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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127261, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844370

RESUMO

Androgens androstadienedione (ADD) and androstenedione (AED) are predominant steroid hormones in surface water, and can disrupt the endocrine system in fish. However, little is known about the transgenerational effects of ADD and AED in fish. In the present study, F0 generation was exposed to ADD and AED from 21 to 144 days post-fertilization (dpf) at nominal concentrations of 5 (L), 50 (M) and 500 (H) ng L-1, and F1 generation was domesticated in clear water for 144 dpf. The sex ratio, histology and transcription in F0 and F1 generations were examined. In the F0 generation, ADD and AED tended to be estrogenic in zebrafish, resulting in female biased zebrafish populations. In the F1 generation, ADD at the H level caused 63.5% females, while AED at the H level resulted in 78.7% males. In brain, ADD and AED had similar effects on circadian rhythm in the F0 and F1 generations. In the F1 eleutheroembryos, transcriptomic analysis indicated that neuromast hair cell related biological processes (BPs) were overlapped in the ADD and AED groups. Taken together, ADD and AED at environmentally relevant concentrations had transgenerational effects on sex differentiation and transcription in zebrafish.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118483, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763017

RESUMO

As alternatives to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA) and hexafluoropropylene oxide trimer acid (HFPO-TA) have raised concerns of their potential health risks. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell was employed as an in vitro model to investigate the molecular targets and the adverse effects of HFPOs in stem cells in concentrations range starting at human relevant levels. Unsupervised transcriptomic analysis identified 1794 and 1429 DEGs affected by HFPO-TA and HFPO-DA, respectively. Cell cycle-associated biological processes were commonly altered by both chemicals. 18 and 35 KEGG pathways were enriched in HFPO-TA and HFPO-DA treatment group, respectively, among which multiple pathways were related to cancer and pluripotency. Few genes in PPAR signalling pathway were disturbed by HFPOs suggesting the involvement of PPAR-independent toxic mechanism. HFPO-TA promoted cell proliferation with significance at 1 µM mRNA levels of CDK and MYC were down-regulated by HFPOs, suggesting the negative feedback regulation to the abnormal cell proliferation. Decreased expression of CD44 protein, and ENG and THY1 mRNA levels demonstrated HFPOs-caused changes of hBMSCs phenotype. The osteogenic differentiation was also inhibited by HFPOs with reduced formation of calcium deposition. Furthermore, gene and protein expression of core pluripotency regulators NANOG was enhanced by HFPO-TA. The present study provides human relevant mechanistic evidence for health risk assessment of HFPOs, prioritizing comprehensive carcinogenicity assessment of this type of PFOA alternatives.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Óxidos , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Osteogênese , Transcriptoma
3.
Oncol Lett ; 23(1): 7, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820006

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is triggered by breakpoint cluster region-abelson leukemia virus (BCR/ABL) kinase. Targeting BCR/ABL kinase with tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with chemotherapy is the standard first-line therapy for Ph+ ALL. Imatinib and dasatinib are the preferred agents for the treatment of Ph+ ALL. Dasatinib treatment can induce a faster and deeper remission than imatinib treatment; however, the side effects of dasatinib, especially the cardiovascular side effects, are markedly greater than those of imatinib. Patients will benefit from treatments that improve the efficacy of imatinib without increasing its side effects. The present study revealed that tanshinone IIA markedly potentiated the cytotoxic and apoptotic induction effects of imatinib by regulating the AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling pathway and inhibiting the anti-apoptotic proteins BCL2 and MCL1 apoptosis regulator, BCL2 family member in Ph+ ALL cell lines. In vitro studies, MTT assay, flow cytometry, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR were performed in the present study to detect cell viability, cell apoptosis, protein expression and gene expression, respectively. In a Ph+ ALL mouse model, imatinib combined with tanshinone IIA also exhibited a synergistic effect on the reduction in leukemia burden without increasing the toxic side effects of imatinib. These results demonstrated that imatinib combined with tanshinone IIA might be a promising treatment strategy for patients with Ph+ ALL.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150460, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818796

RESUMO

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug and has been frequently detected in aquatic environments due to its incomplete removal by wastewater treatment facilities and slow degradation in waters. Its toxicity in fish remains largely unknown. In this study, zebrafish eggs <4 h post fertilization (hpf) were exposed to CP at the concentrations from 0.5 to 50.0 µg/L until 168 hpf, and its toxicity was evaluated by biochemical, transcriptomic, and behavioral approaches. The results showed that malformation and mortality rates increased with CP concentrations. The 7-day malformation EC50 and mortality (LC30) by CP were calculated to be 86.8 µg/L and 7.5 mg/L, respectively. Inhibited startle response (light to dark) (a minimal of 19%) and reduced swimming velocity (a minimal of 30%) were observed in the CP-exposed larvae. The thicknesses of retinal ganglion layer, inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer in the retina were increased after exposure to CP. Meanwhile, exposure to CP increased karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the liver tissue. Transcriptomic analysis identified 607 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (159 up-regulated and 448 down-regulated). A significant reduction in the transcripts of sgk1 (the FoxO pathway), jun (the MAPK pathway), and diabloa (apoptosis pathway) were observed in the CP-treated larvae. This study has demonstrated that low concentrations of CP cause malformation, reduced swimming capacity, histopathological alterations in the retina and liver tissues, and interference on transcriptional expressions of key genes associated with different pathways. The ecological risk of CP and other anticancer drugs to aquatic organisms merits future investigation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero , Larva , Locomoção , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861275

RESUMO

A novel chemical functionalization of guar gum (GG) by benzoic acid (BA) via nucleophilic substitution reaction in aqueous solution has been reported. BA moieties are chosen due to coordination chemistry of carboxylic acid moieties, hydrophobicity and intermolecular interaction of aromatic rings. The presence of conjugated BA on guar gum-benzoic acid (GG-BA) with grafting density of 5.5% is confirmed by 1H NMR. Amorphous GG-BA with irregular morphology has been studied by UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, computational chemistry and contact angle measurement. GG-BA in a concentration range from 0 to 4000 µg mL-1 has good biocompatibility to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) after 48 and 72 h of treatment using WST-1 assay. GG-BA shows great potential for the development of biomaterials such as bioadhesives, hydrogels, and coacervates.

6.
Water Res ; 209: 117892, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861434

RESUMO

In recent years, the ecological risks of plastics to marine environments and organisms have attracted increasing attention, especially the leachates from plastics. However, a comprehensive knowledge about the leaching characteristics and subsequent toxicological effects of leachates is still sparse. In this study, 15 different plastic products were immersed in simulated seawater and fish digest for 16 h. The leachates were analyzed through non-target and target analyses and their toxicological signatures were assessed by bioassays. In total, 240 additives were identified from the plastic leachates, among which plasticizers represented the most (16.7%), followed by antioxidants (8.7%) and flame retardants (7.1%). Approximately 40% of plastic leachates exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the bioluminescence using a recombinant luminescent assay. In addition, both the hyperactive and hypoactive behaviors were displayed in the larvae of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to some plastic leachates. In general, the number and amount of identified compounds under simulated fish digest were less than those under simulated seawater. However, the simulated fish digest leachates triggered higher toxicity. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that identified additives did not adequately explain the toxicological effects. Future research should focus on the identification of more additives in the plastic leachates and their potential ecological risks.

7.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(44): e0091321, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734763

RESUMO

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Geobacter sp. strains, AOG1 and AOG2, isolated from enrichment cultures using crystalline Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptors. Strains AOG1 and AOG2 possess numerous genes encoding multiheme c-type cytochromes and pilA-N genes encoding the pilin monomer of nanowires in their genomes.

8.
Appl Opt ; 60(30): 9390-9395, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807077

RESUMO

Fiber optical power splitters (OPSs) have been widely employed in optical communications, optical sensors, optical measurements, and optical fiber lasers. It has been found that OPSs with variable power ratios can simplify the structure and increase the flexibility of optical systems. In this study, a variable-fiber OPS based on a triangular prism is proposed and demonstrated. By adjusting the output beam width of the prism, the power ratio can be continuously tuned. The optical simulations show that the horizontal displacement design is better than the traditional tilt angle design. Our scheme combines a dual-fiber collimator, a focus lens, and a triangular prism with a vertex angle of 120°. By changing the axial displacement of the prism, the power splitting ratio can be altered from 50:50 to 90:10. The polarization and wavelength dependence of the variable OPS were also investigated.

9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 430, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common and lethal carcinoma; however, the effectiveness and feasibility of the chemo- and radio-therapy (CRT) for the elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with surgery have not been fully discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of CRT on the prognosis. METHODS: A total of 1085 patients (534 CRT patients vs. 551 non-CRT patients) from 1998 to 2016 were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using the competing risk regression and survival analysis, an overall estimation of the effectiveness of CRT was performed on a well-balanced cohort via performing propensity score matching. Then, the specific impact of CRT on high- (n = 557) and low-risk (n = 528) cohorts derived from the nomogram's risk quantification for every patient were further evaluated respectively. Additionally, the advantages of the nomogram model and the conventional tumor, node, metastasis (TNM, 6th revision) staging system were compared. RESULTS: A better survival outcome was observed among patients receiving both surgery and CRT than those who underwent surgery alone (HR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.45-0.68, P < 0.001), especially for those with tumors characterized by poor differentiation, large tumor size, advanced T staging, lymphatic metastasis, and distant metastasis (HR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.39-0.59, P < 0.001), while no benefit was observed among the low-risk patients. Furthermore, the newly established nomogram model might be better than the TNM (6th revision) staging system but more data needed. CONCLUSION: Aggressive treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, were considered effective for selected elderly patients with EC according to the newly established nomogram model.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Idoso , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER
10.
Mater Horiz ; 8(7): 2065-2078, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846484

RESUMO

Soft robots provide compliant object-machine interactions, but they exhibit insufficient material stability, which restricts them from working in harsh environments. Herein, we developed a class of soft robotic skins based on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) and gelatin hydrogels, featuring skin-like multifunctionality (stretchability, thermoregulation, threat protection, and strain sensing). The 2DM-integrated hydrogel (2DM/H) skins enabled soft robots to execute designated missions in the presence of high levels of heat and various environmental threats while maintaining mild machine temperatures. Via adopting different 2DMs (graphene oxide (GO), montmorillonite (MMT), and titanium carbide (MXene)), the 2DM/H-protected robots were able to perform soft grasping in organic liquids (GO/H) and open fire (MMT/H), and in the presence of electromagnetic radiation and biocontamination (MXene/H). Through blending MXene nanosheets into gelatin, the MXene-blended hydrogel (M-H) skin became strain sensitive, and a GO/M-H gripper exhibited the high-level integration of skin-mimicking capabilities. Finally, we incorporated 2DM/H skins onto an origami-inspired walker robot and a soft batoid-like robot to execute vision-guided searching in fire and underwater locomotion/navigation in chemical spills.

11.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(12): 433, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825998

RESUMO

By introducing functional groups such as quaternary amine groups, sulfonic acid groups, triazine groups, and other mespore nanomaterials into the hydrogel, better separation effect of some organic framework materials has been obtained. Due to a reasonable design and preparation strategy, the hydrogel composite-modified silica can be used in the selective separation of various analytes such as pesticides, alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nucleosides/bases, benzoic acids, antibiotics, and carbohydrates. Through the exploration of chromatographic retention behavior, it is proved that the column can be used in mixed-mode liquid chromatography. The intra-day relative standard deviation for retention time of this new stationary phase is 0.12-0.16% (n = 10), and the inter-day relative standard deviation is less than 0.39% (n = 5). This new stationary phase can also be used for separation in complex samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for chlorotoluron in farm irrigation water is 0.21 µg/L and the linear range is 2-250 µg/L. After optimizing the chromatographic conditions, the highest efficiency of the hydrogel column in RPLC and HILIC modes has reached 32,400 plates/m (chlorobenzuron) and 41,300 plates/m (galactose). This new type of hydrogel composite is a porous network material with flexible functional design and simple preparation method and its application has been expanded in liquid chromatography separation successfully. The hydrogel composed of triallyl cyanate cross-linking agent and 3-(2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl) dimethylamine) propane-1-sulfonate (SBMA) monomer which were co-modified on the surface of mesoporous silica with MOF-919 for separation in mixed-mode liquid chromatography.

12.
Anal Chem ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817981

RESUMO

We reporte the double-layer hydrogel-coated mesoporous silica material as a new stationary phase for liquid chromatography. The method of combining physical coating and chemical coating was to apply hydrogel coating on the surface of silica, and finally, a new type of liquid chromatography stationary phase with in situ coating of the functional hydrogel on silica was obtained. This hydrogel-functionalized liquid chromatography stationary phase also exhibits a certain temperature responsiveness. Experimental results show that this temperature response is mainly due to changes in the hydrogen bonding between the stationary phase and the analyte at different temperatures in the column oven, which leads to changes in retention behavior. The hydrogel-coated mesoporous silica microspheres showed excellent selectivity for many polar analytes. An excellent column efficiency was obtained (139 000 plates/m for terephthalic acid) after optimization of chromatographic conditions. In addition to rapid separation of some analytes, this new hydrogel stationary phase also has certain superiority in chromatographic performance compared with other new excellent liquid chromatography stationary phases functioned by three-dimensional cross-linking systems. The important thing is that this strategy is relatively easy to prepare a new stationary phase with different properties.

14.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 18(10): 825-835, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34754294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains high. The study aims to explore this poorly understood subject of mechanisms and predictors for HAVB in BAV self-expandable TAVI patients. METHODS: We retrospectively included 181 BAV patients for analysis. Using computed tomography data, the curvature of ascending aorta (AAo) was quantified by the angle (AAo angle) between annulus and the cross-section at 35 mm above annulus (where the stent interacts with AAo the most). The valvular anatomy and leaflet calcification were also characterized. RESULTS: The 30-day HAVB rate was 16.0% (median time to HAVB was three days). Type-1 morphology was found in 79 patients (43.6%) (left- and right-coronary cusps fusion comprised 79.7%). Besides implantation below membrane septum, large AAo angle [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.016] and type-1 morphology (OR = 4.97, P = 0.001) were found as the independent predictors for HAVB. Together with baseline right bundle branch block, these predictors showed strong predictability for HAVB with area under the cure of 0.84 (sensitivity = 62.1%, specificity = 92.8%). Bent AAo and calcified raphe had a synergistic effect in facilitating high implantation, though the former is associated with at-risk deployment (device implanted above annulus + prothesis pop-out, versus straight AAo: 9.9% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: AAo curvature and type-1 morphology are novel predictors for HAVB in BAV patients following self-expandable TAVI. For patients with bent AAo or calcified raphe, a progressive approach to implant the device above the lower edge of membrane septum is favored, though should be done cautiously to avoid pop-out.

15.
Child Neurol Open ; 8: 2329048X211055335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820471

RESUMO

Perampanel is a novel antiepileptic drug, which antagonises AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) glutamate receptor. We describe perampanel as an adjunctive treatment for FIRES (febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome) and other drug-resistant epilepsies. A single-centre, observational, retrospective study involving 20 pediatric patients was conducted. Perampanel was started for three patients with FIRES, achieving seizure cessation in two patients within a day and on days 19 and 32 of illness. Doses used ranged from 4 to 12 mg/day, without any adverse effects reported or discontinuation of therapy. Responder-rate for other drug-resistant epilepsies is 25%. Median time to achieve ≥50% seizure reduction was 80 days (range: 26-326 days). Adverse effect reported in 47% of the patients includes central nervous system-related, and thrombocytopenia. Eight patients discontinued perampanel, because of ineffectiveness or adverse effects. The median time on perampanel before discontinuation was 179 days (range: 94-345 days). Perampanel may be of benefit in pediatrics FIRES and is of utility in other drug-resistant epilepsies.

16.
View (Beijing) ; : 20200082, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766158

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a public health crisis and global panic. This infectious disease is caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR), which is an emerging nucleic acid amplification technology that allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids, plays an important role in the detection of SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we introduce the principle and advantages of dPCR, and review the applications of dPCR in the COVID-19 pandemic, including detection of low copy number viruses, measurement of the viral load, preparation of reference materials, monitoring of virus concentration in the environment, detection of viral mutations, and evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. We also discuss the challenges of dPCR in clinical practice.

17.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832120

RESUMO

Although conventional fluorescence intensity imaging can be used to qualitatively study the drug toxicity of nanodrug carrier systems at the single-cell level, it has limitations for studying nanodrug transport across membranes. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) can provide quantitative information on nanodrug concentration and diffusion in a small area of the cell membrane; thus, it is an ideal tool for studying drug transport across the membrane. In this paper, the FCS method was used to measure the diffusion coefficients and concentrations of carbon dots (CDs), doxorubicin (DOX) and CDs-DOX composites in living cells (COS7 and U2OS) for the first time. The drug concentration and diffusion coefficient in living cells determined by FCS measurements indicated that the CDs-DOX composite distinctively improved the transmembrane efficiency and rate of drug molecules, in accordance with the conclusions drawn from the fluorescence imaging results. Furthermore, the effects of pH values and ATP concentrations on drug transport across the membrane were also studied. Compared with free DOX under acidic conditions, the CDs-DOX complex has higher cellular uptake and better transmembrane efficacy in U2OS cells. Additionally, high concentrations of ATP will cause negative changes in cell membrane permeability, which will hinder the transmembrane transport of CDs and DOX and delay the rapid diffusion of CDs-DOX. The results of this study show that the FCS method can be utilized as a powerful tool for studying the expansion and transport of nanodrugs in living cells, and might provide a new drug exploitation strategy for cancer treatment in vivo.

18.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773675

RESUMO

Medium cut-off (MCO) dialyzers were designed to provide better clearance of uremic toxins. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing MCO with high-flux (HF) dialyzers for the effect on uremic toxins in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. Five databases were systematically searched for relevant studies and nine studies were identified finally. Reduction ratio (RR) of urea, urea, creatinine, ß2-macroglobulin (ß2-MG), kappa free light chain (κFLC), and lambda FLC (λFLC) levels were not significantly different between MCO and HF dialyzers. But RR of ß2-MG, κFLC, and λFLC were greater for MCO than HF dialyzers. MCO dialyzers could better reduce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels. Subgroup analysis stratified by study design indicated that in randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies, albumin levels was lower in MCO than HF dialyzers group, but the two dialyzers treatments were equivalent in non-RCT subgroup. Compared with HF dialyzers, MCO dialyzers provided higher middle-molecules uremic toxins clearance and obviously reduced TNF-α levels.

19.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101558, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844112

RESUMO

Sperm motility is a crucial trait in chicken production, and the epididymis is an essential organ in the reproductive system. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying sperm motility in the epididymis are unclear. In this study, 8 cDNA libraries and eight miRNA libraries were constructed from roosters (4 chickens per group) with diverse sperm motility. After a comparative analysis of epididymal transcriptomes, we detected 84 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the edgeR package. Integrated interpretation of DEGs indicated that MMP9, SLN, WT1, PLIN1, and LRRIQ1 are the most promising candidate genes affecting sperm motility in the epididymis of roosters. MiR-146a, mir-135b, and mir-205 could play important regulatory roles in sperm maturation, capacitation, and motility. Additionally, a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA and miRNAs transcriptomes in silico identified a promising gene-miRNA pair miR-135b-HPS5, which may be a vital regulator of sperm motility in the epididymis. Our findings provide novel integrated information of miRNAs and genes that shed light on the regulatory mechanisms of fertility in roosters.

20.
Chem Biodivers ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767292

RESUMO

Many phytopathogenic fungi can easily infect crops, resulting in crop yield reductions. In continuation of our effort to develop natural product (NP)-based antifungal agents, a series of N -phenylpyrazole sarisan hybrids 6a - v were prepared via I 2 -mediated oxidative cyclization, and their structures were determined by various spectral analyses including IR, 1 H NMR and ESI-MS. Among all N- phenylpyrazole sarisan hybrids, compounds 6a , 6b , 6e , 6i , 6j and 6r showed more potent antifungal activity against at lest two phytopathogenic fungi than the commercial fungicide hymexazol. In particular, compound 6a exhibited more broad-spectrum and promising antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi ( V. mali , F. oxysporum f.sp.niveum , and F. graminearum ) with the EC 50 values of 18.5, 37.4 and 12.6 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were also observed. Additionally, compounds 6a and 6e also exhibited relative low toxicity on normal LO2 cells. This work indicates that these N -phenylpyrazole sarisan hybrids would shed light on developing novel NP-based antifungal agents.

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