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1.
Environ Int ; 160: 107058, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health impact of short-term heat exposure is well documented. However, limited studies explored the association between life-time summer heat exposure and lung function. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between life-time summer heat exposure and lung function among young adults. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 1928 college students in Shandong, China from September 4, 2020 to November 15, 2020. Life-time summer heat exposure for participants were estimated based on the nearest station meteorological data after the participant's birth date and divided by their learning phases. Lung function indicators included forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). A multiple linear regression model was conducted to examine the associations between summer heat exposure and lung function. Stratificationanalysis by cooling facilities and respiratory diseases history were also conducted. RESULTS: The study subjects had a slight majority of women (58.8%), age 19.2 ± 0.6 years. Each 1 °C increase in life-time summer mean temperature was associated with 1.07% [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.95-0.18%] decrease in FVC and 0.88% (95 %CI: -1.71, -0.05%) decrease in FEV1. Participants with respiratory diseases and non-cooling facility users were more susceptible to summer heat exposure. The usage of fan and air condition could effectively reduce the deleterious heat effects on lung function. CONCLUSION: Life-time summer heat exposure is significantly associated with the reduction of lung function in young adults. Cooling facilities are necessary for pre-school children to reduce heat effects. Fan and air-condition are effective cooling facilities, especially for people with respiratory diseases.

2.
Environ Res ; 207: 112640, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and ambient air pollution are independent risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, the evidence regarding their joint associations on T2DM was sparsely studied in low-middle income countries. METHODS: A total of 38,841 participants were selected from Henan Rural Cohort study which was carried out during 2015-2017. Obesity was identified by body mass index (BMI), WC (waist circumstance), WHR (waist-to-hip ratio), WHtR (waist-to-height ratio), BFP (body fat percent), and VFI (visceral fat index). Three-year averaged-concentrations of NO2, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were assessed by using the method of spatiotemporal model incorporated into the satellites data. The independent associations of obesity indicators and exposure to air pollutants on fasting blood glucose (FBG) and T2DM were assessed by generalized linear and logistic regression model, respectively, and their interaction associations on T2DM were quantified by using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and synergy index (S). RESULTS: Positive associations of six obesity measures and four air pollutants with FBG levels and prevalent T2DM were observed. Obese participants measured by BMI plus high exposure to NO2, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 were related to a 2.96-fold (2.66-3.29), 2.87-fold (2.58-3.20), 2.98-fold (2.67-3.32) and 3.01-fold (2.70-3.35) increased risk for prevalent T2DM, respectively; similarity of joint associations of the other obesity measures and air pollutants on T2DM were observed. The additive associations of different obesity measures and air pollutants with prevalent T2DM were further found. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic associations of obesity and air pollutants on FBG levels and prevalent T2DM were observed, indicating that obese participants were at high risk for prevalent T2DM in highly polluted rural regions.

3.
Anim Nutr ; 8(1): 38-51, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977374

RESUMO

Methionine and its hydroxy analogue (MHA) have been shown to benefit mouse intestinal regeneration. The intestinal organoid is a good model that directly reflects the impact of certain nutrients or chemicals on intestinal development. Here, we aimed to establish a chicken intestinal organoid culture method first and then use the model to explore the influence of methionine deficiency and MHA on intestinal organoid development. The results showed that 125-µm cell strainer exhibited the highest efficiency for chicken embryo crypt harvesting. We found that transforming growth factor-ß inhibitor (A8301) supplementation promoted enterocyte differentiation at the expense of the proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISC). The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 inhibitor (SB202190) promoted intestinal organoid formation and enterocyte differentiation but suppressed the differentiation of enteroendocrine cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells. However, the suppression of enteroendocrine cell and Paneth cell differentiation by SB202190 was alleviated at the presence of A8301. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor (CHIR99021), valproic acid (VPA) alone and their combination promoted chicken intestinal organoid formation and enterocyte differentiation at the expense of the expression of Paneth cells and goblet cells. Chicken serum significantly improved organoid formation, especially in the presence of A8301, SB202190, CHIR99021, and VPA, but inhibited the differentiation of Paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells. Chicken serum at a concentration of 0.25% meets the requirement of chicken intestinal organoid development, and the beneficial effect of chicken serum on chicken intestinal organoid culture could not be replaced by fetal bovine serum and insulin-like growth factor-1. Moreover, commercial mouse organoid culture medium supplemented with A8301, SB202190, CHIR99021, VPA, and chicken serum promotes chicken organoid budding. Based on the chicken intestinal organoid model, we found that methionine deficiency mimicked by cycloleucine suppressed organoid formation and organoid size, and this effect was reinforced with increased cycloleucine concentrations. Methionine hydroxy analogue promoted regeneration of ISC but decreased cell differentiation compared with the results obtained with L-methionine. In conclusion, our results provide a potentially excellent guideline for chicken intestinal organoid culture and insights into methionine function in crypt development.

4.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 12(1): 126, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soya saponin (SS), an active compound in soybean meals, has been widely studied in the medical field. However, it was considered as an anti-nutritional factor in poultry diets. The objective of this experiment was to measure the effects of dietary SS using three dietary treatments on egg-laying performance and immune function of laying hens. Birds were fed a low soybean meal basal diet (CON), a low-SS diet (50 SS) containing 50 mg/kg SS, or a high-SS diet (500 SS) containing 500 mg/kg SS for 10 weeks. At the end of the 5th and 10th week of the trial, samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that with 50 mg/kg SS supplementation, the egg production rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and eggshell quality tended to be improved. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels were also elevated as well as the peripheral blood LPS stimulation index, the proportion of B lymphocytes, and antibody titer of bovine serum albumin (BSA). We also found that mRNA levels of follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in ovarian, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB), Transforming growth factor (TGF-ß) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in spleen were up-regulated at the end of the trial. Additionally, dietary 50 mg/kg SS improved the ileal flora via up-regulating the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Romboutsia and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Although the immune related indicators were improved with 500 mg/kg SS supplemented, it seemed to have a negative influence on the laying-performance. Specifically, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 were increased in the 500 SS group at the end of the trial. The mRNA levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) in Hypothalamus, the estrogen related receptor (ERR) in ovaries were downregulated as well as the egg production rate during the trial with 500 mg/kg SS supplemented. CONCLUSIONS: The egg production performance was improved by dietary supplemented with 50 mg/kg SS via increasing ovarian FSHR transcription level and serum estrogen level. A beneficial shift in intestinal microflora was recorded, and the immune function of laying hens was also improved with 50 mg/kg SS supplementation. Surprisingly, the long-term supplementation of 500 mg/kg SS exerted a negative impact on the laying performance and physiological functions of the liver of laying hens.

5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112004, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenness exposure may lower blood pressure. However, few studies of this relationship have been conducted with children and adolescents, especially in low and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children and adolescents across China. METHODS: We recruited 61,229 Chinese citizens aged 6-18 years from 94 schools in a nationwide cross-sectional study in seven Chinese provinces/province-level municipalities. Participants' blood pressures and hypertension were assessed with standardized protocols. Greenness levels within 500 m and 1,000 m of each school were estimated with three satellite-based indices: vegetation continuous fields (VCF), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate associations between greenness and blood pressure, greenness and prevalent hypertension, using coefficient and odds ratio respectively. Stratified analyses and mediation analyses were also performed. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in greenness was associated with a 17%-20% reduced prevalence of hypertension for all measures of greenness (odds ratios for VCF500m = 20% (95% CI:18%, 23%); for NDVI500m = 17% (95% CI:13%, 21%); and for SAVI500m = 17% (95% CI: 13%, 20%). Increases in greenness were also associated with reductions in systolic blood pressure (0.48-0.58 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (0.26-0.52 mmHg). Older participants, boys, and urban dwellers showed stronger associations than their counterparts. No evidence of mediation was observed for air pollution (i.e., NO2 and PM2.5) and body mass index. CONCLUSION: Higher greenness around schools may lower blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension among Chinese children and adolescents, particularly in older subjects, boys, and those living in urban districts. Further studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to examine causality.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Pressão Sanguínea , Meio Ambiente , Hipertensão , Plantas , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132339, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of coalmine fire smoke exposure. The 2014 Hazelwood coalmine fire event in southeast Australia released smoke into surrounding areas for 6 weeks. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether individual-level exposure to coalmine fire-related PM2.5 was associated with a long-term increase in ambulance attendances following a coalmine fire event. METHODS: A total of 2223 residents from the most exposed town of Morwell were assessed for ambulance attendances after the Hazelwood event from April 1, 2014 to December 31, 2017. PM2.5 exposure was estimated for each individual using participant self-reported location diary data during the event and modelled PM2.5 concentrations. Recurrent event survival analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and ambulance attendances. RESULTS: For each 10 µg/m3 increase in mean coalmine fire-related PM2.5 exposure, there was a 10% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]:1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.17) increase in the overall risk of ambulance attendances within 3.5 years after the coalmine fire. Exposure to PM2.5 was also associated with increased risk of respiratory (HR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.02-1.44) and cardiovascular (HR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.28) related ambulance attendances. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that exposure to coalmine fire smoke during the Hazelwood event was associated with a long-term health risk post the fire event, specifically for respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. These findings are important for effective implementation of health care services following future extended coalmine fire PM2.5 events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Incêndios , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambulâncias , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152340, 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several environmental factors have been identified to be associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. However, evidence is limited for the effect of exposure to outdoor light at night (LAN) on ASD in China and even elsewhere in the world. METHODS: Participants in this study were from a multi-stage sampling survey on ASD conducted between June 2014 and October 2014 among children aged 3-12 years in Shanghai, China. All participants underwent a two-stage screening of ASD via questionnaire, and then, suspected cases were finally diagnosed by clinical examination. For data analyses, each ASD case was randomly matched with 10 healthy controls by age and sex. The LAN data were extracted from the stable lights product of the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) according to geolocation information of residential addresses. Mean levels of exposure to LAN during the 3 years after birth and 1 year before birth were calculated. We used conditional logistic regression models to examine the association between LAN and ASD. RESULTS: We investigated 84,934 children from 96 kindergartens, 55 primary schools, and 28 special education schools, and 203 children were diagnosed as ASD cases. A total of 1727 children (157 ASD cases and 1570 healthy controls) were included in the final analyses. Brighter LAN exposures after and before birth were significantly associated with higher risk of ASD. After adjusting for potential covariates, adjusted odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with per unit increase in LAN were 1.066 (1.027, 1.107) during the 3 years after birth and 1.046 (1.018, 1.075) during the 1 year before birth. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study concluded brighter LAN exposure was significantly associated with higher risk of ASD among Chinese children, which suggested that outdoor LAN could be a potential risk factor of ASD.

8.
Environ Res ; 205: 112548, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies examined the association of prenatal exposure to green spaces with children's body mass index (BMI) Z-score, and no study evaluated the joint effect of prenatal green spaces and PM2.5 or PM1 exposure on children's BMI Z-score. We aimed to assess the individual and joint effects of prenatal green spaces, PM2.5, and PM1 exposure on BMI Z-score of children aged two years. METHODS: The study was based on a birth cohort in Beijing, China, in which 13,253 mothers (LMP from 2014 to 2017) and their children were included. We estimated prenatal green spaces exposure by calculating average normalized difference vegetation index with 500 m buffers (NDVI-500), prenatal PM2.5 and PM1 exposure based on maternal residential addresses. Weight and height of children were measured at 2 years old. We calculated children's BMI Z-score based on the WHO Standards. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the individual and joint effects of prenatal NDVI-500, PM2.5 and PM1 exposure on children's BMI Z-score. RESULTS: A 0.1 increase in prenatal NDVI-500 exposure, a 10 µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5, a 10 µg/m3 decrease in PM1 were associated with 0.185 [95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.155, 0.216], 0.034 (95%CI: 0.015, 0.052) and 0.041 (95%CI: 0.020, 0.061) increase of children's BMI Z-score, respectively. Compared with those exposed to low-level NDVI-500 (not greater than median) and high-level PM2.5 (greater than median), the BMI Z-score was higher in children whose mother exposed to high-level of NDVI-500 and low-level PM2.5 [ß:0.172 (95%CI: 0.131, 0.214), Pinteraction = 0.003]. Compared with those exposed to low-level NDVI-500 and high-level PM1, the BMI Z-score was higher in children whose mother exposed to high-level of NDVI-500 and low-level PM1 [ß:0.169 (95%CI: 0.127, 0.210), Pinteraction<0.001]. In the trimester-specific analysis, NDVI-500 and PM exposure during the second trimester have a consistent individual effect, together with a joint effect, on child growth. CONCLUSION: The study suggested the beneficial effect of prenatal exposure to green spaces on child growth and its interaction with PM2.5 and PM1, especially in the second trimester. The findings call for developing public health policy to improve green infrastructure and control PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations, in order to promote child growth.

9.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112358, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in greener areas may reduce adiposity, but epidemiological evidence on this topic is still inconsistence and limited, especially in rural areas. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among 4651 Uyghur adults in rural areas in Xinjiang province, northwestern China, from May to September 2016. We measured residential greenness levels using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) in 100 m, 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m buffers around each home address. Body height, weight, and waist circumference were assessed according to recommended guidelines. Data on baseline characteristics and confounders were collected using a questionnaire. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the associations of residential greenness with overweight/obesity prevalence and obesity-related anthropometric indices. RESULTS: Higher residential greenness levels were associated with lower waist circumference and body mass index levels, as well as with a lower odds ratio of peripheral overweight/obesity prevalence. No significant association was found for greenness and central obesity prevalence. The associations persisted in magnitude and direction across several sensitivity analyses we performed. Stratified analysis suggested that the associations were generally stronger in older adults than those in younger adults. Additionally, neither air pollutants nor physical activity significantly mediated the associations between greenness and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher residential greenness were associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity and lower obesity-related anthropometric indices among rural Uyghur adults in China, especially for older adults.

10.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt D): 112397, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widely used Air Quality Index (AQI) has been criticized due to its inaccuracy, leading to the development of the air quality health index (AQHI), an improvement on the AQI. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate construction strategy for the AQHI. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of AQHIs constructed by different models and health outcomes, and determine a better strategy. METHODS: Based on the daily time-series outpatient visits and hospital admissions from 299 hospitals (January 2016-December 2018), and mortality (January 2017-December 2019) in Guangzhou, China, we utilized cumulative risk index (CRI) method, Bayesian multi-pollutant weighted (BMW) model and standard method to construct AQHIs for different health outcomes. The effectiveness of AQHIs constructed by different strategies was evaluated by a two-stage validation analysis and examined their exposure-response relationships with the cause-specific morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Validation by different models showed that AQHI constructed with the BMW model (BMW-AQHI) had the strongest association with the health outcome either in the total population or subpopulation among air quality indexes, followed by AQHI constructed with the CRI method (CRI-AQHI), then common AQHI and AQI. Further validation by different health outcomes showed that AQHI constructed with the risk of outpatient visits generally exhibited the highest utility in presenting mortality and morbidity, followed by AQHI constructed with the risk of hospitalizations, then mortality-based AQHI and AQI. The contributions of NO2 and O3 to the final AQHI were prominent, while the contribution of SO2 and PM2.5 were relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: The BMW model is likely to be more effective for AQHI construction than CRI and standard methods. Based on the BMW model, the AQHI constructed with the outpatient data may be more effective in presenting short-term health risks associated with the co-exposure to air pollutants than the mortality-based AQHI and existing AQIs.

11.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101553, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852314

RESUMO

Arbor Acre (AA) broilers were used as the research object to investigate whether glucose oxidase (GOD) has preventive and relieving effects on necrotic enteritis. The experiment was designed as a factorial arrangement of 2 dietary treatments × 2 infection states. Chickens were fed a basal diet or a diet with 150 U/kg GOD, and were challenged with Clostridium perfringens (Cp) or sterile culture medium. In our study, Cp challenge led to intestinal injury, as evidenced by reducing the average daily gain and the average daily feed intake of AA broilers of 14 to 21 d (P < 0.05), increasing the intestinal jejunal lesion score (P < 0.05), reducing the jejunal villi height and villi height/crypt depth (P < 0.05), upregulating the mRNA expression levels jejunal IFN-γ (P < 0.05). The dietary GOD had no significant effects on the growth performance of each growth period, but significantly decreased the ileal pH, increased the height of villi and the ratio of villi height to crypt depth (P < 0.05) and the expression levels of Occludin and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) at d 21. Moreover, dietary GOD and the Cp challenge significantly altered the composition of 21-d ileal microbiota. The Cp challenge decreased the relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus (P = 0.057), and increased the relative abundance of genus Romboutsia (P < 0.05) and genus Veillonella (P = 0.088). The dietary GOD tended to increase the relative abundance of genus Helicobacter (P = 0.066) and decrease the relative abundance of genus Streptococcus (P = 0.071). This study has shown that the supplementation of GOD could promote the integrity of intestinal barrier and the balance of ileal microbiota, but the effects of GOD on NE broilers and its application in actual production need to be further confirmed.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health impacts of exposures to landscape fire smoke. We aimed to evaluate the association between exposure to coal mine fire-related particulate matter 2.5 µm or less in diameter (PM2.5) and hospitalisation in the 5 years following the 6-week Hazelwood coal mine fire in Australia in 2014. METHODS: We surveyed 2725 residents (mean age: 58.3 years; 54.3% female) from an exposed and a comparison town. Individual PM2.5 exposures during the event were estimated using modelled PM2.5 concentrations related to the coal mine fire and self-reported location data. The individual exposure and survey data were linked with hospitalisation records between January 2009 and February 2019. Recurrent event survival analysis was used to evaluate relationships between PM2.5 exposure and hospitalisation following mine fire, adjusting for important covariates. RESULTS: Each 10-µg/m3 increase in mine fire-related PM2.5 was associated with a 9% increased hazard [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.17] of respiratory hospitalisation over the next 5 years, with stronger associations observed for females (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.27) than males (HR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.11). In particular, increased hazards were observed for hospitalisations for asthma (HR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.73) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28). No such association was found for hospitalisations for cardiovascular diseases, mental illness, injuries, type 2 diabetes, renal diseases or neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: A 6-week exposure to coal mine fire-related PM2.5 was associated with increased hazard of respiratory hospitalisations over the following 5 years, particularly for females.

13.
EMBO Rep ; : e53499, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882936

RESUMO

The activation of the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is related to the pathogenesis of a wide range of inflammatory diseases, but drugs targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome are still scarce. In the present study, we demonstrated that Licochalcone B (LicoB), a main component of the traditional medicinal herb licorice, is a specific inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. LicoB inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages but has no effect on the activation of AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome. Mechanistically, LicoB directly binds to NEK7 and inhibits the interaction between NLRP3 and NEK7, thus suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, LicoB exhibits protective effects in mouse models of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated diseases, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock, MSU-induced peritonitis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our findings indicate that LicoB is a specific NLRP3 inhibitor and a promising candidate for treating NLRP3 inflammasome-related diseases.

14.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Accumulating animal studies have indicated the harmful effects of ambient air pollution (AP) on metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), but corresponding epidemiologic evidence is limited. We examined the associations between long-term AP exposure and MAFLD prevalence in a Chinese population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 90,086 participants recruited in China from 2018 to 2019. MAFLD was assessed based on radiologically diagnosed hepatic steatosis and the presence of overweight/obese status, diabetes mellitus, or metabolic dysregulation. Residence-specific levels of air pollutants, including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were estimated by validated spatiotemporal models. We used logistic regression models to examine the AP-MAFLD associations and further evaluated potential effect modifications by demographics, lifestyle, central obesity, and diabetes status. RESULTS: Increased exposure levels to all four air pollutants were significantly associated with increased odds of MAFLD, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.10-1.17), 1.29 (1.25-1.34), 1.11 (1.09-1.14), and 1.15 (1.12-1.17) for each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2, respectively. Further stratified analyses revealed that individuals who are male, alcohol drinkers, and current and previous smokers, those who consume a high-fat diet, and those with central obesity experience more significant adverse effects of AP than other individuals. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to ambient PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 may increase the odds of MAFLD in the real world. These effects may be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle habits, central obesity, and diabetes mellitus. Further prospective studies are necessary to identify the specific pathways. LAY SUMMARY: We conducted an epidemiologic study on the potential role of ambient air pollution in the risk of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) in approximately 90 thousand adults in China. We found that long-term exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the odds of MAFLD, especially in individuals who are male, smokers, and alcohol drinkers, those who consume a high-fat diet, and those with central obesity.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152226, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890657

RESUMO

The health effects of the unprecedented bushfires in Australia in 2019-20 have not been fully examined. We aimed to examine the excess emergency department (ED) visits related to the 2019-20 bushfires in New South Wales (NSW). We obtained weekly data of ED visits for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in all the 28 Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) regions in NSW during the bushfire seasons from 2017 to 2020. A two-stage interrupted time-series analysis was applied to quantify the excess risk for ED visits in 2019-20. The total number of excess ED visits, excess percentages, and their empirical confidence intervals (eCIs) were calculated to estimate the impacts of the bushfire season. A total of 416,057 records of cardiorespiratory ED visits were included in our analysis. The bushfire season in 2019-20 was significantly associated with a 6.0% increase (95% eCI: 1.9, 10.3) in ED visits for respiratory diseases and a 10.0% increase (95% eCI: 5.0, 15.2) for cardiovascular diseases, corresponding to 6177 (95% eCI: 1989, 10,166) and 3120 (95% eCI: 1628, 4544) excess ED visits, respectively. The percentage of excess ED visits was higher in regions with lower SES and high fire density. Considerable excess cardiorespiratory ED visits were associated with the 2019-20 bushfire season in NSW. In the context of climate change, more targeted strategies should be developed to prevent adverse bushfire effects and recover from such extreme environmental events.

16.
Epidemiology ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality widely differs between as well as within countries. Differences in PM2.5 composition can play a role in modifying the effect estimates, but there is little evidence about which components have higher impacts on mortality. METHODS: We applied a two-stage analysis on data collected from 210 locations in 16 countries. In the first stage, we estimated location-specific relative risks (RR) for mortality associated with daily total PM2.5 through time series regression analysis. We then pooled these estimates in a meta-regression model that included city-specific logratio-transformed proportions of seven PM2.5 components as well as meta-predictors derived from city-specific socio-economic and environmental indicators. RESULTS: We found associations between RR and several PM2.5 components. Increasing the ammonium (NH4+) proportion from 1% to 22%, while keeping a relative average proportion of other components, increased the RR from 1.0063 (95%CI: 1.0030-1.0097) to 1.0102 (95%CI:1.0070-1.0135). Conversely, an increase in nitrate (NO3-) from 1% to 71% resulted in a reduced RR, from 1.0100 (95%CI: 1.0067-1.0133) to 1.0037 (95%CI: 0.9998- 1.0077). Differences in composition explained a substantial part of the heterogeneity in PM2.5 risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to the identification of more hazardous emission sources. Further work is needed to understand the health impacts of PM2.5 components and sources given the overlapping sources and correlations among many components.

17.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(5): e169, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934890

RESUMO

Background: Minimum mortality temperature (MMT) is an important indicator to assess the temperature-mortality association, indicating long-term adaptation to local climate. Limited evidence about the geographical variability of the MMT is available at a global scale. Methods: We collected data from 658 communities in 43 countries under different climates. We estimated temperature-mortality associations to derive the MMT for each community using Poisson regression with distributed lag nonlinear models. We investigated the variation in MMT by climatic zone using a mixed-effects meta-analysis and explored the association with climatic and socioeconomic indicators. Results: The geographical distribution of MMTs varied considerably by country between 14.2 and 31.1 °C decreasing by latitude. For climatic zones, the MMTs increased from alpine (13.0 °C) to continental (19.3 °C), temperate (21.7 °C), arid (24.5 °C), and tropical (26.5 °C). The MMT percentiles (MMTPs) corresponding to the MMTs decreased from temperate (79.5th) to continental (75.4th), arid (68.0th), tropical (58.5th), and alpine (41.4th). The MMTs indreased by 0.8 °C for a 1 °C rise in a community's annual mean temperature, and by 1 °C for a 1 °C rise in its SD. While the MMTP decreased by 0.3 centile points for a 1 °C rise in a community's annual mean temperature and by 1.3 for a 1 °C rise in its SD. Conclusions: The geographical distribution of the MMTs and MMTPs is driven mainly by the mean annual temperature, which seems to be a valuable indicator of overall adaptation across populations. Our results suggest that populations have adapted to the average temperature, although there is still more room for adaptation.

18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114838, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788645

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Keguan-1, a new traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription contained seven Chinese herbs, is developed to treat coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The first internationally registered COVID-19 randomised clinical trial on integrated therapy demonstrated that Keguan-1 significantly reduced the incidence of ARDS and inhibited the severe progression of COVID-19. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective mechanism of Keguan-1 on ARDS, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was used to simulate the pathological state of ARDS in patients with COVID-19, focusing on its effect and mechanism on ALI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were challenged with LPS (2 mg/kg) by intratracheal instillation (i.t.) and were orally administered Keguan-1 (low dose, 1.25 g/kg; medium dose, 2.5 g/kg; high dose, 5 g/kg) after 2 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected 6 h and 24 h after i.t. administration of LPS. The levels of inflammatory factors tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ß, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC or mCXCL1), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2 or mCXCL2), angiotensin II (Ang II), and endothelial cell junction-associated proteins were analysed using ELISA or western blotting. RESULTS: Keguan-1 improved the survival rate, respiratory condition, and pathological lung injury; decreased the production of proinflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, KC, and MIP2) in BALF and the number of neutrophils in the lung tissues; and ameliorated inflammatory injury in the lung tissues of the mice with LPS-induced ALI. Keguan-1 also reduced the expression of Ang II and the adhesion molecule ICAM-1; increased tight junction proteins (JAM-1 and claudin-5) and VE-cadherin expression; and alleviated pulmonary vascular endothelial injury in LPS-induced ALI. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that Keguan-1 can improve LPS-induced ALI by reducing inflammation and pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, providing scientific support for the clinical treatment of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, it also provides a theoretical basis and technical support for the scientific use of TCMs in emerging infectious diseases.

19.
Environ Health Insights ; 15: 11786302211059722, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819732

RESUMO

No studies have investigated the cancer outcomes from high level medium duration coal mine fire fine particulate matter ⩽2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) exposure. We included 2208 Morwell residents (exposed) and 646 Sale residents (unexposed) who participated in the Hazelwood Health Study Adult Survey. Competing risk regression models were used to evaluate relationships between coal mine fire exposure and cancer incidence, adjusting for known confounders. There were 137 cancers in the exposed and 27 in the unexposed over 14 849 person-years of follow-up. A higher risk of cancer incidence was observed for Morwell participants (HR = 1.67 [95% CI 1.05-2.67]), but no evidence to suggest associations between PM2.5 exposure and incidence of all cancers (HR = 1.02 [95% CI 0.91-1.13]), or site-specific cancers. There is no strong evidence that exposure to high concentrations of mine fire-related PM2.5 over a prolonged period could explain the higher risk in exposed population in this study.

20.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101563, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823183

RESUMO

The effects of a blend of encapsulated organic acids with essential oils (EOA) as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter (AGP) on growth performance and gut health of Eimeria spp./Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) in chickens infected with necrotic enteritis (NE) broilers was investigated. A total of 432 male Arbor Acres broilers (1-day-old) were randomly distributed into 6 treatment groups, namely noninfected negative control (A); NE-infected positive control (D); NE-infected broiler chickens fed a basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) plus 90 mg/kg monensin; and NE-infected broiler chicken fed 200; 500; and 800 mg/kg EOA (E, F, G, and H group). Feeding EOA at 200 and 500 mg/kg considerably improved the feed conversion ratio, reduced gut lesions, serum fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran level, and C. perfringens load in the caecum and liver of the NE-infected broiler chickens. This feed was similar to AGP. Furthermore, the increased villous height-to-crypt depth ratio and goblet cells counts, upregulated claudin-1, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) mRNA gene expression, downregulated occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), toll-like receptor (TLR-4), interleukin (IL-1ß), interferon γ (IFN-γ), TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), and Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) genes expression in the jejunum were observed in the NE-infected broiler chickens that received EOA at 200 and 500 mg/kg compared with those of the single NE-challenged groups without EOA supplementations (P < 0.05). The 16S analysis revealed that EOA supplemented with 200 or 500 mg/kg enriched relative abundance of Lactobacillus, unclassified_Lachnospiraceae, and Enterococcus, and carbohydrate metabolic pathways but suppressed unclassified_Erysipelotrichacease and organismal systems involved in the immune system (P < 0.05). Feeding EOA could alleviate NE-induced gut impairment and growth depression and modulate cecal microbiota composition, which has potential as antimicrobial alternatives.

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