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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(3): 459-470, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230947

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is a common pathological process of various cardiovascular diseases and eventually develops into heart failure. This paper was aimed to study the different pathological characteristics exhibited by different mouse strains after hypertrophy stimulation. Two mouse strains, A/J and FVB/nJ, were treated with isoproterenol (ISO) by osmotic pump to induce cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography was performed to monitor heart morphology and function. Mitochondria were isolated from hearts in each group, and oxidative phosphorylation function was assayed in vitro. The results showed that both strains showed a compensatory enhancement of heart contractile function after 1-week ISO treatment. The A/J mice, but not the FVB/nJ mice, developed significant cardiac hypertrophy after 3-week ISO treatment as evidenced by increases in left ventricular posterior wall thickness, heart weight/body weight ratio, cross sectional area of cardiomyocytes and cardiac hypertrophic markers. Interestingly, the heart from A/J mice contained higher mitochondrial DNA copy number compared with that from FVB/nJ mice. Functionally, the mitochondria from A/J mice displayed faster O2 consumption at state III with either complex I substrates or complex II substrate, compared with those from FVB/nJ mice. ISO treatment did not affect mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR), but significantly suppressed the ADP/O ratio generated from the complex II substrate in both strains. The ADP/O ratio generated from the complex I substrates in A/J mice declined by 50% after ISO treatment, whereas FVB/nJ mice were not affected. These results suggest that, compared with FVB/nJ mice, A/J mice possesses a poor integrity of mitochondrial respiratory chain that might contribute to its vulnerability to ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Isoproterenol/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo
2.
J Anat ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235729

RESUMO

The rat is frequently used as a model to study the characteristics, aetiology and pathology of the Achilles tendon. However, though the structure of the human Achilles tendon has been extensively investigated, the anatomical structure of the rat Achilles tendon remains unclear, which impedes the ability to use rats to study Achilles tendinopathy. The purpose of this study was to reveal the structure of the rat Achilles tendon and to explore its similarities with the human Achilles tendon through an anatomical dissection of 80 rat Achilles tendons (40 female, 40 male). This study found that the subtendons of the rat Achilles tendon originating from the triceps surae muscle were twisted, and each subtendon also had its own torsion. The extent of these two types of torsion could be very different between rats. Alterations in this torsion may result in distinct stress fields in the Achilles tendon, which may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Achilles tendinopathy. This study provides an important basis to support the use of rats as model animals to investigate the characteristics of the human Achilles tendon and Achilles tendinopathy.

3.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258786

RESUMO

Melanoma may mimic a variety of skin lesions clinically and histopathologically, and presents diagnostic challenges. In this article, we describe a case of melanoma in an 89-year-old man with a very rare histopathologic presentation, namely the presence of pleomorphic and multinucleated giant cells with abundant cytoplasm, highly resembling an atypical fibroxanthoma. The differential diagnoses in conjunction with the findings in immunohistochemical study are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108952, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273454

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the association between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and myocardial dysfunction and to determine whether its association is independent of myocardial perfusion. METHODS: Sixty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited. They were divided into groups according to their HbA1c level: the controlled T2DM group (HbA1c <7%) and uncontrolled T2DM groups (HbA1c ≥7%). Meanwhile, 30 age-matched healthy volunteers were included. All patients with T2DM and healthy controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the myocardial mechanics and perfusion parameters. RESULTS: The circumferential and longitudinal peak strain (PS) (p=0.009 and 0.002 respectively) and global radial, circumferential, and longitudinal peak strain diastolic strain rates (PDSRs) (p=0.002, 0.001, and 0.001 respectively) were lower in the uncontrolled T2DM group than in the controls without diabetes. In multivariable linear regression analysis, HbA1c was independently related to all directions of the PS and PDSR. The myocardial perfusion parameters were not independently associated with the PS or PDSR. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac function is impaired in Chinese T2DM patients with poor glucose control (HbA1c ≥7%), with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and disease duration <10 years. Poor blood glucose control is an independent predictor of LV myocardial dysfunction for patients with short-term T2DM.

5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203179

RESUMO

In this study, a polydopamine (PDA)-modified hollow fiber-immobilized xanthine oxidase (XOD) was prepared for screening potential XOD inhibitors from flavonoids. Several parameters for the preparation of PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD, including the dopamine concentration, modification time, XOD concentration and immobilization time, were optimized. The results show that the optimal conditions for immobilized XOD activity were a dopamine concentration of 2.0 mg/mL in 10.0 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5), a modification time of 3.0 h, an XOD concentration of 1000 µg/mL in 10.0 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and an immobilization time of 3.0 h. Subsequently, the enzymatic reaction conditions such as the pH value and temperature were investigated, and the enzyme kinetics and inhibition parameters were determined. The results indicate that the optimal pH value (7.5) and temperature (37 °C) of the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD were consistent with the free enzyme. Moreover, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD could still maintain above 50% of its initial immobilized enzyme activity after seven consecutive cycles. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of allopurinol on the immobilized XOD were determined as 0.25 mM and 23.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD was successfully applied to evaluate the inhibitory activity of eight flavonoids. Quercetin, apigenin, puerarin and epigallocatechin showed a good inhibition effect, and their percentages of inhibition were (79.86 ± 3.50)%, (80.98 ± 0.64)%, (61.15 ± 6.26)% and (54.92 ± 0.41)%, respectively. Finally, molecular docking analysis further verified that these four active compounds could bind to the amino acid residues in the XOD active site. In summary, the PDA-modified hollow fiber-immobilized XOD is an efficient method for the primary screening of XOD inhibitors from natural products.

6.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261358

RESUMO

Camellia yuhsienensis Hu is an endemic species from China, where is the predominant oilseed crop due to its anthracnose resistance (Kuang 2015; J. Li et al. 2020; Nie et al. 2020). In April 2019, anthracnose symptoms were observed on C. yuhsienensis in a plantation in Youxian, Zhuzhou, Hunan Province, China (113.32°E, 26.79°N). It was detected approximately 10% anthracnose incidence in 500 two-year-old plants in a 5000 m2 cultivated area. Diseased leaves showed irregular grayish brown spots with dark brown edges and dark brown undersides. Symptomatic tissues (4 to 5 mm2) were surface-disinfected for 90 s in 75% ethanol, then rinsed twice with sterile water, and finally incubated on PDA (potato dextrose agar) at 28℃ (Jiang et al. 2018). Pure cultures were obtained by the single-spore isolation method. A total of 100 fungal isolates were obtained from 85 symptomatic leaves, from which 81 had similar colony morphology. Colonies on PDA were white, fluffy and cottony, and becoming dark gray after 5 days. The character of the reverse of the colony were similar to that of the upper of the colony, but the color was darker at the same time. The isolates produced a large number of single-celled, hyaline, straight and cylindrical conidia, with 10.35 to 17.58 length × 3.46 to 5.69 µm width (x=13.61 × 4.63 µm, n = 30). The isolates were preliminarily identified as Colletotrichum spp. according to morphological features (Weir et al. 2012). Representative isolate YX2-5-2 was used for molecular identification: internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial actin (ACT), chitin synthase (CHS-1) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genomic DNA regions were amplified by PCR (Weir et al. 2012). Gene sequences were deposited in GenBank (GenBank accession no. MW398863 for ACT, MW886232 for CHS-1, MW398864 for GAPDH, MW398865 for ITS). BLAST analysis revealed that DNA sequences of YX2-5-2 at the ITS, GAPDH, ACT, and CHS-1 loci showed 100%, 99.25%, 100%, and 99.33% sequence identity, respectively to their corresponding loci in strains ZH6 (GenBank accession no. MT476840.1), ICKP18B4 (LC494274.1), YN17 (MN525804.1), and ICKG4 (LC469131.1) of C. fructicola. A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree based on the combined ACT, CHS-1, ITS and GAPDH sequences revealed that the representative isolate YX2-5-2 clustered with C. fructicola. In addition, the morphological features of YX2-5-2 were similar to C. fructicola which has been reported (Weir et al. 2012). Pathogenicity was tested using isolate YX2-5-2 by inoculating leaves of 2-year-old C. yuhsienensis. Four leaves of each healthy C. yuhsienensis were sprayed with a conidial suspension (105 conidial/mL) of isolate YX2-5-2, and the above steps were repeated three times. Two additional mock-inoculated control plants were sprayed with sterilized liquid potato dextrose medium. The plants were incubated in a greenhouse at 28℃ and 90% humidity with a 12 h photoperiod. Anthracnose-like symptoms were observed 5 days post-inoculation. The control plant tissues remained healthy. C. fructicola was re-isolated on PDA from lesions, and the morphological features were consistent with YX2-5-2, confirming Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anthracnose of C. yuhsienensis caused by C. fructicola in China. Anthracnose of Camellia. oleifera has been reported for a long time (H. Li et al. 2016). C. yuhsienensis, as a wild relative of C. oleifera (commonly known as tea-oil tree), has been concerned about its resistance to anthracnose. Therefore, the occurrence of C. yuhsienensis anthracnose hindered the control of anthracnose tea-oil tree. This finding will lay the foundation for studying the pathogenesis of anthracnose of tea-oil tree and developing effective prevention methods. References: Jiang, S. Q., et al. 2018. Plant Dis. 102: 674. Kuang, R. 2015. Forest Pest and Disease. Li, H., et al. 2016. PLoS One 11: e0156841. Li, J., et al. 2020. Microorganisms 8: 1385. Nie, Z., et al. 2020. Mitochondrial. DNA. B. 5: 3016. Weir, B. S., et al. 2012. Stud. Mycol. 73: 115.

7.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological changes in the remote myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains less understood. PURPOSE: To assess the inflammation in the remote myocardium post-MI and its association with left ventricular (LV) remodeling using T2 mapping. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. ANIMAL MODEL AND SUBJECTS: Twelve pigs at 3-day post-MI, 6 pigs at 3-month post-MI, 6 healthy pigs; 54 patients at 3-day and 3-month post-MI, 31 healthy volunteers; FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3 T MRI/ steady-state free-precession sequence for T2 mapping (animals: 0, 30, and 55 msec; human: 0, 25, and 55 msec), phase-sensitive inversion recovery gradient echo for late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), balanced steady free-precession sequence for cine. ASSESSMENT: Infarcted myocardium was defined on LGE, remote T2 was measured on T2 maps. LV remodeling was evaluated as LV end-diastolic volume change index between two scans using cine. CD68 staining was conducted to detect monocyte/macrophage. STATISTICAL TESTS: Student-t test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare remote T2 with normal controls. The association of remote T2 with LV remodeling was assessed using linear regression. P values of <0.05 were used to denote statistical significance. RESULTS: Compared with healthy pigs, remote T2 significantly increased from 3 days to 3 months post-MI (31.43 ± 0.67 vs. 33.53 ± 1.15 vs. 36.43 ± 1.07 msec). CD68 staining demonstrated the inflammation in remote myocardium post-MI but not in healthy pigs. Significant remote myocardial alterations in T2 were also observed in human group (40.51 ± 1.79 vs. 41.94 ± 1.14 vs. 42.52 ± 1.71 msec). In patients, the 3-month remote T2 (ß = 0.432) and remote T2 variation between two scans (ß = 0.554) were both independently associated with LV remodeling. CONCLUSION: T2 mapping could characterize the abnormalities in the remote myocardium post-MI, which was potentially caused by the inflammatory response. Moreover, variations in remote T2 were associated with LV remodeling. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

8.
Environ Int ; 156: 106743, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243036

RESUMO

Exposure to alternative phthalates and related health effects in pregnant women are rarely reported. Nineteen phthalate metabolites and a DNA oxidative damage biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined in urine samples of pregnant women recruited in South China. The detection frequencies and concentration of selected alternative phthalates, i.e., diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) and di-(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) were lower than those of conventional phthalates. However, mono-(6-hydroxy-2-propylheptyl) phthalate, a metabolite of DPHP, was detected in 70% of urine samples (median: 0.13 ng/mL). The estimated daily intakes of conventional plasticizers, including dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (median range: 1.0-3.0 µg/kg_bw/day) were significantly higher than those of DiNP (0.08 µg/kg_bw/day) and DPHP (0.03 µg/kg_bw/day) (p < 0.05). Approximately 24% of pregnant women were at high risk when cumulative risk from exposure to several phthalates was considered. The concentrations of phthalate metabolites and urinary 8-OHdG were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.206-0.772, p < 0.01), which were further conformed by multiple linear regression analysis (ß = 0.168-0.639, p < 0.01). In addition, conventional phthalates were more strongly correlated with 8-OHdG than alternative phthalates (i.e., DiNP, DPHP), partly suggesting the relatively smaller health effects of alternatives due to their low exposure doses and toxicities. These findings suggested that alternative phthalates have entered the human body from consumer products in the study area, and exposure-related risk of DNA oxidative stress was comparatively lower.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286436

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent and bioaccumulative substances that have many adverse effects on human bodies. This study investigated the PFASs distribution characteristics in urine samples of workers from an acrylic fiber plant and a chemical plant. It was found that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the predominant PFASs both in urine samples from the chemical plant (detection frequency: 86.52%; median value: 39.01 ng/mL) and the acrylic fiber plant (detection frequency: 88.16%; median value: 44.36 ng/mL). Meanwhile, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected with very low frequencies and low concentrations. Furthermore, the results showed that PFASs levels in urine samples of workers from different units of the plants were quite different. PFASs concentrations of urine samples in males were higher than those in females, especially for PFBA, PFHxA, and PFDoA. The age had limited effects on the PFASs distribution in urine samples in this study, as short-chain PFASs were the dominant compounds. The correlations between PFASs concentrations in urine and gender/ages of workers were finally analyzed by Pearson correlation. The overall results may indicate that short-chain PFASs (such as: PFBA and PFBS) were becoming dominant for human exposure, especially occupational workers.

10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(1): 77-84, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248006

RESUMO

Skin-whitening effect is closely linked with the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and free radical scavenging capacity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the skin-whitening effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) extract. The whitening activity was evaluated by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay, free radical scavenging assay, cell viability assay, cellular tyrosinase assay and melanin content assay using B16F10 murine melanoma cells. The results showed that cumin extract exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on both monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 values of 1.027mg/mL and 0.977mg/mL, respectively). Kinetic study on diphenolase showed that the cumin extract was a reversible mixed-type inhibitor, and the inhibition constant (KI) was determined to be 0.62mg/mL. In addition, cumin extract significantly suppressed melanin production and cellular tyrosinase activity of B16F10 melanoma cells in a concentration and time dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Moreover, cumin extract exerted strong scavenging capacity on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cumin is a potential skin-whitening agent for the cosmetic industry.

11.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 2534-2549, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138687

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the world with alow 5-year survival rate. To date, no study has investigated the prognostic role of the small mother against decapentaplegic (SMAD) in gastric cancer. The association of SMADs with overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer was analyzed on the online Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter database. Clinical data such as stage, differentiation, gender, treatment, and Her2 mutation status of gastric cancer patients were analyzed. The (E)-SIS3 was used to inhibit SMAD3 expression in gastric cancer cells, and the effects of SMAD3 on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via real-time cellular analysis (RTCA), flow cytometry, colony formation, and immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that the high expression of three members of SMADs (SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD4) was correlated with afavorable OS of gastric cancer patients. Meanwhile, SMAD3 expression level indicated highly differentiated cancer. We also observed that surgical treatment was associated with high expression level of SMAD1 and SMAD2. Besides, the effect of Her2 on gastric cancer was not noticeable. Moreover, (E)-SIS3 pharmacological assay revealed that inhibition of expression of SMAD3 suppressed the proliferation and migration ability of gastric cancer cells via inducing apoptosis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the high expression level of three members of SMADs (SMAD1, SMAD2, and SMAD4) is significantly correlated with favorable OS of gastric cancer patients, which is opposite to SMAD3. Thus, SMADs regulate the differentiation of cancer and can be used to guide treatment decisions.

12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has recently been acknowledged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the characteristics of CAD in patients with SCH are not fully understood. This study aims to evaluate the features of CAD in patients with SCH using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1 April, 2018 to 30 June, 2020, 234 consecutive SCH patients with coronary plaques identified on CCTA were included retrospectively. They were further subdivided into different degree of SCH groups (mild SCH vs. moderate SCH vs. severe SCH: 143 vs 62 vs 28) and different gender groups (men with SCH vs. women with SCH:116 vs 118). The distributions and types of plaques, luminal narrowing, segment involvement scores (SIS) and segment stenosis scores (SSS) were evaluated and compared among the different groups. RESULTS: Patients with severe SCH had fewer calcified plaques (0.7 ± 0.9 vs. 2.0 ± 1.9, p < 0.001) and more non-calcified plaques (0.9 ± 1.0 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5, p < 0.001) than those with mild SCH. As the SCH condition worsened, the proportion of non-calcified plaques significantly increased. Whereas there were no significant discrepancies in SIS and SSS among patients with different grades of SCH (all p > 0.05). Men with SCH had higher SIS (3.9 ± 2.3 vs. 3.0 ± 2.3, p = 0.004) and SSS (7.8 ± 5.4 vs. 5.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.002) than women. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analysis demonstrated that grades of SCH (Moderate SCH, odds ratio [OR] 2.11; 95% CI 1.03-4.34, p = 0.042; severe SCH, OR: 10.00; 95% CI 3.82-26.20, p < 0.001, taken mild SCH as a reference) was independently associated with the presence of non-calcified plaques, whereas sex (B: 1.67; 95% CI 0.27-3.10, p = 0.009) was independently associated with SSS. CONCLUSIONS: Severe SCH is associated with non-calcified plaques, and men with SCH have higher total plaque burden than women. We suggest that it is important to evaluate for coronary plaque in SCH patients, especially those with severe SCH and men with SCH.

13.
Transpl Immunol ; 68: 101429, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis is an intractable symptom that influences daily lives of patients. miR-1287-5p was discovered to play a suppressive role in cervical cancer and HBV-related infection. PURPOSE: This study investigated the potential role of miR-1287-5p in the in-vitro model of chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: GSE169376 dataset was analyzed and differential miRNAs in nasal mucosa tissues in the chronic rhinosinusitis group were screened out. LPS was used to treat HNECs for 12h, 24h and 48h. Cells underwent LPS treatment after SNAI1 downregulation, miR-1287-5p upregulation or pretreatment of the HMGB1 inhibitor, Glycyrrhizin. RT-PCR was used to measure the RNA expression of miR-1287-5p, SNAI1 and HMGB1. ELISA was used for the detection of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α changes. Targetscan and starBase were used to predict the targets (SNAI1 and HMGB1) of miR-1287-5p. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were applied to validate this. Western blot was used to analyze the protein changes of Snai1, Vimentin, E-cadherin and HMGB1. RESULTS: miR-1287-5p was downregulated in the chronic rhinosinusitis group and decreased after LPS treatment in HNECs. The upregulation of miR-1287-5p inhibited IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and EMT. miR-1287-5p targeted and inhibited SNAI1 and HMGB1. SNAI1 downregulation led to inhibition in EMT while loss of HMGB1 contributed to the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of SNAI1 decreased HMGB1, resulting in the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines while HMGB1 inhibitor reduced SNAI1 and thus suppressed the EMT process. CONCLUSION: miR-1287-5p downregulation was associated with chronic rhinosinusitis and its upregulation inhibited the EMT and inflammation in LPS-induced HNECs through Snai1/HMGB1 pathway.

14.
Lancet ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have a high risk of disease relapse, despite a high proportion of patients attaining complete clinical remission after receiving standard-of-care treatment (ie, definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy). Additional adjuvant therapies are needed to further reduce the risk of recurrence and death. However, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma remains controversial, highlighting the need for more effective adjuvant treatment options. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 14 hospitals in China. Patients (aged 18-65 years) with histologically confirmed, high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stage III-IVA, excluding T3-4N0 and T3N1 disease), no locoregional disease or distant metastasis after definitive chemoradiotherapy, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, sufficient haematological, renal, and hepatic function, and who had received their final radiotherapy dose 12-16 weeks before randomisation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral metronomic capecitabine (650 mg/m2 body surface area twice daily for 1 year; metronomic capecitabine group) or observation (standard therapy group). Randomisation was done with a computer-generated sequence (block size of four), stratified by trial centre and receipt of induction chemotherapy (yes or no). The primary endpoint was failure-free survival, defined as the time from randomisation to disease recurrence (distant metastasis or locoregional recurrence) or death due to any cause, in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of capecitabine or who had commenced observation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02958111. FINDINGS: Between Jan 25, 2017, and Oct 25, 2018, 675 patients were screened, of whom 406 were enrolled and randomly assigned to the metronomic capecitabine group (n=204) or to the standard therapy group (n=202). After a median follow-up of 38 months (IQR 33-42), there were 29 (14%) events of recurrence or death in the metronomic capecitabine group and 53 (26%) events of recurrence or death in the standard therapy group. Failure-free survival at 3 years was significantly higher in the metronomic capecitabine group (85·3% [95% CI 80·4-90·6]) than in the standard therapy group (75·7% [69·9-81·9]), with a stratified hazard ratio of 0·50 (95% CI 0·32-0·79; p=0·0023). Grade 3 adverse events were reported in 35 (17%) of 201 patients in the metronomic capecitabine group and in 11 (6%) of 200 patients in the standard therapy group; hand-foot syndrome was the most common adverse event related to capecitabine (18 [9%] patients had grade 3 hand-foot syndrome). One (<1%) patient in the metronomic capecitabine group had grade 4 neutropenia. No treatment-related deaths were reported in either group. INTERPRETATION: The addition of metronomic adjuvant capecitabine to chemoradiotherapy significantly improved failure-free survival in patients with high-risk locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a manageable safety profile. These results support a potential role for metronomic chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. FUNDING: The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province, the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, the Innovation Team Development Plan of the Ministry of Education, and the Overseas Expertise Introduction Project for Discipline Innovation. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

15.
J Virol ; : JVI0002021, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076481

RESUMO

The host range of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is narrow. Therefore, using ordinary animal models to study HIV-1 replication, pathogenesis, and therapy is impractical. The lack of applicable animal models for HIV-1 research spurred our investigation on whether tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which are susceptible to many types of human viruses, can act as an animal model for HIV-1. Here, we report that tree shrew primary cells are refractory to wild-type HIV-1 but support the early replication steps of HIV-1 pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G), which can bypass entry receptors. The exogenous expression of human CD4 renders the tree shrew cell line infectable to X4-tropic HIV-1IIIB, suggesting that tree shrew CXCR4 is a functional HIV-1 co-receptor. However, tree shrew cells did not produce infectious HIV-1 progeny virions, even with the human CD4 receptor. Subsequently, we identified tree shrew (ts) apolipoprotein B editing catalytic polypeptide 3 (tsAPOBEC3) proteins as active inhibitors of HIV-1 particle infectivity, with virus infectivity reduced 10-1 000-fold. Unlike human APOBEC3G, the tsA3Z2c-Z1b protein was not degraded by the HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif), but markedly restricted HIV-1 replication through mutagenicity and reverse transcription inhibition. The pooled knockout of tsA3Z2c-Z1b partially restored the infectivity of the HIV-1 progeny. This work suggests that tsAPOBEC3 proteins serve as an additional barrier to the development of HIV-1 tree shrew models, even when virus entry is overcome by exogenous expression of human CD4. IMPORTANCE The development of animal models is critical for studying human diseases and their pathogenesis and for evaluating drug and vaccine efficacy. For improved AIDS research, the ideal animal model of HIV-1 infection should be a small laboratory mammal that closely mimics virus replication in humans. Tree shrews exhibit considerable potential as animal models for the study of human diseases and therapeutic responses. Here, we report that human-CD4-expressing tree shrew cells support the early steps of HIV-1 replication and that tree shrew CXCR4 is a functional co-receptor of HIV-1. However, tree shrew cells harbor additional restrictions that lead to the production of HIV-1 virions with low infectivity. Thus, the tsAPOBEC3 proteins are partial barriers to developing tree shrews as an HIV-1 model. Our results provide insight into the genetic basis of HIV inhibition in tree shrews and build a foundation for the establishment of gene-edited tree shrew HIV-1-infected models.

16.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 254(2): 63-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078755

RESUMO

The lowered sensitivity to irradiation considerably impacted on the prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatments. This study aimed to explore the functions of miR-4270 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis was performed online accessing GSE139164 dataset to screen the top 30 differential microRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radio-sensitivity. Cancer cell lines, 6-10B and 5-8F, were cultured and measured for expression of miR-4270 and TP53 (the gene of the tumor suppressor protein p53) with the normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells as a control. The miR-4270 expression was regulated in cells via the introduction of miR-4270 inhibitor or mimic in different concentrations (25, 50, 100 nmol/L). Targetscan predicted the target of miR-4270 and the bindings while luciferase was used to confirm this. CCK8 methods were used to evaluate the irradiation sensitivity of the cells after exposure to increasing X-Ray irradiation. RT-PCR detected the RNA expression and Western blot examined the protein expression of p53. Flow cytometry detected the cell apoptosis rates respectively. miR-4270 is among the top differential microRNAs between the radio-sensitive and -resistant patients. In vivo, miR-4270 expression was lower in cancer cell lines. The inhibition of miR-4270 raised the cell sensitivity to irradiation. miR-4270 negatively mediated TP53 and targeted TP53. Additionally, p53 increased cell sensitivity to irradiation and modulated by miR-4270 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. In conclusion, this study first reports that miR-4270 is lower in the radio-sensitive patients and modulated the irradiation-sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through modulation of p53 in vivo.

17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083231

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that a cumulative cisplatin dose of 200 mg/m2 might be adequate in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) era for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). However, two cycles of once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 has never been prospectively compared with standard once-a-week cisplatin regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This trial was conducted at three hospitals from 2011 to 2016. Patients who met the eligibility criteria were recruited (ChiCTR-TRC-12001979) and randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequence to receive once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 for two cycles or once-a-week cisplatin at 40 mg/m2 for six cycles concurrently with IMRT. Primary endpoint was failure-free survival and between-group absolute difference of 10% as the noninferiority margin. RESULTS: A total of 510 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 58.3 months with 85.4% of 3-year failure-free survival in the once-every-3-weeks group and 85.6% in the once-a-week group. An absolute difference of -0.2% (95% confidence interval, -6.3 to 5.9; P noninferiority = 0.0016). Acute toxicities of grade 3 or higher occurred in 55.8% in the once-every-3-weeks group and 66.3% in the once-a-week group (P = 0.015). The most common acute toxicities were hematologic abnormalities, including leukopenia (16% vs. 27%; P = 0.0022) and thrombocytopenia (1% vs. 5%; P = 0.015). The late grade 3-4 auditory loss rate was significantly lower in the once-every-3-weeks group than the once-a-week group (6% vs. 13%; P = 0.0039). CONCLUSIONS: Once-every-3-weeks cisplatin as concurrent chemoradiotherapy is noninferior to once-a-week cisplatin in the treatment efficacy in the LANPC. Although both regimens are well tolerated, severe acute toxicities and late-onset auditory loss are higher in the once-a-week group.

18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112619, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153856

RESUMO

The effects of herbicide diuron on photosynthesis and vertical migration of intertidal microphytobenthos (MPB) assemblages were investigated using chlorophyll fluorometry. The results shown diuron ≤ 60 µg L-1 had no obvious effect on MPB vertical migration during 24 h indicated by consistent rhythm. Low concentration of 10 µg L-1 diuron had no significant influence on MPB photosynthesis throughout, however, high concentrations of 40, 50, and 60 µg L-1 had significant impacts exhibited by decreased parameters of maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), maximal PS II quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). For middle concentrations of 20 and 30 µg L-1, above decreased 3 parameters recovered sooner or later after 2 h or 16.5 h. Comparatively, rETRmax, Fv/Fm and NPQ are concentration dependent and more sensitive than other parameters in assessing diuron toxicity. This study revealed the potential of using MPB assemblages and chlorophyll fluorometry for rapid assessing diuron toxicity in coastal sediments.

19.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 85, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085145

RESUMO

The vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) represent an incidental finding on thoracic and abdominal dual-energy CT examinations (which use STND reconstruction kernel), which are associated with increased mortality. While the BONE reconstruction kernel shows a superior diagnostic accuracy to find fractures. This study showed STND and BONE reconstruction kernel both had excellent diagnostic performance to detect abnormal edema in acute VCFs. PURPOSE: To investigate whether different reconstruction kernels (STND V.S. BONE) affect the diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT virtual noncalcium technique (VNCa) for identifying acute and chronic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). METHODS: This retrospective study included 31 consecutive patients with 79 VCFs who underwent both a dual-energy CT and a 3-T MR examination of the spine between August 2018 and March 2019. MR images served as the reference standard. Two independent and blinded radiologists evaluated all vertebral bodies for the presence of abnormal edema on color-coded overlay VNCa images. Two additional radiologists performed a quantitative analysis on VNCa images by calculating water content of vertebral bodies. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. RESULTS: MR imaging depicted 44 edematous and 35 nonedematous VCFs. In visual analysis, the AUCSTND and AUCBONE were 0.932 and 0.943. In quantitative analysis, water content results were significantly different between vertebrae with and without bone marrow edema on MR (P < 0.001). And the AUCSTND and AUCBONE were 0.851 and 0.850 respectively. CONCLUSION: Visual and quantitative analysis of dual-energy CT VNCa technique had excellent diagnostic performance for identifying acute and chronic compression fractures; different reconstruction kernels did not matter.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Medula Óssea , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Curr Med Chem ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165400

RESUMO

There is a momentous surge in the development of stem cell technology as a therapeutic and diagnostic tools. Stem cell-derived cells are currently used in various clinical trials. However, key issues and challenges involve the low differentiation efficiency, integration, and functioning of transplanted stem cells-derived cells. Extraction of bone marrow, adipose, or other mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) involves invasive methods, specialized skills, and expensive technologies. Urine-derived cells, on the other hand, are obtained by non-invasive methods. Samples can be obtained repeatedly from patients of any age. Urine-derived cells are used to generate reprogrammed or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can be cultured, and differentiated into various types of cell lineages for biomedical investigations and drug testing in vitro or in vivo using model animals of human diseases. Urine cell-derived iPSCs (UiPSCs) have emerged as a major area of research and immense therapeutic significance. Given that preliminary preclinical studies are successful in terms of safety and as a regenerative tool, the UiPSCs will pave the way to develop and expedite various types of autologous stem cell therapies.

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