Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 172
Filtrar
1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 779636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970224

RESUMO

Objective: Multiple studies have confirmed that diet restrictions can effectively realize glycemic control and reduce metabolic risks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2018, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) stated that individuals can select a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) according to their needs and preferences. Owing to the influence of Chinese traditional eating habits, only a small portion of patients in China have achieved their blood glucose goals. As a result, the Chinese government will incur huge expenditures. Method: This study recruited 134 T2DM participants and randomly assigned them to the LCD group (n = 67) or the low-fat diet (LFD) group (n = 67). All of the patients had a fixed amount of exercise and were guided by clinicians. After a period of dietary washout, all of the patients received corresponding dietary education according to group. The follow-up time was 6 months. The indicators for anthropometry, glycemic control, and medication application parameters were collected and compared between the two groups. Results: There were 121 participants who finally entered the study. The proportions of calories from three major nutrients the participants consumed met the requirements of LCD and LFD. Compared with baseline, the pre-postdifferences of body weight, BMI, and several other indicators were significant except for dosages of insulin used in the LCD group and MES in the LFD group. After the intervention, body weight, body weight index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial 2-h blood glucose (PPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in the LCD group decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the LFD group. The number of patients using lipid-lowering agents was significant higher in the LCD group and lower in the LFD group. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for antihypertensive, hormone-replacement, and other agents. Conclusions: The LCD diet can decrease body weight, glycemic levels, MES, and lipid-lowering agents more than the LFD diet, thus decreasing cost burden in Chinese patients with T2DM. Strict diet control and monitoring are the keys to managing diabetes.

2.
Neurology ; 97(22): e2223-e2235, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate phenotypic and genetic relationships between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. METHODS: We evaluated phenotypic associations between migraine and 19 lipoprotein subfraction measures in the Women's Genome Health Study (n = 22,788). We then investigated genetic relationships between these traits using summary statistics from the International Headache Genetics Consortium for migraine (ncase = 54,552, ncontrol = 297,970) and combined summary data for lipoprotein subfractions (n up to 47,713). RESULTS: There was a significant phenotypic association (odds ratio 1.27 [95% confidence interval 1.12-1.44]) and a significant genetic correlation at 0.18 (p = 0.001) between migraine and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLPs) concentration but not for low-density lipoprotein or high-density lipoprotein subfractions. Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates were largely null, implying that pleiotropy rather than causality underlies the genetic correlation between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. Pleiotropy was further supported in cross-trait meta-analysis, revealing significant shared signals at 4 loci (chr2p21 harboring THADA, chr5q13.3 harboring HMGCR, chr6q22.31 harboring HEY2, and chr7q11.23 harboring MLXIPL) between migraine and lipoprotein subfractions. Three of these loci were replicated for migraine (p < 0.05) in a smaller sample from the UK Biobank. The shared signal at chr5q13.3 colocalized with expression of HMGCR, ANKDD1B, and COL4A3BP in multiple tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The study supports the association between certain lipoprotein subfractions, especially for TRLP, and migraine in populations of European ancestry. The corresponding shared genetic components may help identify potential targets for future migraine therapeutics. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that migraine is significantly associated with some lipoprotein subfractions.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671908

RESUMO

Although hybrid maize seed production is one of the most important agriculture systems worldwide, its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and potential mitigation measures have not been studied. In this study, we used life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the GHG emissions of 150 farmers run by 6 companies in an area of northwest China known for hybrid maize seed production. The results indicated that the average reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses and GHG emissions from hybrid maize seed production were 53 kg N ha-1 and 8077 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively. Furthermore, the average nitrogen and carbon footprints of the process were 12.2 kg N Mg-1 and 1495 kg CO2 eq Mg-1, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer and electricity consumption for irrigation were the main contributors to high GHG emissions, accounting for 60% and 30% of the total, respectively. The GHG emissions from seed production for different companies varied greatly with their resource input. There was also a large variation in environmental burdens among the 150 farmers. Based on an analysis of the yield group, we found that the carbon footprint of the first group (the one with the highest yield) was 27% lower than the overall average. Scenario analysis suggests that a combined reduction of N input rate, optimizing irrigation, and increasing yield can eventually mitigate the carbon footprint of hybrid maize seed production by 37%. An integrated systematic approach (e.g., ISSM: integrated soil-crop system management) can reduce the GHG emissions involved in producing hybrid maize seeds. This study provides quantitative evidence and a potential strategy for GHG emissions reduction of hybrid maize seed production.

4.
Analyst ; 146(14): 4700-4707, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195714

RESUMO

Chloride quantification is important in drinking water quality control. A bespoke, rapid and reagent free electrochemical method is reported for a simple and accurate chloride sensor specifically for mineral water without the need for added electrolyte. The voltammetry used embraces first the reduction of oxygen to clean and activate the electrode surface and ensure reproducibility without the requirement for any mechanical polishing, followed by silver chloride formation and stripping. A linear correlation was found with silver chloride stripping peak currents and chloride concentrations within the range of 0.4 mM to 3.2 mM on a silver macro disc electrode. The chloride concentrations in two different mineral water samples were measured giving excellent agreement with independent analysis.


Assuntos
Cloretos , Água Potável , Indicadores e Reagentes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Prata
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 419: 126548, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328084

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been reported to cause various health damages. However, some PAH derivatives are still used as agents, and some of them have hypoglycemic effects. Till now, few studies explored the relationship between urinary PAH metabolites and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). In this study, A total of 2682 non-smokers in the second follow-up of the Wuhan-Zhuhai cohort were included to explore the relationship between urinary PAH metabolites and FPG. FPG related epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) was conducted among 212 never smokers, and the mediation analysis was performed to find potential mediator cytosine-phosphoguanine (CpG) sites in the above relationship. The concentration of total urinary PAH metabolites was 3.60 (2.37, 5.85) µg/mmol Cr. The urinary PAH metabolites were negatively associated with FPG. Each 1-U increase in ln-transformed levels of 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 4-hydroxyphenanthrene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, or 2- hydroxyphenanthrene was associated with 0.008-, 0.007-, 0.010-, or 0.010- unit decreased in ln-transformed levels of FPG, respectively (all p < 0.05). We found 28 new CpG sites related to FPG (FDR <0.05) through EWAS. Mediation analysis found that cg11350141 on AMER3 mediated 41.91% of the negative association of total urinary PAH metabolites with FPG. These results provide a new clue for the development of hypoglycemic agents.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores , Jejum , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Metilação , não Fumantes
6.
New Phytol ; 232(4): 1718-1737, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245570

RESUMO

Cotton fibre is the most important source for natural textiles. The secondary cell walls (SCWs) of mature cotton fibres contain the highest proportion of cellulose content (> 90%) in any plant. The onset and progression of SCW cellulose synthesis need to be tightly controlled to balance fibre elongation and cell wall deposition. However, regulatory mechanisms that control cellulose synthesis during cotton fibre growth remain elusive. Here, we conducted genetic and functional analyses demonstrating that the R2R3-MYB GhMYB7 controls cotton fibre cellulose synthesis. Overexpression of GhMYB7 in cotton sped up SCW cellulose biosynthesis in fibre cells, and led to shorter fibres with thicker walls. By contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of GhMYB7 delayed fibre SCW cellulose synthesis and resulted in elongated fibres with thinner walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GhMYB7 regulated cotton fibre SCW cellulose synthases by directly binding to three distinct cis-elements in the respective GhCesA4, GhCesA7 and GhCesA8 promoters. We found that this regulatory mechanism of cellulose synthesis was 'hi-jacked' also by other GhMYBs. Together, our findings uncover a hitherto-unknown mechanism that cotton fibre employs to regulate SCW cellulose synthesis. Our results also provide a strategy for genetic improvement of SCW thickness of cotton fibre.


Assuntos
Celulose , Fibra de Algodão , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129619

RESUMO

This paper establishes a fully automatic real-time image segmentation and recognition system for breast ultrasound intervention robots. It adopts the basic architecture of a U-shaped convolutional network (U-Net), analyses the actual application scenarios of semantic segmentation of breast ultrasound images, and adds dropout layers to the U-Net architecture to reduce the redundancy in texture details and prevent overfitting. The main innovation of this paper is proposing an expanded training approach to obtain an expanded of U-Net. The output map of the expanded U-Net can retain texture details and edge features of breast tumours. Using the grey-level probability labels to train the U-Net is faster than using ordinary labels. The average Dice coefficient (standard deviation) and the average IOU coefficient (standard deviation) are 90.5% (±0.02) and 82.7% (±0.02), respectively, when using the expanded training approach. The Dice coefficient of the expanded U-Net is 7.6 larger than that of a general U-Net, and the IOU coefficient of the expanded U-Net is 11 larger than that of the general U-Net. The context of breast ultrasound images can be extracted, and texture details and edge features of tumours can be retained by the expanded U-Net. Using an expanded U-Net can quickly and automatically achieve precise segmentation and multi-class recognition of breast ultrasound images.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Mamária , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Ultrassonografia Mamária/métodos
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 620245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079563

RESUMO

Cuticular waxes covering the plant surface play pivotal roles in helping plants adapt to changing environments. However, it is still not clear whether the responses of plant cuticular waxes to their growing environments are inheritable. We collected seeds of Medicago ruthenica (a perennial legume) populations from 30 growing sites in northern China and examined the variations of leaf cuticular waxes in a common garden experiment. Four wax genes, MrFAR3-1, MrFAR3-2, MrCER1, and MrKCS1, involved in biosynthesis of predominant wax classes (primary alcohol and alkane) and wax precursors, were isolated to test the contributions of genetic variations of the coding sequences (CDS) and the promoter sequences and epigenetic modifications. The plasticity responses of the cuticular waxes were further validated by two stress-modeling experiments (drought and enhancing ultraviolet B). Great variations in total wax coverage and abundance of wax classes or wax compounds were observed among M. ruthenica populations in a common garden experiment. Stress-modeling experiments further validated that M. ruthenica would alter leaf wax depositions under changed growing conditions. The transcriptional levels of the wax genes were positively or negatively correlated with amounts of cuticular waxes. However, the analysis of promoter methylation showed that the methylation level of the promoter region was not associated with their expressions. Although both promoter sequences and CDS showed a number of polymorphic sites, the promoters were not naturally selected and insignificant difference could be observed in the numbers and types of acting elements of the four wax genes among populations. In contrast, the CDS of the wax genes were naturally selected, with a number of missense mutations resulting in alterations of the amino acid as well as their isoelectric points and polarities, which could impact on enzyme function/activity. We conclude that long-term adaptation under certain environments would induce genetic mutation of wax biosynthesis genes, resulting in inheritable alterations of cuticular wax depositions.

9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 631587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163348

RESUMO

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in geriatric population. At present, no effective treatments exist to reverse the progress of AD, however, early diagnosis and intervention might delay its progression. The search for biomarkers with good safety, repeatable detection, reliable sensitivity and community application is necessary for AD screening and early diagnosis and timely intervention. Electroencephalogram (EEG) examination is a non-invasive, quantitative, reproducible, and cost-effective technique which is suitable for screening large population for possible AD. The power spectrum, complexity and synchronization characteristics of EEG waveforms in AD patients have distinct deviation from normal elderly, indicating these EEG features can be a promising candidate biomarker of AD. However, current reported deviation results are inconsistent, possibly due to multiple factors such as diagnostic criteria, sample sizes and the use of different computational measures. In this study, we collected two neurological tests scores (MMSE and MoCA) and the resting-state EEG of 30 normal control elderly subjects (NC group) and 30 probable AD patients confirmed by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET) inspection (AD group). We calculated the power spectrum, spectral entropy and phase synchronization index features of these two groups' EEG at left/right frontal, temporal, central and occipital brain regions in 4 frequency bands: δ oscillation (1-4 Hz), θ oscillation (4-8 Hz), α oscillation (8-13 Hz), and ß oscillation (13-30 Hz). In most brain areas, we found that the AD group had significant differences compared to NC group: (1) decreased α oscillation power and increased θ oscillation power; (2) decreased spectral entropy in α oscillation and elevated spectral entropy in ß oscillation; and (3) decrease phase synchronization index in δ, θ, and ß oscillation. We also found that α oscillation spectral power and ß oscillation phase synchronization index correlated well with the MMSE/MoCA test scores in AD groups. Our study suggests that these two EEG features might be useful metrics for population screening of probable AD patients.

10.
Talanta ; 232: 122502, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074452

RESUMO

Chloride quantification in natural seawater is important in both oceanography and corrosion science. A bespoke electrochemical method was developed for a facile and accurate chloride sensor specifically for use for the high chloride levels encountered in seawater (ca 0.5 M). This is based on the voltammetric oxidation of a silver electrode over a well-defined potential range corresponding to AgCl nucleation/formation. The peak current for silver chloride formation varies linearly with chloride concentration in the range 0.484 M-0.624 M provided the electrode is suitably activated. In particular, the reduction of dissolved oxygen was found to clean the surface and also to provide a stable peak potential against which other potentials can be referenced if it is wished to use a quasi-reference electrode. Thus, the overall voltammetric scan embraces first the reduction of oxygen followed by silver chloride formation and stripping. Reliable quantification was achieved in synthetic seawater with this methodology. Furthermore, the chloride anion concentration in three different authentic samples of natural seawater was measured accurately giving excellent agreement with independent analysis.

11.
Neurology ; 96(20): e2481-e2487, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess support for a causal relationship between hemostatic measures and migraine susceptibility using genetic instrumental analysis. METHODS: Two-sample Mendelian randomization instrumental analyses leveraging available genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics were applied to hemostatic measures as potentially causal for migraine and its subtypes, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Twelve blood-based measures of hemostasis were examined, including plasma level or activity of 8 hemostatic factors and 2 fibrinopeptides together with 2 hemostasis clinical tests. RESULTS: There were significant instrumental effects between increased coagulation factor VIII activity (FVIII; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.05 [1.03, 1.08]/SD, p = 6.08 × 10-05), von Willebrand factor level (vWF; 1.05 [1.03, 1.08]/SD, p = 2.25 × 10-06), and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A level (1.13 [1.07, 1.19]/SD, p = 5.44 × 10-06) with migraine susceptibility. When extended to migraine subtypes, FVIII, vWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A showed slightly stronger effects with MA than overall migraine. Fibrinogen level was inversely linked with MA (0.76 [0.64, 0.91]/SD, p = 2.32 × 10-03) but not overall migraine. None of the hemostatic factors was linked with MO. In sensitivity analysis, effects for fibrinogen and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A were robust, whereas independent effects of FVIII and vWF could not be distinguished, and FVIII associations were potentially affected by pleiotropy at the ABO locus. Causal effects from migraine to the hemostatic measures were not supported in reverse Mendelian randomization. However, MA was not included due to lack of instruments. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support potential causality of increased FVIII, vWF, and phosphorylated fibrinopeptide A and decreased fibrinogen in migraine susceptibility, especially for MA, potentially revealing etiologic relationships between hemostasis and migraine.


Assuntos
Hemostasia/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/genética , Enxaqueca sem Aura/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator VII/metabolismo , Fator VIII/metabolismo , Fator XI/metabolismo , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinopeptídeo A/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/sangue , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/sangue , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Enxaqueca sem Aura/sangue , Enxaqueca sem Aura/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Tempo de Protrombina , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 616306, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829013

RESUMO

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for two-thirds of head and neck cancer, is characterized by poor prognosis and a high rate of mortality. Exosomes have emerged as potential molecule-shuttle in intercellular communication, thereby regulating the physiological processes of recipient cells. To date, the effect of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) on the progression of OSCC has not been fully investigated. In this study, we found that the protein, but not mRNA expression of Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) was decreased in OSCC. The results revealed that miR-130b-3p was an important negative regulator for PTEN expression. Additionally, overexpression and knockdown of miR-130b-3p enhanced and inhibited angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Also, miR-130b-3p was transferred by exosomes to HUVECs and then promoted angiogenesis and inhibit the expression of PTEN. Furthermore, exosomal miR-130b-3p derived from OSCC cells promoted tumor growth and blood vessel formation in the xenograft mice model. Taken together, we demonstrated that exosome-mediated miR-130b-3p promoted progression and tubular formation in OSCC in vitro and in vivo. These results would provide new insight into exploring biomarkers and effective therapeutic strategies for OSCC.

13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 285-295, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887646

RESUMO

Cuticular wax and cutin are directly involved in the mechanisms by which plants acclimate to water-limited environments. However, how the two lipid forms balance their contributions to plant drought-tolerance is still not clear. The present study examined the responses of cutin monomers and cuticular waxes to drought stress in two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars, drought-tolerant cv. Kangsi and drought-sensitive cv. Hongyingzi, by combining lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis. Drought increased total cutin contents by 41.3%, the contents of alkanoic acids by 72.6% and 2-hydroxyacids by 117.8% in Kangsi but unchanged those in Hongyingzi. The abundance of cutin monomers were relatively stable for cv Hongyingzi, excepting for a decrease of ω-hydroxyacids from 35.0% to 27.4% in drought-stressed plants. However, for cv Kangsi, the abundance of ω-hydroxyacids decreased from 36.8% to 21.0% and that of alkanoic acids increased from 30.5% to 37.1% in drought-stressed plants. Drought increased total wax coverage in Hongyingzi but reduced it in Kangsi. However, the abundance of aldehydes decreased from 51.2% to 39.3% in drought-stressed cv Kangsi, but increased from 25.2% to 36.1% in drought-stressed cv Hongyingzi. A decrease of sterols (by 76%) and an increase of primary alcohol (by 443%) was also observed in drought-stressed cv Hongyingzi. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that many genes implicated by homology in cutin monomer and cuticular wax biosynthesis also differed in their responses to drought stress between the two sorghum cultivars. Therefore, sorghum cultivars differed in their mechanisms in adjusting chemical profiles of both cutin and cuticular wax under water deficit condition.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lipidômica , Folhas de Planta , Sorghum/genética , Transcriptoma , Ceras
14.
Brain Behav ; 11(4): e02048, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify circular RNAs as candidates for differential expression in the middle temporal (MT) cortex in a well-characterized cohort with contrasting Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology and cognition. Top screen candidates were assessed for proof of circularity and then quantified by qPCR in a larger number of samples. METHODS: An initial RNA sequencing screen was performed on n = 20 frozen human tissue samples. Filters were applied to select candidate circular RNAs for further investigation. Frozen human tissue samples were selected for global AD pathology burden and global cognition scores (n = 100). Linear and divergent primers were used to assess circularity using RNaseR digestion. RT-qPCR was performed to quantify relative hsa_circ_0131235 abundance. RESULTS: Eleven circular RNAs were selected for further investigation. Four candidates produced circular RNA primers with appropriate efficiencies for qPCR. RNaseR treatment and analysis by both basic PCR and qPCR confirmed hsa_circ_0131235 circularity. There was a significant main effect of AD pathology on hsa_circ_0131235 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hsa_circ_0131235 expression in the MT cortex was significantly associated with AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , RNA Circular , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Lobo Temporal
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 312-321, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421907

RESUMO

Poa pratensis is a perennial turfgrass used worldwide. However, shortage of irrigation and drought induced by climate change adversely affect plant growth and turf quality. Cuticular wax covers plant aerial parts and plays important roles in decreasing plant water loss under drought-stressed conditions. Previous research proposed two candidate genes that were involved in wax very-long-chain alkane biosynthesis based on the transcriptome of Poa pratensis leaf. Here, one of the candidate genes, PpCER1-2 was further characterized. A subcellular localization study revealed that PpCER1-2 was localized on the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of PpCER1-2 could be induced by drought and salt stresses. Overexpression of PpCER1-2 in Brachypodium distachyon increased the alkane amount, whereas decreased the amounts of primary alcohols and total wax. The relative abundance of C25 and C27 alkane and C26 aldehyde increased significantly, but the relative abundance of C29 and C31 alkane and C28 aldehyde decreased. Meanwhile, PpCER1-2 overexpression lines exhibited reduced cuticle permeability and enhanced drought tolerance. These results suggested that PpCER1-2 relatively promoted alkane biosynthesis by converting more very long chain fatty acids precursors into the decarbonylation pathway from the acyl-reduction pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that PpCER1-2 is involved in wax alkane biosynthesis in P. pratensis and plays important roles in improving plant drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Alcanos , Secas , Poa , Estresse Fisiológico , Ceras , Alcanos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poa/genética , Poa/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether studying patients with strictly unilateral relapsing primary angiitis of the CNS (UR-PACNS) can support hemispheric differences in immune response mechanisms, we reviewed characteristics of a group of such patients. METHODS: We surveiled our institution for patients with UR-PACNS, after characterizing one such case. We defined UR-PACNS as PACNS with clinical and radiographic relapses strictly recurring in 1 brain hemisphere, with or without hemiatrophy. PACNS must have been biopsy proven. Three total cases were identified at our institution. A literature search for similar reports yielded 4 additional cases. The combined 7 cases were reviewed for demographic, clinical, imaging, and pathologic trends. RESULTS: The median age at time of clinical onset among the 7 cases was 26 years (range 10-49 years); 5 were male (71%). All 7 patients presented with seizures. The mean follow-up duration was 7.5 years (4-14.1 years). The annualized relapse rate ranged between 0.2 and 1. UR-PACNS involved the left cerebral hemisphere in 5 of the 7 patients. There was no consistent relationship between the patient's dominant hand and the diseased side. When performed (5 cases), conventional angiogram was nondiagnostic. CSF examination showed nucleated cells and protein levels in normal range in 3 cases and ranged from 6 to 11 cells/µL and 49 to 110 mg/dL in 4 cases, respectively. All cases were diagnosed with lesional biopsy, showing lymphocytic type of vasculitis of the small- and medium-sized vessels. Patients treated with steroids alone showed progression. Induction therapy with cyclophosphamide or rituximab followed by a steroid sparing agent resulted in the most consistent disease remission. CONCLUSIONS: Combining our 3 cases with others reported in the literature allows better clinical understanding about this rare and extremely puzzling disease entity. We hypothesize that a functional difference in immune responses, caused by such discrepancies as basal levels of cytokines, asymmetric distribution of microglia, and differences in modulation of the systemic immune functions, rather than a structural antigenic difference, between the right and left brain may explain this phenomenon, but this is speculative.


Assuntos
Cérebro/diagnóstico por imagem , Cérebro/imunologia , Imunidade/imunologia , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 697: 108697, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232717

RESUMO

Bone fractures are one of the most frequent injuries in the musculoskeletal system. Despite the best treatment efforts, a large proportion of bone fracture cases still display undesirable outcomes. Here, we verified that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptides, might be a critical regulator that link the nervous, immune and skeletal systems during bone healing. We used a CGRP overexpression lentiviral system and stably transfected M2 macrophages. Then, we investigated the biological function and the intrinsic mechanisms of CGRP on M2 macrophages. We confirmed that CGRP downregulated osteogenic factors (BMP2, BMP6, WNT10b and OSM) secretion at first and promoted them late on (p < 0.05). In addition, we utilized an indirect coculture system and further ascertain the influences of CGRP-induced M2 macrophages on MC3T3 osteogenesis. The results implied that CGRP-modulated osteoimmune environment elicit multiple effects on osteogenesis of MC3T3 during the entire observation period. Notably, verteporfin, a yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) inhibitor, impaired CGRP effects significantly in our experiments. Taken together, our findings illustrated that CGRP might regulate osteogenesis by modulating the osteoimmune response of M2 macrophages via Yap1.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Células 3T3 , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(8): 3355-3365, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen fertilization can increase sorghum yield and quality and the hydrocyanic acid (HCN) accumulation in plants, increasing the risk of animal toxicity, particularly under drought conditions. In this study, plants of three sorghum genotypes (sweet sorghum, sudangrass and hybrid sorghum) were supplemented with nitrogen (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1 ) under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions, aiming to investigate the responses of morpho-physiological parameters and HCN accumulation to drought and nitrogen fertilization. RESULTS: Drought caused a decline in growth and photosynthesis. Average HCN content increased by 27.85% in drought-stressed plants when compared with those in well-watered plants. Drought increased the proline and soluble protein content, the content of O2 - , H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in leaves of all three genotypes. Maximum plant growth and higher plant nutrient content (nitrogen and phosphorus) were observed at 120 kg N ha-1 , followed by 90 and 60 kg N ha-1 . However, a sharp increase in HCN content and a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities were observed when nitrogen rates increased from 90 to 120 kg N ha-1 , suggesting that 90 kg N ha-1 might be better for sorghums under drought conditions. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that optimum nitrogen application on sorghum under drought conditions could achieve a balance between plant defense and food safety, attributed to the reduced MDA, O2 - and H2 O2 accumulation, the improvement in photosynthesis parameters, the increase in soluble protein and proline content, and the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Sorghum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sorghum/metabolismo , Secas , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Prolina/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
19.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(3): 689-708, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In humans, blood flow in the mesenteric circulation is greatly increased after meals, but the mechanisms underlying postprandial mesenteric vasorelaxation induced by nutrients and whether this process is involved in the pathogenesis of colitis, are not well understood. Here we have studied the direct actions of nutrients on mesenteric arterial tone and the underlying molecular mechanisms in healthy and colitis mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Colitis in C57BL/6 mice was induced with dextran sodium sulphate. Nutrient-induced vasorelaxation of mesenteric arterioles from humans and mice was studied with wire myograph assays. Ca2+ and Na+ imaging were performed in human vascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, using selective pharmacological agents and shRNA knockdown of TRPV1 channels. KEY RESULTS: Glucose, sodium and mannitol concentration-dependently induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of human and mouse mesenteric arterioles via hyperosmotic action,. Hyperosmosis-induced vasorelaxation was almost abolished by selective blockers for TRPV1, IKCa and SKCa channels. Glucose markedly stimulated Ca2+ influx through endothelial TRPV1 channels, an effect attenuated by selective blockers and shRNA knockdown of TRPV1 channels. Capsaicin synergised the glucose-induced vasorelaxation. Nutrient-induced hyperosmosis also activated Na+ /K+ -ATPase and the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) to decrease [Ca2+ ]i in VSMCs. Glucose-induced vasorelaxation was impaired in mouse colitis. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Nutrient-induced hyperosmosis evoked endothelium-dependent mesenteric vasorelaxation via the TRPV1/Ca2+ / endothelium-dependent hyperpolarisation pathway to increase normal mucosal perfusion, which is impaired in our model of colitis. The TRPV1/Ca2+ / endothelium-dependent hyperpolarisation pathway could provide novel drug targets for gastrointestinal diseases with hypoperfusion, such as chronic colitis and mesenteric ischaemia.


Assuntos
Colite , Vasodilatação , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Células Endoteliais , Endotélio Vascular , Artérias Mesentéricas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes , Canais de Cátion TRPV
20.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(1): 74-79, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of sex on the risk of silicosis and to explore any interaction between cigarette smoking and sex in the development of silicosis. METHODS: The cohort was selected from eight Chinese pottery factories. Diagnoses of silicosis were based on 1986 Chinese pneumoconiosis Roentgen diagnostic criteria. Data on cigarette smoking were collected by face-to-face interviews in 1989 and 2003. RESULTS: Eight thousand eight hundred and eighty seven dust-exposed workers were included. Men had a 77% higher incidence of silicosis than women. At lower pack-years of smoking, men were 72% more at risk than women. The latency period was found to be longest in female never-smokers and shortest in female ever-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Men had a higher risk of developing silicosis than women. Cigarette smoking increased the risk in both sexes, more so in women.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Silicose , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Poeira/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Silicose/epidemiologia , Silicose/etiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...