic acid significantly promoted the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which subsequently led to significantly higher NADPH oxidase activity and more reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS production increased the expression of anti-inflammatory gene A20, which in turn decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α. NF-κB, which can up-regulate A20, was also vital in controlling IRG1 and itaconic acid involved immune-modulatory responses in LPS-stimulated macrophage in this study. In addition, itaconic acid inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium in cell through increasing ROS production from NADPH oxidase and the hatching of Schistosoma japonicum eggs in vitro. In short, this study revealed an alternative mechanism by which itaconic acid acts as an anti-inflammatory metabolite and confirmed the inhibition of bacterial pathogens with itaconic acid via ROS in cell. These findings provide the basic knowledge for future biological applications of itaconic acid in anti-inflammation and related pathogens control.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Succinatos/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18545-18563, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320467

RESUMO

Fraxetin, a natural product isolated and purified from the bark of Fraxinus bungeana A.DC., has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-dysenteric activities. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of fraxetin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). The effects of fraxetin on the malignant biological behavior of PDA were evaluated. Besides, the effects of fraxetin on the sensitivity of PCCs to gemcitabine, angiogenesis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), glucose metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and STAT3 activity were analyzed. By reversing the EMT, fraxetin suppressed proliferation, invasion, and migration, and induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in PCCs. Also, treatment with fraxetin inhibited PDA growth and metastasis in nude mouse models. Furthermore, fraxetin made PCCs more sensitive to the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine. Mechanically, fraxetin treatment suppressed oncogenic KRAS-triggered STAT3 activation in PCCs and PDA tissues. Fraxetin shows significant interactions with STAT3 Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain residues, thereby preventing its homo-dimer formation, which then blocks the activation of downstream signal pathways. The anti-tumor activity of fraxetin in PDA was functionally rescued by a STAT3 activator colivelin. As a result, fraxetin hindered hypoxia-induced angiogenesis by decreasing HIF-1α and VEGFA expression, controlled glucose metabolism by reducing GLUT1 expression, inhibited the EMT by blocking the Slug-E-cadherin axis, and drove ROS-mediated apoptosis by regulating the STAT3-Ref1 axis. In conclusion, fraxetin enhances the anti-tumor activity of gemcitabine and suppresses pancreatic cancer development by antagonizing STAT3 activation.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cumarínicos/química , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 65, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptic damage and glutamate excitotoxicity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD). Clathrin, RAB5B and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) proteins play a vital role in endocytosis of synaptic vesicles in neurons and glutamate over accumulation. Previous researches have been confirmed that Shenzhi Jiannao (SZJN) formula has an anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effect in VD, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of SZJN formula on cognitive impairment and glutamate excitotoxicity via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: SZJN formula consists of Panax ginseng C.A.Mey., Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Paeonia anomala subsp. veitchii (Lynch) D.Y.Hong & K.Y.Pan. All herbs were prepared into granules. Both common carotid arteries were permanent occluded (2-vessel occlusion, 2VO) in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to model VD. One day after operation, the rats began daily treatment with SZJN formula for 2 weeks. The neuroprotective effects of SZJN formula was subsequently assessed by the novel object recognition test, Morris water maze, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining. Glutamate cytotoxicity was assessed by detecting cell viability and cell death of PC12 cells. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the expression levels of clathrin, RAB5B, and NMDAR1. RESULTS: Administration of SZJN formula effectively improved short-term memory and spatial memory. SZJN formula treatment significantly reduced hippocampal neuronal loss, and recovered the arrangement and morphology of neurons and Nissl bodies. Moreover, SZJN formula promoted the proliferation of PC12 cells and inhibited glutamate-induced cell death. The down-regulation of clathrin and RAB5B, as well as the upregulation of NMDAR1 in the brain induced by 2VO or glutamate was also notably reversed by SZJN formula at both the protein and mRNA levels, which may contribute to SZJN formula induced improved neurological function. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings provide evidence that the neuroprotective effects of SZJN formula in experimental VD maybe mediated through promoting the expression of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and reducing NMDARs-associated glutamate excitotoxicity. SZJN formula serves as a promising alternative therapy and may be a useful herbal medicine for preventing progression of VD.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18298-18309, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325402

RESUMO

NudC domain containing 1 (NUDCD1) is an oncoprotein frequently activated or upregulated in various human cancers, but its role in pancreatic cancer (PC) remains unknown. Thus, we aimed to determine the function and mechanism of NUDCD1 in PC. We employed Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess NUDCD1 expression in cells and PC tissues. NUDCD1 was knocked down in Patu8988 and PANC-1 cells. We conducted real-time cell analysis, wound healing assay, transwell assay and colony formation assay to evaluate the metastatic and proliferative abilities of PC cells. Western blot was conducted to assess the expression of markers associated with apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Also, we established a tumor xenograft model to determine the role of NUDCD1 in vivo. NUDCD1 was overexpressed in PC tissues and cells. NUDCD1 knockdown suppressed the invasion, migration, and proliferative abilities of the cells and induced PC cell apoptosis. The specific mechanism of NUDCD1 was related to the modulation of the EMT process. Data obtained from in vivo experiments revealed that NUDCD1 knockdown inhibited the tumor growth, proliferation, and metastasis by modulating the EMT and inducing the apoptosis of PC cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Pâncreas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130182, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088084

RESUMO

Low-medium temperature application of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) denitration in cement flue gas was established and investigated in this study. The 2000 h continuous operation shows the concentration of NOx at the outlet can be maintained at 24 mg/Nm3 on average, while due to the increase of SO2 in flue gas, the NOx concentration increased to 57.5 mg/Nm3 after long time operation. The sulfur deposition is the main reason for catalyst deactivation, and SO2 is still a big obstacle for low-medium temperature SCR application in cement flue gas. The denitration efficiency was tested as fluctuated from 73.5% to 86.2%, and ammonia concentration after SCR was as still as high as 22.5-60.0 mg/Nm3 due to the excessive ammonia injection from selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), shows serious ammonia escape problem for SNCR, and the potential application of hybrid SNCR-SCR technology. In order to maintain the denitration efficiency above 85.0%, the gaseous hourly space velocity (GHSV) should not be exceeded 2800 h-1, the electrostatic precipitators (ESP) setting at 60 kV was relatively appropriate, the temperature of the flue gas should be kept at above 200 °C. The concentrations and toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of the PCDD/Fs congeners in the flue gas raised greatly after SCR reactor, indicating the PCDD/Fs concentration should be concerned during the application of low-medium temperature SCR, especially for the waste co-disposal processes.


Assuntos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Catálise , Dibenzofuranos , Gases , Temperatura
19.
J Nat Prod ; 84(4): 1353-1358, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765387

RESUMO

Under the guidance of MS/MS-based molecular networking and HPLC-UV, two new alkaloid racemates, (±)-17-hydroxybrevianamide N (1) and (±)-N1-methyl-17-hydroxybrevianamide N (2), featuring a rare o-hydroxyphenylalanine residue and an imide subunit, were isolated from a soft-coral-derived Aspergillus sp. fungus. The true natural products (+)-1 and (+)-2 were further monitored and obtained from the freshly prepared EtOAc extracts, while (-)-1 and (-)-2 are artifacts generated during extraction and purification processes. Simultaneously, the structures including absolute configurations of (+)-13S-1, (-)-13R-1, (+)-13S-2, and (-)-13R-2 were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, ECD calculations, and X-ray diffraction data. Interestingly, basic solution promotes the racemization of (+)-1 and (-)-1, whereas acidic solution suppresses the transformation. The current research was concerned with the true natural products and their artifacts, providing critical insight into the isolation and identification of natural products.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Aspergillus/química , Quinazolinonas/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , China , Estrutura Molecular , Quinazolinonas/isolamento & purificação , Estereoisomerismo
20.
mSystems ; 6(1)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622853

RESUMO

Noncaloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are extensively introduced into commonly consumed drinks and foods worldwide. However, data on the health effects of NAS consumption remain elusive. Saccharin and sucralose have been shown to pass through the human gastrointestinal tract without undergoing absorption and metabolism and directly encounter the gut microbiota community. Here, we aimed to identify a novel mechanism linking intestinal Akkermansia muciniphila and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) to saccharin/sucralose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. Saccharin/sucralose consumption altered the gut microbial community structure, with significant depletion of A. muciniphila abundance in the cecal contents of mice, resulting in disruption of intestinal permeability and a high level of serum lipopolysaccharide, which likely contributed to systemic inflammation and caused NAFLD in mice. Saccharin/sucralose also markedly decreased microbiota-derived AHR ligands and colonic AHR expression, which are closely associated with many metabolic syndromes. Metformin or fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation significantly restored A. muciniphila and AHR ligands in sucralose-consuming mice, consequently ameliorating NAFLD.IMPORTANCE Our findings indicate that the gut-liver signaling axis contributes to saccharin/sucralose consumption-induced NAFLD. Supplementation with metformin or fructo-oligosaccharide is a potential therapeutic strategy for NAFLD treatment. In addition, we also developed a new nutritional strategy by using a natural sweetener (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone [NHDC]) as a substitute for NAS and free sugars.

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