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1.
BMJ ; 368: m108, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess short term mortality risks and excess mortality associated with exposure to ozone in several cities worldwide. DESIGN: Two stage time series analysis. SETTING: 406 cities in 20 countries, with overlapping periods between 1985 and 2015, collected from the database of Multi-City Multi-Country Collaborative Research Network. POPULATION: Deaths for all causes or for external causes only registered in each city within the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily total mortality (all or non-external causes only). RESULTS: A total of 45 165 171 deaths were analysed in the 406 cities. On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone during the current and previous day was associated with an overall relative risk of mortality of 1.0018 (95% confidence interval 1.0012 to 1.0024). Some heterogeneity was found across countries, with estimates ranging from greater than 1.0020 in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Estonia, and Canada to less than 1.0008 in Mexico and Spain. Short term excess mortality in association with exposure to ozone higher than maximum background levels (70 µg/m3) was 0.26% (95% confidence interval 0.24% to 0.28%), corresponding to 8203 annual excess deaths (95% confidence interval 3525 to 12 840) across the 406 cities studied. The excess remained at 0.20% (0.18% to 0.22%) when restricting to days above the WHO guideline (100 µg/m3), corresponding to 6262 annual excess deaths (1413 to 11 065). Above more lenient thresholds for air quality standards in Europe, America, and China, excess mortality was 0.14%, 0.09%, and 0.05%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that ozone related mortality could be potentially reduced under stricter air quality standards. These findings have relevance for the implementation of efficient clean air interventions and mitigation strategies designed within national and international climate policies.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 260: 114077, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041030

RESUMO

Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and obesity remains inconclusive, and the evidence from rural areas was limited. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between ambient air pollution and obesity based on different anthropometric indices in Chinese rural adults, and further to compare the effect sizes of different air pollution types. A total of 38,824 participants (aged 18-79 years) were recruited from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Logistic and multivariable linear regression model were used to examine the association between ambient air pollution exposure (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and obesity as well as obese anthropometric indices (including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP), and visceral fat index (VFI)). The potential effect modifications were also examined. Positive associations were found between long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 and obesity regardless of how obesity was defined (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05). Moreover, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, BFP, and VFI displayed increased trends with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 concentrations increasing (all FDR<0.05). PM10 had the largest effects on obesity among the four types of air pollution. The elderly, women, individuals with low level of education and income, and those who had high fat diet were more vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. In addition, the results of the sensitivity analysis showed that those associations between ambient air pollution and obesity remained robust. These findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant (particularly PM10) may be positively associated with obesity in Chinese rural adults, especially among the elderly, women, individuals with low education and income, as well as unhealthy lifestyles.

3.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126103, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with many adverse consequences, including cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Although exposure to air pollution has been suggested in connection with excessive daytime sleepiness, evidence in China is scarce. The study aimed to explore the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and excessive daytime sleepiness in rural China. METHODS: A lot of 27935 participants (60% females) from the Henan Rural Cohort Study were included in this analysis. A satellite-based spatiotemporal model estimated a 3-year average air pollution exposure to NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters not more than 1 µm) and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters not more than 2.5 µm) at the home address of participants before the baseline survey. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval between long-term air pollution and excessive daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: The average concentrations of NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 during three years preceding baseline survey were 38.22 µg/m³, 56.29 µg/m³ and 72.30 µg/m³. Exposure to NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were all associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. Each 1 µg/m³ increment of NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were related to a 20% (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.13-1.27), 10% (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05-1.16) and 17% (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.23) increase of the prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that long-term exposure to NO2, PM1 and PM2.5 were all associated with excessive daytime sleepiness. The impact of air pollution should be considered when treating individuals with excessive daytime sleepiness.

5.
Environ Int ; 136: 105459, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and physical activity are linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the joint effect of physical activity and ambient air pollution on MetS remains largely unknown in rural Chinese adult population. METHODS: In this study, 39 089 individuals were included from the Henan Rural Cohort study that recruited 39 259 individuals at the baseline. Participants' exposure to air pollutants (including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), or ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were evaluated by using a spatiotemporal model based on satellites data. Individuals were defined as MetS according to the recommendation of the Joint Interim Societies. Physical activity-metabolic equivalent (MET) was calculated based on the formula of MET coefficient of activity × duration (hour per time) × frequency (times per week). Generalized linear models were used to analyze the individual air pollutant or physical activity and their interaction on MetS. Interaction effects of individual air pollutant and physical activity on MetS were assessed by using Interaction plots which exhibited the estimated effect of physical activity on MetS as a function of individual air pollutant. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 30.8%. The adjusted odd ratio of MetS with a per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, NO2 or a 10 MET (hour/day) of physical activity increment was 1.251(1.199, 1.306), 1.424(1.360, 1.491), 1.228(1.203, 1.254), 1.408(1.363, 1.455) or 0.814(0.796, 0.833). The protective effect of physical activity on MetS was decreased with accompanying air pollutant concentrations increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants related to increased risk of MetS and physical activity attenuated the effects of ambient air pollutants on increased risk for MetS.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 58, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid composition contributes greatly to the quality and nutritional value of meat. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying fatty acid accumulation in poultry have not yet been cleared. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of fatty acid accumulation in duck breast muscle and investigate its correlations with gene expression. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the fatty acid profile and transcriptome of breast muscle derived from Pekin ducks and mallards at the ages of 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks. Twenty fatty acids were detected in duck breast muscle, with palmitic acid (C16:0, 16.6%~ 21.1%), stearic acid (C18:0, 9.8%~ 17.7%), oleic acid (C18:1n-9, 15.7%~ 33.8%), linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, 10.8%~ 18.9%) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, 11.7%~ 28.9%) as the major fatty acids. Our results showed that fatty acid composition was similar between the two breeds before 6 weeks, but the compositions diverged greatly after this point, mainly due to the stronger capacity for C16:0 and C18:1n-9 deposition in Pekin ducks. By comparing the multistage transcriptomes of Pekin ducks and mallards, we identified 2025 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Cluster analysis of these DEGs revealed that the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid degradation and the PPAR signaling pathway were upregulated in mallard at 8 weeks. Moreover, correlation analysis of the DEGs and fatty acid composition traits suggested that the DEGs involved in lipogenesis, lipolysis and fatty acid ß-oxidation may interact to influence the deposition of fatty acids in duck breast muscle. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the temporal progression of fatty acid accumulation and the dynamics of the transcriptome in breast muscle of Pekin ducks and mallards. Our results provide insights into the transcriptome regulation of fatty acid accumulation in duck breast muscle, and will facilitate improvements of fatty acid composition in duck breeding.

7.
Neurochem Int ; 133: 104615, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported contradictory results regarding the effects of ambient air pollution on Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the associations between long-term exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and PD among participants in the 45 and Up Study, which comprised adults older than 45 years living in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations and prevalence of PD using data from around 240,000 cohort members from the 45 and Up Study, NSW. Annual average concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were estimated at the participants' residential address using satellite-based land use regression models. Logistic regression was used to quantify the associations between these pollutants and ever physician-diagnosed PD, after adjusting for a range of individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among the 236,390 participants with complete data, 1,428 (0.6%) reported physician-diagnosed PD. Annual mean PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations for the cohort were 5.8 and 11.9 µg m-3, respectively, and were positively, but not statistically significantly associated with PD. The odds ratio for a 1 µg m-3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.04). The adjusted odds ratio for a 5 µg m-3 increase in NO2 was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.98-1.08). In subgroup analyses, larger associations for NO2 were observed among past smokers (OR 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.20) per 5 µg m-3 increase). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found limited evidence of associations between long-term exposure to NO2 or PM2.5 and PD. The associations observed among past smokers require further corroboration.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113638, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The proportion of asthma patients with mild to moderate exacerbations is far greater than the number who experience episodes that are severe enough to require emergency room visits or hospital admission. However the routinely collected data from hospitals is absent in the past. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between short-term exposures to air pollutants and hospital outpatient visits for asthma in China. METHODS: We obtained data for 143,057 asthma outpatient visits from the largest hospitals in 17 Chinese cities, between Jan 01 2013 and Dec 31 2015. We used daily concentrations of air pollutants measured by the China National Environmental Monitoring Centre. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design, and fitted conditional logistic regression models to determine the associations. RESULTS: Particulate matter ≤10µm in diameter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were associated with increased risks of hospital outpatient visits for asthma on the same day, while the effects were delayed for particulate matter ≤2.5µm in diameter (PM2.5) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). For the cumulative effect model at lag05 days, 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutants concentrations were correlated with hospital outpatient visits for asthma with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals 1.004 (1.000-1.008) for PM2.5, 1.005 (1.002-1.008) for PM10, 1.030 (1.021-1.040) for NO2, and 1.015 (1.008-1.021) for SO2. Almost one in nine (10.9%; 7.7, 13.9%) hospital outpatient visits for asthma were attributable to NO2. CONCLUSION: Short-term exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 were associated with hospital outpatient visits for asthma in China.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113423, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indonesia is facing serious air pollution. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the health risks of air pollution in Indonesia, particularly for adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient particles with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 482 adolescents aged 14-18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 2016. We finally included 469 (97.30%) participants who had no missing data for data analysis. We collected individual data on socio-demographics, behavioral habits, and health information through standardized questionnaires. Satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2016 were assigned based on participants' residential addresses. The association between PM2.5 and FPG was examined using a generalized linear regression model while FPG was modeled as a continuous variable. An ordered logistic regression model was used to assess the relationship between PM2.5 and FPG categories. RESULTS: Every 1 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.34 mg/dL [95 confidence interval (95% CI): 0.08 mg/dL, 0.59 mg/dL] increase in FPG levels. Comparing with the low FPG level (under 86 mg/dL), every 1 µg/m³ increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 10.20% (95% CI: 1.60%, 19.80%) increase in the odds of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (100-125 mg/dL). Stratified analyses indicated greater effects on participants with hypertension [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57] and those had higher physical activities (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.57). Adolescents' sex, obesity status and different cutoff points of FPG did not modify the association between the exposure to PM2.5 and FPG levels. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with increased FPG levels in Indonesian non-diabetic adolescents.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113403, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711721

RESUMO

Both air pollution and dyslipidemias contributed to large number of deaths and disability-adjusted life lost years. Long-term air pollution exposure was related to changed blood lipids and risk of dyslipidemias. This study was designed to evaluate relationships between air pollutants, blood lipids and prevalence of dyslipidemias in a Chinese rural population exposed to high-level air pollution based on baseline data of The Henan Rural Cohort study. An amount of 39,057 participants from rural areas in China were included. The 3-year average exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2) was estimated by a spatiotemporal model. Logistic and linear regression models were employed to explore relationships between air pollutants, blood lipids (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C) and prevalence of dyslipidemias. The three-year concentration of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was 72.8 ±â€¯2.3 µg/m3, 131.5 ±â€¯5.7 µg/m3and 39.1 ±â€¯3.1 µg/m3, respectively. Overall, increased air pollution exposure was related to increased TC and LDL-C, while decreased TG and HDL-C. Each 1-µg/m3 increment of PM2.5 was related to 0.10% (0.07%-0.19%) increase in TC, 0.63% (0.50%-0.77%) increase in LDL-C, 2.93% (2.70%-3.16%) decrease in TG, 0.49% (0.38%-0.60%) decrease in HDL-C; and 5.7% (95%CI: 3.7%-7.6%), 4.0% (95%CI: 2.1%-6.0%) and 3.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-5.1%) increase in odds for hypercholesterolemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, respectively. Stronger associations were found in male and older participants. Findings suggest that air pollutants were associated with changed blood lipid levels and higher risk of dyslipidemias among rural population. Male and elder people should pay more attention to personal safety protection.

13.
Hypertension ; 75(2): 347-355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838909

RESUMO

Evidence on the associations between airborne particulates of diameter ≤1 µm (PM1) and airborne particulates of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and childhood blood pressure (BP) is scarce. To help to address this literature gap, we conducted a study to explore the associations in Chinese children. Between 2012 and 2013, we recruited 9354 children, aged 5 to 17 years, from 62 schools in 7 northeastern Chinese cities. We measured their BP with a mercury sphygmomanometer. We used a spatiotemporal model to estimate daily ambient PM1 and PM2.5 exposures, which we assigned to participants' home addresses. Associations between particulate matter exposure and BP were evaluated with generalized linear mixed regression models. The findings indicated that exposure to each 10 mg/m3 greater PM1 was significantly associated with 2.56 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.47-3.65) higher systolic BP and 61% greater odds for hypertension (odds ratio=1.61 [95% CI, 1.18-2.18]). PM1 appears to play an important role in associations reported between PM2.5 exposure and BP, and we found that the ambient PM1/PM2.5 ratio (range, 0.80-0.96) was associated with BP and with hypertension. Age and body weight modified associations between air pollutants and BP (P<0.01), with stronger associations among younger (aged ≤11 years) and overweight/obese children. This study provides the first evidence that long-term exposure to PM1 is associated with hypertension in children, and that PM1 might be a leading contributor to the hypertensive effect of PM2.5. Researchers and policy makers should pay closer attention to the potential health impacts of PM1.

14.
Environ Int ; 135: 105388, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residing in greener areas has several health benefits, but no study to date has examined the effects of greenness on metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to assess associations between residential greenness and MetS prevalence in China, and to explore whether air pollution and physical activity mediated any observed associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study during 2009. We defined MetS according to standard guidelines for Chinese populations. Residential greenness was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), and the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF). We used generalized linear mixed models to assess the associations between greenness and MetS, and mediation analyses to explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations. RESULTS: Higher greenness levels were associated with lower odds of MetS [e.g., for every interquartile range increase of NDVI500-m, SAVI500-m, and VCF500-m, the adjusted odds ratio of MetS was 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.93), 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69-0.93), and 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00), respectively]. The direction and the magnitude of the associations persisted in several sensitivity analyses. Stratified analyses showed that age and household income modified the associations, with greater effect estimates observed in participants younger than 65 years old or those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone mediated 2.1-20.3% of the associations between greenness and MetS; no evidence of mediation was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a beneficial association for residential greenness and MetS in Chinese urban dwellers, especially for participants younger than 65 years old and those with higher household income. Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but not physical activity, may only partially mediate the association.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134397, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677469

RESUMO

Children are vulnerable to air pollution-induced lung function deficits, and the prevalence of obesity has been increasing in children. To evaluate the joint effects of long-term PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm) exposure and obesity on children's lung function, a cross-sectional sample of 6740 children (aged 7-14 years) was enrolled across seven northeastern Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013. Weight and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), were measured according to standardized protocols. Average PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure levels were estimated using a spatiotemporal model, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) exposure were estimated using data from municipal air monitoring stations. Two-level logistic regression and general linear models were used to analyze the joint effects of body mass index (BMI) and air pollutants. The results showed that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with lung function impairment and there were significant interactions with BMI. Associations were stronger among obese and overweight than normal weight participants (the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PM1 and lung function impairments in three increasing BMI categories were 1.50 (1.07-2.11) to 2.55 (1.59-4.07) for FVC < 85% predicted, 1.44 (1.03-2.01) to 2.51 (1.53-4.11) for FEV1 < 85% predicted, 1.34 (0.97-1.84) to 2.04 (1.24-3.35) for PEF < 75% predicted, and 1.34 (1.01-1.78) to 1.93 (1.26-2.95) for MMEF < 75% predicted). Consistent results were detected in linear regression models for PM1, PM2.5 and SO2 on FVC and FEV1 impairments (PInteraction < 0.05). These modification effects were stronger among females and older participants. These results can provide policy makers with more comprehensive information for to develop strategies for preventing air pollution induced children's lung function deficits among children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Sobrepeso , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Testes de Função Respiratória , Dióxido de Enxofre , Capacidade Vital
16.
Environ Int ; 134: 105299, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentrations are commonly observed during desert dust days in Iran, but there is still no evidence of their effects on human health. We aimed to evaluate the association between daily mortality and exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 during dust and non-dust days in Tehran and Ahvaz, two major Middle Eastern cities with different sources, intensity, and frequency of desert dust days. METHODS: We identified desert dust days based on exceeding a daily PM10 concentration threshold of 150 µg/m3 between 2014 and 2017, checking for low PM2.5/PM10 ratio typical of dust days. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to estimate the short-term effects of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on daily mortality during dust and non-dust days. Data was analyzed using conditional Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of PM and frequency of desert dust days were observed in Ahvaz rather than Tehran. In Ahvaz, the effect of PM10 at lag 0 was much higher during dust days, an increment of 10 µg/m3 was associated with 3.28% (95%CI = [2.42, 4.15]) increase of daily mortality, than non-dust days, 1.03% (95%CI = [-0.02, 2.08]), while in Tehran, was slightly higher during non-dust days, 0.72% (95%CI = [0.23, 1.23]), than in dust days, 0.49% (95%CI = [-0.22, 1.20]). No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 and daily mortality in Ahvaz, while in Teheran the effect of PM2.5 increased significantly during non-dust days at lag 2, 1.89% (95%CI = [0.83, 1.2.95] and lag 3, 1.88% (95%CI = [0.83, 1.2.95]). CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence that exposure to PM during Middle East dust days is an important risk factor to human health in arid regions and areas affected by desert dust events.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 135040, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726339

RESUMO

Living in greener places may protect against obesity, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent and mainly comes from developed nations. We aimed to investigate the association between greenness and obesity in Chinese adults and to assess air pollution and physical activity as mediators of the association. We recruited 24,845 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study in 2009. Central and peripheral obesity were defined by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), respectively, based on international obesity standards. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to quantify community greenness. Two-level logistic and generalized linear mixed regression models were used to evaluate the association between NDVI and obesity, and a conditional mediation analysis was used also performed. In the adjusted models, an interquartile range increase in NDVI500-m was significantly associated with lower odds of peripheral 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74-0.87) and central obesity 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.93). Higher NDVI values were also significantly associated with lower BMI. Age, gender, and household income significantly modified associations between greenness and obesity, with stronger associations among women, older participants, and participants with lower household incomes. Air pollution mediated 2.1-20.8% of the greenness-obesity associations, but no mediating effects were observed for physical activity. In summary, higher community greenness level was associated with lower odds of central and peripheral obesity, especially among women, older participants, and those with lower household incomes. These associations were partially mediated by air pollutants. Future well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Poluição do Ar , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Exercício , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/tendências
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811017

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In classical Hodgkin lymphoma, the malignant Reed-Sternberg cells express the cell surface marker CD30. Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that selectively delivers a potent cytotoxic agent, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), to CD30-positive cells. Although brentuximab vedotin elicits a high response rate (75%) in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, most patients who respond to brentuximab vedotin eventually develop resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We developed two brentuximab vedotin-resistant Hodgkin lymphoma cell line models using a pulsatile approach and observed that resistance to brentuximab vedotin is associated with an upregulation of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1). We then conducted a phase I trial combining brentuximab vedotin and cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. RESULTS: Here, we show that competitive inhibition of MDR1 restored sensitivity to brentuximab vedotin in our brentuximab vedotin-resistant cell lines by increasing intracellular MMAE levels, and potentiated brentuximab vedotin activity in brentuximab vedotin-resistant Hodgkin lymphoma tumors in a human xenograft mouse model. In our phase I trial, the combination of brentuximab vedotin and CsA was tolerable and produced an overall and complete response rate of 75% and 42% in a population of patients who were nearly all refractory to brentuximab vedotin. CONCLUSIONS: This study may provide a new therapeutic strategy to combat brentuximab vedotin resistance in Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first study reporting an effect of multidrug resistance modulation on the therapeutic activity of an ADC in humans. The expansion phase of the trial is ongoing and enrolling patients who are refractory to brentuximab vedotin to confirm clinical activity in this population with unmet need.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113840, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884209

RESUMO

The knowledge about the effects of environmental temperature on human epigenome is a potential key to understand the health impacts of temperature and to guide acclimation under climate change. We performed a systematic review on the epidemiological studies that have evaluated the association between environmental temperature and human epigenetic modifications. We identified seven original articles on this topic published between 2009 and 2019, including six cohort studies and one cross-sectional study. They focused on DNA methylation in elderly people (blood sample) or infants (placenta sample), with sample size ranging from 306 to 1798. These studies were conducted in relatively low temperature setting (median/mean temperature: 0.8-13 °C), and linear models were used to evaluate temperature-DNA methylation association over short period (≤28 days). It has been reported that short-term ambient temperature could affect global human DNA methylation. A total of 15 candidate genes (ICAM-1, CRAT, F3, TLR-2, iNOS, ZKSCAN4, ZNF227, ZNF595, ZNF597, ZNF668, CACNA1H, AIRE, MYEOV2, NKX1-2 and CCDC15) with methylation status associated with ambient temperature have been identified. DNA methylation on ZKSCAN4, ICAM-1 partly mediated the effect of short-term cold temperature on high blood pressure and ICAM-1 protein (related to cardiovascular events), respectively. In summary, epidemiological evidence about the impacts of environment temperature on human epigenetics remains scarce and limited to short-term linear effect of cold temperature on DNA methylation in elderly people and infants. More studies are needed to broaden our understanding of temperature related epigenetic changes, especially under a changing climate.

20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917862, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851349

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association between greenness and childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: To evaluate the association between greenness surrounding schools or kindergartens and symptoms of ADHD in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cross-sectional study was performed between April 2012 and January 2013 in 7 cities in northeastern China. This analysis included 59 754 children (aged 2-17 years) from 94 schools and kindergartens, who had resided in the study area for 2 years or longer. Data were analyzed from April 15, 2019, to October 10, 2019. Exposures: Greenness surrounding each child's school or kindergarten was estimated using 2 satellite image-derived vegetation indexes: the normalized difference vegetation index and the soil-adjusted vegetation index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) scales were used to measure ADHD symptoms (9 inattention symptoms and 9 hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms). Parents or guardians rated the frequency of each of 18 ADHD symptoms during the preceding 6 months. Children with 6 or more symptoms of either inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity were defined as having ADHD symptoms. Generalized linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between greenness and ADHD symptoms. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 59 754 study participants was 10.3 (3.6) years, and 29 494 (49.4%) were girls. A total of 2566 participants (4.3%) had ADHD symptoms. Greenness levels differed substantially across schools and kindergartens. The normalized difference vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten ranged from -0.09 to 0.77. Greater greenness levels were associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms. In covariate-adjusted models, a 0.1-unit increase in normalized difference vegetation index or soil-adjusted vegetation index within 500 m of a school or kindergarten was significantly associated with lower odds of ADHD symptoms (odds ratios, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.83-0.91] and 0.80 [95% CI, 0.74-0.86], respectively; P < .001 for both). The associations were robust in a series of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that there may be a beneficial association between school-based greenness and ADHD symptoms in Chinese children. Future longitudinal and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings of this cross-sectional analysis and further explore potential mechanisms of this association.

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