*Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Nov 30.*

##### RESUMO

Microwave Staring Correlated Imaging (MSCI) is a newly proposed computational high-resolution imaging technique. The imaging performance of MSCI with the existence of modeling errors depends on the properties of the imaging matrix and the relative perturbation error resulted from existing errors. In conventional transient-radiation-fields-based MSCI, which is commonly accomplished by utilizing random frequency-hopping (FH) waveforms, the multiple transmitters should be controlled individually and simultaneously. System complexity and control difficulty are hence increased, and various types of modeling errors are introduced as well. The computation accuracy of radiation fields is heavily worsened by the modeling errors, and the transient effect makes it hard to take direct and high-precision measurements of the radiation fields and calibrate the modeling errors with the measuring result. To simplify the system complexity and reduce error sources, in this paper, steady-radiation-fields-sequence-based MSCI (SRFS-MSCI) method is proposed. The multiple transmitters are excited with coherent signals at the same observation moment, with the signal frequency varying in the whole frequency band during the imaging process. By elaborately designing the array configuration and the amplitude and phase sequences of the coherent transmitters, the SRFS-MSCI is thus implemented. Comparing the system architecture of the proposed SRFS-MSCI with the conventional random FH-based MSCI, it can be found that the proposed method significantly reduces the number of baseband modules and simplifies the system architecture and control logic, which contributes to reducing error sources such as baseband synchronization errors and decreasing deterioration caused by error cascade. To further optimize the design parameters in the proposed SRFS-MSCI system, the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm is utilized to optimize the amplitude sequences, the phase sequences, and the antenna positions individually and jointly. Numerical imaging experiments and real-world imaging experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SRFS-MSCI method that recognizable high-resolution recovery results are obtained with simplified system structure and optimized system parameters.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 19(23)2019 Nov 29.*

##### RESUMO

In two dimensional cross-range multiple-input multiple-output radar imaging for aerial targets, due to the non-cooperative movement of the targets, the estimated imaging plane parameters, namely the center and the posture angles of the imaging plane, may have deviations from true values, which defocus the final image. This problem is called imaging plane mismatch in this paper. Focusing on this problem, firstly the deviations of spatial spectrum fulfilling region caused by imaging plane mismatch is analyzed, as well as the errors of the corresponding spatial spectral values. Thereupon, the calibration operation is deduced when the imaging plane parameters are accurately obtained. Afterwards, an imaging plane calibration algorithm is proposed to utilize particle swarm optimization to search out the imaging plane parameters. Finally, it is demonstrated through simulations that the proposed algorithm can accurately estimate the imaging plane parameters and achieve good image focusing performance.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 24.*

##### RESUMO

Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI), with the technical capability of high- resolution imaging on relatively stationary targets, is a promising approach for remote sensing. For the purpose of continuous observation of a fixed key area, a tethered floating aerostat is often used as the carrying platform for MSCI radar system; however, its non-cooperative random motion of the platform caused by winds and its unbalance will result in blurred imaging, and even in imaging failure. This paper presents a method that takes into account the instabilities of the platform, combined with an adaptive variable suspension (AVS) and a position and orientation system (POS), which can automatically control the antenna beam orientation to the target area and measure dynamically the position and attitude of the stochastic radiation radar array, respectively. By analyzing the motion feature of aerostat platform, the motion model of the radar array is established, then its real-time position vector and attitude angles of each antenna can be represented; meanwhile the selection matrix of beam coverage is introduced to indicate the dynamic illumination of the radar antenna beam in the overall imaging area. Due to the low-speed discrete POS data, a curve-fitting algorithm can be used to estimate its accurate position vector and attitude of each antenna at each high-speed sampling time during the imaging period. Finally, the MSCI model based on the unsteady aerostat platform is set up. In the simulations, the proposed scheme is validated such that under the influence of different unstable platform movements, a better imaging performance can be achieved compared with the conventional MSCI method.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 19(5)2019 Mar 03.*

##### RESUMO

Microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) can realize super resolution imaging without the limit of relative motion with the target. However, gainâ»phase errors generally exist in the multi-transmitter array, which results in imaging model mismatch and degrades the imaging performance considerably. In order to solve the problem of MSCI with gainâ»phase error in a large scene, a method of MSCI with strip-mode self-calibration of gainâ»phase errors is proposed. The method divides the whole imaging scene into multiple imaging strips, then the strip target scattering coefficient and the gainâ»phase errors are combined into a multi-parameter optimization problem that can be solved by alternate iteration, and the error estimation results of the previous strip can be carried into the next strip as the initial value. All strips are processed in multiple rounds, and the gainâ»phase error estimation results of the last strip can be taken as the initial value and substituted into the first strip for the correlated processing of the next round. Finally, the whole imaging in a large scene can be achieved by multi-strip image splicing. Numerical simulations validate its potential advantages to shorten the imaging time dramatically and improve the imaging and gainâ»phase error estimation performance.

*Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 20.*

##### RESUMO

The stochastic characteristic of the radiation field of a mono-static microwave staring correlated imaging (MSCI) radar degenerates with the increase of the imaging distance, which results in degradation of the image quality. To address this issue, a novel MSCI method based on bi-static radar is proposed from two perspectives: site-deploying and waveform design. On the one hand, a new bi-static MSCI site-deploying scheme is proposed which adopts two transmitting stations with their azimuth angles relative to the center of the imaging region differing by 90 degrees. On the other hand, by using two transmitting arrays synchronously transmitting inner-and-inter pulse frequency hopping (IAIP-FH) signals, the radiation field of each station includes a few "frequency stripes" perpendicular to the radiation direction, and as a consequence, the "frequency stripes" of each radiation field are perpendicular to each other. As a result, the radiation field of the bi-static MSCI is the superposition of the two striped radiation fields, thus a latticed radiation field is constructed. Therefore, the targets in different latticed grids scatter independent fields, then, the images can be reconstructed using correlation process (CP) algorithms. The grid size of the latticed radiation field is determined by the inner-pulse frequency hopping (FH) interval of the IAIP-FH signals and the imaging geometry. Moreover, it is shown that the 3 dB beam width of the space correlation function of the radiation field does not change with the imaging distance, thus the stochastic characteristic of the radiation field is partly preserved when the imaging distance increases. Simulation results validate the analysis and show that the proposed method can obtain higher resolution images than the common mono-static MSCI method.