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1.
Environ Res ; : 110735, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460631

RESUMO

The large amount of missing values has challenged the application of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) in mapping surface PM2.5 concentrations. In this study, we developed a non-AOD random forest model to estimate daily concentrations of PM2.5 in Guangdong Province, China, where more than 80% of AOD data were missing. The predictive ability of the non-AOD model was compared with that of AOD-based model. Daily ground-based measurements of PM2.5 were obtained from 148 ground-monitoring sites in Guangdong with a 60 km rectangle buffer from January 2016 to December 2018. Daily MODIS MAIAC AOD were downloaded from NASA at a resolution of approximately 1 km. Two random forest models were developed to predict ground-level PM2.5 with one included AOD as a predictor and the other one without AOD. The two random forest models were developed using the same dataset and their predictive abilities were compared. The results for 10-fold cross validation show that the non-AOD and AOD-based random forest models showed similar model performance. The R2 (RMSE) for the non-AOD model in 2016-2018 were 0.82 (8.4 µg/m3), 0.81 (9.5 µg/m3) and 0.78 (9.4 µg/m3), and those for AOD-based model were 0.83 (8.2 µg/m3), 0.82 (9.2 µg/m3) and 0.80 (9.0 µg/m3). Higher consistency of estimated PM2.5 were observed in areas close to monitoring sites than those far away from sites, and in southern coastal than northern areas. The non-AOD random forest model showed similar performance as the AOD-based model. As the non-AOD random forest model is not affected by AOD missingness, it can be used for epidemiological studies to estimate individual's exposure to PM2.5 at high temporal resolution without spatial or temporal gaps.

2.
Environ Int ; 148: 106383, 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) rapidly increased over the past decades. However, little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on MetS in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between long-term ambient air pollution and the prevalence of MetS in a large population of Chinese children and adolescents. METHODS: In 2013, a total of 9,897 children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years were recruited from seven provinces/municipalities in China. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Satellite based spatio-temporal models were used to estimate exposure to ambient air pollution (including particles with diameters ≤1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)). Individual exposure was calculated according to 94 schools addresses. After adjustment for a range of covariates, generalized linear mixed-effects models were utilized to evaluate the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS and its components. In addition, several stratified analyses were examined according to sex, weight status, outdoor physical activity time, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) intake. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 2.8%. The odds ratio of MetS associated with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was 1.20 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.46), 1.31 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.64), 1.32 (95%CI: 1.08, 1.62), and 1.33 (95%CI: 1.03, 1.72), respectively. Regarding the MetS components, we observed associations between all pollutants and abdominal obesity. In addition, long-term PM1 and NO2 exposures were associated with the prevalence of elevated fasting blood glucose. Stratified analyses detected that the associations between air pollutants and the prevalence of MetS were stronger in boys (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were positively associated with the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents. Our findings may have certain public health implications for some comprehensive strategy of environment improvement and lifestyles changes in order to reduce the burden of non-communicable disease.

3.
Environ Res ; : 110729, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of airborne particulate matter of 1 µm or less (PM1) with fetal growth hasn't been studied. We aimed to investigate the association of PM1 with fetal growth parameters measured via ultrasonography and birth weight. METHODS: The birth cohort included 18,669 pregnant women who were pregnant between 2014 to 2017 in Tongzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Beijing, China. The predicted PM1 concentration was matched with the residential addresses of each woman. The fetal abdominal circumference (AC), head circumference (HC), femur length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were evaluated via ultrasonography, while birth weight was measured at birth. The fetal parameters and birth weight were standardized as gestational-age- and gender-adjusted Z-score. We defined undergrowth of fetal parameters, low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) as categorized outcomes. Generalized estimating equations and generalized linear regression were used to examine the associations of PM1 with quantitative and categorized outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM1 was associated with decrement in the Z-scores of AC [̶ 0.027, 95%CI: ̶ 0.047∼ ̶ 0.007], HC (̶ 0.054, 95%CI: ̶ 0.074∼ ̶ 0.034), FL (̶ 0.067, 95%CI: ̶ 0.087∼ ̶ 0.046) and EFW (̶ 0.055, 95% confidence intervals (CI): ̶ 0.075∼ ̶ 0.035). These results remained robust after adjusting nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. We didn't observe significant results regarding the analyses of undergrowth of all fetal parameters and the analyses of birth weight outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study identified the negative associations between PM1 and fetal parameters in utero. The findings provided robust evidence that strategies for reducing PM1 exposure can prevent early-life health.

4.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13499, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455052

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of essential oils (EO; comprised of thymol and carvacrol) and lysozyme on experimental NE in broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: no-challenge control (NC), NC + C. perfringens challenge (CC), CC + 120 mg/kg of EO, CC + 100 mg/kg of lysozyme, and CC + 120 mg/kg of EO + 100 mg/kg of lysozyme. The results showed that EO or lysozyme decreased the mortality, alleviated the gut lesions, inhibited the liver Enterobacteriaceae carriage, and increased the villus height of the ileum compared with CC (p < .05), although the proliferation of C. perfringens in the ileum was not inhibited (p > .05). Moreover, EO or lysozyme was found to decrease the ileal concentration of sialic acid and the Mucin2 mRNA expression (p < .05). However, the blend of EO and lysozyme did not display significant effect on the NE-associated mortality or gut damage in contrast with CC (p > .05). In conclusion, these findings suggest the similar protective effects of EO and lysozyme in NE-associated mortality and intestinal impairment, but their blend did not exhibit ameliorative effect.

5.
Environ Int ; 146: 106241, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality has been evaluated intensively, little is known about the socioeconomic disparity in the association. METHODS: We collected data on annual all-cause mortality, PM2.5 concentration, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of 2640 counties from the two most recent Chinese censuses in 2000 and 2010. We applied the difference-in-differences (DID) method to estimate PM2.5-mortality association for counties at different quartiles of literacy rate, college rate, urbanization rate and GDP per capita, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, every 10 µg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 was associated with 3.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0-5.0) increase of all-cause mortality. The stratified analysis suggested higher health impact of exposure in counties with lower socioeconomic status. For counties of the lowest quartile (Q1) of literacy rate, college rate, urbanization rate and GDP per capita, the effect estimates were 6.0% (95% CI: 4.2-7.7), 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8-6.0), 3.5% (95% CI: 2.0-5.1) and 4.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1), respectively. There was strong evidence for elevated risk in mortality associated with PM2.5 of all socioeconomic factors in the lowest quartile (Q1) compared with the highest quartile counties (Q4) (p-value for difference < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There was socioeconomic disparity in the PM2.5-mortality association in China. Dwellers living in less developed counties are more vulnerable to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 than those living in developed counties.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143491, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matters (PMs)) or physical inactivity is linked to telomere length (TL) shortening. However, there is a lack of research on combined effects of either NO2 or PMs and physical activity (PA) on TL. This study aimed to explore the joint associations of air pollutants (NO2 or PMs) and PA with relative TL in rural Chinese adults. METHODS: This study was conducted among 2704 participants aged 18-79 years in rural China. Concentrations of NO2 and PMs (PM with an aerodynamics diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) or ≤10 µm (PM10)) were estimated using random forest models incorporated with satellites data, meteorological data, and land use information. Relative TL of each participant was measured by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression models were applied to examine the independent associations between PA, NO2 or PMs and relative TL. Interaction plots were used to depict the altered associations between NO2, PM1, PM2.5, or PM10 and relative TL along with increasing PA levels. RESULTS: Each 1 µg/m3 increment in NO2, PM1, PM2.5, or PM10 was associated with a 0.038 (95% confidence intervals (CI): -0.044, -0.033), 0.036 (95% CI: -0.041, -0.031), 0.052 (95% CI: -0.059, -0.045), or 0.022 (95% CI: -0.025, -0.019) decrease in relative TL among all participants; similar findings were observed among normal glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) participants as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. PA at certain levels counteracted the association of air pollutants (NO2, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10) with relative TL among IFG participants or T2DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to NO2 and PMs was associated with relative TL shortening and these effects may be counteracted by PA at certain levels in IFG participants or T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Telômero , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Res ; 192: 110289, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that exposure to green space may benefit human health. However, the available evidence concerning the effects of greenness, especially school-based greenness, on pediatric obesity is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between school-based greenness and adiposity in children and adolescents in China. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 56,620 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) in seven provinces/municipalities across China. School-based greenness was assessed using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) within 100-, 500-, and 1000-m circular buffers around each school's address. Generalized linear mixed regression models were used to estimate associations of greenness with BMI z-scores (zBMI), waist circumference, and prevalent overweight/obesity. We also explored the potential mediating role of ambient air pollution and physical activity in the greenness-adiposity associations. RESULT: In the adjusted model, an IQR increase in NDVI-1000m was associated with lower zBMI (ß: -0.11, 95% confidence interval[CI]: -0.13,-0.09) and waist circumference (ß: -0.64, 95%CI: -0.78,-0.50). Consistently, an IQR increase in NDVI-100m, NDVI-500m, NDVI-1000m was associated with 7-20% lower odds of overweight/obesity in the adjusted models. Air pollutants mediated 6.5-29.1% of the association between greenness and zBMI. No significant mediation effect was observed for physical activity. CONCLUSION: Higher school-based greenness levels were associated with lower zBMI, waist circumference, and lower odds of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Ambient air pollutants may partially mediate the greenness-adiposity associations.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141648, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the associations between ambient air pollution and blood lipid levels. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap based on a routine health examination cohort in Shijiazhuang, China. METHODS: We included 7063 participants who took the routine health examination for 2-3 times at Hebei General Hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. Individual serum levels of cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured. Their three-month average exposure to air pollution prior to the routine health examinations was estimated using inverse distance weighted method. We used linear mixed-effects regression models to examine the associations between air pollution and levels of blood lipids while controlling for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol drinking, temperature, humidity, with a random effect for each individual. RESULTS: Particles with diameters ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were all positively associated with TC, TG, and LDL-C and negatively associated with HDL-C, in single pollutant models. Each 10 µg/m3 increment of 3-month average PM2.5 was associated with 0.65% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03%-1.28%], 0.56% (95%CI: 0.33%-0.79%) and 0.63% (95%CI: 0.35%-0.91%) increment in TG, TC, and LDL-C, and 0.91% (95%CI: 0.68%-1.13%) decrease in HDL-C. In two-pollutant models, the effects of gaseous pollutants on blood lipids were weakened, while those of PMs were strengthened. Stronger associations were presented in the elderly (≥60 years) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 24) participants. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient air pollution had significantly adverse effects on blood lipid levels, especially in overweight/obese and elderly individuals. CAPSULE: Significant associations between increased air pollution and worse blood lipid levels were found, especially in overweight/obese and elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Lipídeos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
9.
FASEB J ; 35(1): e21178, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190300

RESUMO

Food withdrawal is usually used for accurate feed metabolizable energy (ME) assessment in poultry, but its effects on intestinal structure and the absorption of nutrients are unclear. In this study, broilers were fed ad libitum (CT) or withdrew food for 12 (FH12), 24 (FH24), 36 (FH36), or 48 hours (FH48). We showed that food withdrawal increased the energy assimilation when compared with the CT. Food withdrawal improved the digestibility of ether extract and the level of lipid substances and fatty acid-derived ß-hydroxybutyrate in serum. Compared to the CT, food withdrawal did not influence the digestibility of starch. Due to 12 hours or longer food withdrawal duration increased glutamate oxidation and uric acid excretion, the analyzed digestibility of crude protein was underestimated, although the upregulated amino acid transporter genes. In addition, histological analysis showed that short-term food withdrawal (12 hours) increased intestinal villus height, crypt depth, and proliferative cell, whereas prolonged food withdrawal (more than 24 hours) impaired villus structure due to the decreased cell proliferation. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed upregulated pathways in birds withdrawn food for 36 hours involved in nutrient absorption and amino acid oxidation. In conclusion, food withdrawal changes nutrient absorption and utilization, especially for amino acid and ether extract, and results in increased ME. Both glutamate oxidation and fatty acid incomplete oxidation are involved in energy supply after refeeding. In contrast to short-term food withdrawal, prolonged food withdrawal impairs the intestinal structure and villus renewal. Our findings deserve attention from nutritionists who are analyzing food digestibility.

10.
Mol Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298547

RESUMO

Potential roles of euchromatic histone methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2 or G9a) in invasion and metastasis are not well understood in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we investigated the effect and underlying mechanisms of G9a and therapeutic implications of targeting G9a in the invasion and metastasis of NSCLC. Overexpression of G9a significantly enhanced in vitro proliferation and invasion, while knockdown of G9a drastically suppressed in vivo growth and metastasis of A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells. Knockdown or inhibition of G9a significantly decreased the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein and activation of FAK pathway. In addition, defactinib, a potent FAK inhibitor, partially abolished the G9a-enhanced invasion in these NSCLC cells. Furthermore, targeting G9a was found to suppress NF-κB transcriptional activity in NSCLC cells through stabilizing NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα), while an NF-κB inhibitor Parthenilide partially abolished the G9a-enhanced FAK activation, which suggests that G9a-enhanced invasion and activation of FAK is mediated by elevated NF-κB activity. Notably, a strong positive correlation between the IHC staining of G9a and phosphorylated FAK proteins was identified in H1299 xenografts and 159 cases of NSCLC tissues (R = 0.408). IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this study strongly demonstrate that G9a may promote invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells by enhancing FAK signaling pathway via elevating NF-κB transcriptional activity, indicating potential significance and therapeutic implications of these pathways in the invasion and metastasis of NSCLCs that overexpress G9a protein.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116330, 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383426

RESUMO

The prevalence of allergic diseases in Australian children is high, but few studies have assessed the potential role of outdoor air pollution in allergic sensitization. We investigated the association between outdoor air pollution and the prevalence of aeroallergen sensitization in a national cross-sectional study of Australian children aged 7-11 years. Children were recruited from 55 participating schools in 12 Australian cities during 2007-2008. Parents completed a detailed (70-item) questionnaire. Outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as a proxy for exposure to traffic-related emissions, was estimated using measurements from regulatory monitors near each school and a national land-use regression (LUR) model. Three averaging periods were assessed, using information on duration of residence at the address, including lifetime, previous (lifetime, excluding the last year), and recent (the last year only). The LUR model was used as an additional source of recent exposure estimates at school and home addresses. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed to measure sensitization to eight common aeroallergens. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the association between NO2 and sensitization (by individual allergens, indoor and outdoor allergens, and all allergens combined), after adjustment for individual- and area-level covariates. In total, 2226 children had a completed questionnaire and SPT. The prevalence of sensitization to any allergen was 44.4%. Sensitization to house dust mites (HDMs) was the most common (36.1%), while sensitization to Aspergillus was the least common (3.4%). Measured mean (±s.d.) NO2 exposure was between 9 (±2.9) ppb and 9.5 (±3.2) ppb, depending on the averaging period. An IQR (4 ppb) increase in measured previous NO2 exposure was associated with greater odds of sensitization to HDMs (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.43, P = 0.035). We found evidence of an association between relatively low outdoor NO2 concentrations and sensitization to HDMs, but not other aeroallergens, in Australian children aged 7-11 years.

12.
Environ Res ; 194: 110632, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Socio-economic status (SES) and air pollutants are thought to play an important role in human obesity. The evidence of interactive effect between SES and long-term exposure to mixture of air pollutants on obesity is limited, thus, this study is aimed to investigate their interactive effects on obesity among a rural Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 38,817 individuals were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to construct the latent variables of low SES (educational level, marital status, family yearly income, and number of family members), air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamics diameters ≤ 1.0 µm, ≤ 2.5 µm or ≤ 10 µm, and nitrogen dioxide) and obesity (body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, body fat percentage and visceral fat index). Generalized linear regression models were used to assess associations between the constructed latent variables. Interaction plots were applied to describe interactive effect of air pollution and low SES on obesity and biological interaction indicators (the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S)) were also calculated. RESULTS: Increased latent variables of low SES and mixture of air pollution were associated with a higher odds of latent variable of obesity (odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) were 1.055 (1.049, 1.060) and 1.050 (1.045, 1.055)). The association of the mixture of air pollutants on obesity was aggravated by increased values of the latent variable of low SES (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the values of RERI, AP and S were 0.073 (0.051, 0.094), 0.057 (0.040, 0.073) and 1.340 (1.214, 1.479), respectively, indicating an additive effect of estimated latent variable of low SES and air pollution on obesity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that low SES aggravated the negative effect of mixture of air pollutants on obesity, implying that individuals with low SES may be more susceptible to exposure to high levels of mixture of air pollutants related to increased risk of prevalent obesity.

13.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution leads to respiratory morbidity and mortality; however, the evidence of the effect on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in older adult populations is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the associations between particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure and lung function, as well as COPD prevalence, in older Chinese adults. METHODS: We used data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) China Wave 1, which includes 111 693 participants from 64 townships in China. A cross-sectional analysis explored the association between satellite-based air pollution exposure estimates (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 µm [PM10], ≤2.5 µm [PM2.5] and NO2) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio and COPD (defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <70%). Data on lung function changes were further stratified by COPD status. RESULTS: Higher exposure to each pollutant was associated with lower lung function. An IQR (26.1 µg/m3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with lower FEV1 (-71.88 mL, 95% CI -92.13 to -51.64) and FEV1/FVC (-2.81 mL, 95% CI -3.37 to -2.25). For NO2, an IQR increment of 26.8 µg/m3 was associated with decreases in FEV1 (-60.12 mL, 95% CI -84.00 to -36.23) and FVC (-32.33 mL, 95% CI -56.35 to -8.32). A 31.2 µg/m3 IQR increase in PM10 was linked to reduced FEV1 (-8.86 mL, 95% CI -5.40 to 23.11) and FEV1/FVC (-1.85 mL, 95% CI -2.24 to -1.46). These associations were stronger for participants with COPD. Also, COPD prevalence was linked to higher levels of PM2.5 (POR 1.35, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.43), PM10 (POR 1.24, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.29) and NO2 (POR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.11). CONCLUSION: Ambient air pollution was associated with lower lung function, especially in individuals with COPD, and increased COPD prevalence in older Chinese adults.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 407: 124750, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341569

RESUMO

Evidence concerning exposure to air pollution and visual impairment is scarce. We evaluated the associations of ambient air pollution with visual impairment and visual acuity levels in Chinese schoolchildren. We recruited 61,995 children from 7 provinces/municipalities across China. Concentrations of air pollutants (i.e., particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 1.0 µm [PM1], ≤ 2.5 µm [PM2.5], and 10 µm [PM10] as well as nitrogen dioxides [NO2]) were measured using machine learning methods. Visual acuity levels were measured using standard protocols. We used SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC to assess the association between air pollution and visual impairment. An interquartile range increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was associated with a 1.133- (95% CI, 1.035-1.240), 1.267- (95% CI, 1.082-1.484), 1.142- (95% CI, 1.019-1.281), and 1.276-fold (95% CI, 1.173-1.388) increased odds of visual impairment, and the associations were stronger in children being boys, older, living in rural areas, and born to parents who had a lower educational level or smoked, compared to their counterparts. These results suggest that exposure to air pollution were positively associated with the odds of visual impairment, and the association may be modified by children's age, sex, and residential area as well as parental education level and cigarette smoking.

15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(12): e566-e576, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to temperature variability has been associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate whether the association between short-term temperature variability and hospitalisation was affected by local socioeconomic level in Brazil. METHODS: In this time-series study, we collected city-level socioeconomic data, and daily hospitalisation and weather data from 1814 Brazilian cities between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2015. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalisation data was from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System in Brazil. City-specific daily minimum and maximum temperatures came from a 0·25° × 0·25° Brazilian meteorological dataset. We represented city-specific socioeconomic level using literacy rate, urbanisation rate, average monthly household income per capita (using the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian census), and GDP per capita (using statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for 2000-15), and cities were categorised according to the 2015 World Bank standard. We used quasi-Poisson regression to do time-series analyses and obtain city-specific associations between temperature variability and hospitalisation. We pooled city-specific estimates according to different socioeconomic quartiles or levels using random-effect meta-analyses. Meta-regressions adjusting for demographic and climatic characteristics were used to evaluate the modification effect of city-level socioeconomic indicators on the association between temperature variability and hospitalisation. FINDINGS: We included a total of 147 959 243 hospitalisations (59·0% female) during the study period. Overall, we estimated that the hospitalisation risk due to every 1°C increase in the temperature variability in the current and previous day (TV0-1) increased by 0·52% (95% CI 0·50-0·55). For lower-middle-income cities, this risk was 0·63% (95% CI 0·58-0·69), for upper-middle-income cities it was 0·50% (0·47-0·53), and for high-income cities it was 0·39% (0·33-0·46). The socioeconomic inequality in vulnerability to TV0-1 was especially evident for people aged 0-19 years (effect estimate 1·21% [1·11-1·31] for lower-middle income vs 0·52% [0·41-0·63] for high income) and people aged 60 years or older (0·60% [0·50-0·70] vs 0·43% [0·31-0·56]), and for hospitalisation due to infectious diseases (1·62% [1·46-1·78] vs 0·56% [0·30-0·82]), respiratory diseases (1·32% [1·20-1·44] vs 0·55% [0·37-0·74]), and endocrine diseases (1·21% [0·99-1·43] vs 0·32% [0·02-0·62]). INTERPRETATION: People living in less developed cities in Brazil were more vulnerable to hospitalisation related to temperature variability. This disparity could exacerbate existing health and socioeconomic inequalities in Brazil, and it suggests that more attention should be paid to less developed areas to mitigate the adverse health effects of short-term temperature fluctuations. FUNDING: None.

17.
Eur J Immunol ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354776

RESUMO

Icaritin, a small molecule currently being investigated in phase III clinical trials in China (NCT03236636 and NCT03236649) for treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a prenylflavonoid derivative obtained from the Epimedium genus. Previously, it was found that Icaritin decreased the expression of PD-L1, but its direct molecular targets and the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. In this study, we report the identification of IKKα as the protein target of Icaritin by biotin-based affinity binding assay. The further mutagenesis assay has provided evidence that C46 and C178 in IKKα were essential amino acids for Icaritin binding to IKKα, revealing the binding sites of Icaritin to IKKα for the first time. Functionally, Icaritin inhibited the NF-κB signalling pathway by blocking IKK complex formation, which led to decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, and subsequent down-regulation of PD-L1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, PD-L1-positive patients exhibited longer overall survival upon Icaritin therapy. Finally, Icaritin in combination with checkpoints antibodies such as α-PD-1 has demonstrated much better efficacy than any single therapy in animal models. This is the first report that anti-cancer effects of Icaritin are mediated, at least in part, by impairing functions of IKKα. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(12): 127010, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potential modification of the association between maternal particulate matter (PM) exposure and preterm delivery (PTD) by folic acid (FA) supplementation has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether FA supplementation could reduce the risk of PTD associated with maternal exposure to PM in ambient air during pregnancy. METHOD: In a cohort study covering 30 of the 31 provinces of mainland China in 2014, 1,229,556 primiparas of Han ethnicity were followed until labor. We collected information on their FA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes and estimated each participant's exposure to PM with diameters of ≤10µm (PM10), 2.5µm (PM2.5), and 1µm (PM1) using satellite remote-sensing based models. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine interactions between FA supplementation and PM exposures, after controlling for individual characteristics. RESULTS: Participants who initiated FA ≥3 months prior to pregnancy (38.1%) had a 23% [hazard ratio (HR)=0.77 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.78)] lower risk of PTD than women who did not use preconception FA. Participants with PM concentrations in the highest quartile had a higher risk of PTD [HR=1.29 (95% CI: 1.26, 1.32) for PM1, 1.52 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.58) for PM2.5, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.27) for PM10] than those with exposures in the lowest PM quartiles. Estimated associations with a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly lower among women who initiated FA ≥3 months prior to pregnancy [HR=1.09 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.10) for both exposures] than among women who did not use preconception FA [HR=1.12 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.13) for both exposures; pinteraction<0.001]. The corresponding association was also significantly lower for a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 [HR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.03) for FA ≥3 months before pregnancy vs. 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.04) for no preconception FA; pinteraction<0.001]. CONCLUSION: Our findings require confirmation in other populations, but they suggest that initiating FA supplementation ≥3 months prior to pregnancy may lessen the risk of PTD associated with PM exposure during pregnancy among primiparas of Han ethnicity. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6386.

19.
JCI Insight ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350984

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of NLRP3 inflammasome has been implicated in a variety of human inflammatory diseases, however currently no pharmacological NLRP3 inhibitor has been approved in clinic. In this study, we showed that echinatin, the ingredient of the traditional herbal medicine licorice, effectively suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that echinatin exerts its inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome by binding to heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), inhibiting its ATPase activity, and disrupting the association between the cochaperone SGT1 and HSP90-NLRP3. Importantly, in vivo experiments demonstrated that administration of echinatin obviously inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ameliorates LPS-induced septic shock and DSS-induced colitis in mice. Moreover, echinatin exerted favorable pharmacological effects on liver inflammation and fibrosis in mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Collectively, our study identified echinatin as a novel inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome and may be developed as a potentially therapeutic approach for the treatment of NLRP3-driven diseases.

20.
Lancet Planet Health ; 4(11): e512-e521, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various retrospective studies have reported on the increase of mortality risk due to higher diurnal temperature range (DTR). This study projects the effect of DTR on future mortality across 445 communities in 20 countries and regions. METHODS: DTR-related mortality risk was estimated on the basis of the historical daily time-series of mortality and weather factors from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2015, with data for 445 communities across 20 countries and regions, from the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We obtained daily projected temperature series associated with four climate change scenarios, using the four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, from the lowest to the highest emission scenarios (RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5). Excess deaths attributable to the DTR during the current (1985-2015) and future (2020-99) periods were projected using daily DTR series under the four scenarios. Future excess deaths were calculated on the basis of assumptions that warmer long-term average temperatures affect or do not affect the DTR-related mortality risk. FINDINGS: The time-series analyses results showed that DTR was associated with excess mortality. Under the unmitigated climate change scenario (RCP 8.5), the future average DTR is projected to increase in most countries and regions (by -0·4 to 1·6°C), particularly in the USA, south-central Europe, Mexico, and South Africa. The excess deaths currently attributable to DTR were estimated to be 0·2-7·4%. Furthermore, the DTR-related mortality risk increased as the long-term average temperature increased; in the linear mixed model with the assumption of an interactive effect with long-term average temperature, we estimated 0·05% additional DTR mortality risk per 1°C increase in average temperature. Based on the interaction with long-term average temperature, the DTR-related excess deaths are projected to increase in all countries or regions by 1·4-10·3% in 2090-99. INTERPRETATION: This study suggests that globally, DTR-related excess mortality might increase under climate change, and this increasing pattern is likely to vary between countries and regions. Considering climatic changes, our findings could contribute to public health interventions aimed at reducing the impact of DTR on human health. FUNDING: Korea Ministry of Environment.

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