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2.
J Med Chem ; 62(21): 9931-9946, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638797

RESUMO

RORγt is an important nuclear receptor that regulates the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17 and IL-22. As a result, RORγt has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of various immunological disorders such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Structure and computer-assisted drug design led to the identification of a novel series of tricyclic RORγt inverse agonists with significantly improved in vitro activity in the reporter (Gal4) and human whole blood assays compared to our previous chemotype. Through careful structure activity relationship, several potent and selective RORγt inverse agonists have been identified. Pharmacokinetic studies allowed the identification of the lead molecule 32 with a low peak-to-trough ratio. This molecule showed excellent activity in an IL-2/IL-23-induced mouse pharmacodynamic study and demonstrated biologic-like efficacy in an IL-23-induced preclinical model of psoriasis.

3.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2265-2285, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785748

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of BMS-986104 (2) as a differentiated S1P1 receptor modulator. In comparison to fingolimod (1), a full agonist of S1P1 currently marketed for the treatment of relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 2 offers several potential advantages having demonstrated improved safety multiples in preclinical evaluations against undesired pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. In clinical trials, 2 was found to exhibit a pharmacokinetic half-life ( T1/2) longer than that of 1, as well as a reduced formation of the phosphate metabolite that is required for activity against S1P1. Herein, we describe our efforts to discover highly potent, partial agonists of S1P1 with a shorter T1/2 and increased in vivo phosphate metabolite formation. These efforts culminated in the discovery of BMS-986166 (14a), which was advanced to human clinical evaluation. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessments are discussed. Furthermore, efficacy of 14a in multiple preclinical models of autoimmune diseases are presented.

4.
Dermatol Res Pract ; 2018: 5345390, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186321

RESUMO

The study was conducted on skin of 24 buffaloes collected from slaughter house. The skin tissues were collected from dorsal, lateral, and ventral parts of head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and tail regions and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. The tissues were processed for paraffin blocks preparation by acetone benzene schedule. The paraffin sections of 5-6 µm were cut with rotary microtome and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The sweat glands in buffaloes were of saccular and simple coiled tubular type. Most of the sweat glands were associated with hair follicles and consisted of a coiled secretory portion (body) and a straight duct. The secretory portion was made up of glandular tubules, myoepithelium, and basement membrane. The duct portion had a narrow lumen and was lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. The glandular epithelium was simple squamous, simple cuboidal, or low columnar type depending upon their stage of secretary activity. Two types of sweat glands were observed, i.e., apocrine and merocrine. Large number of blood vessels and nerve fibers were observed in the vicinity of the sweat glands. In head, neck, and tail regions the maximum number of sweat glands/mm2 was observed in dorsal side which did not vary significantly (p<0.05) from lateral and ventral side. In abdomen region the number of sweat glands/mm2 was maximum on lateral region which varied significantly from ventral region (p<0.05). Overall, the maximum number of sweat glands/mm2 was in head region followed by abdomen, thorax, neck, and tail but without any significant (p<0.05) difference. Maximum sweat gland diameter was found in abdomen region followed by thorax, head, neck, and tail region.

5.
Biomacromolecules ; 19(3): 803-815, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451980

RESUMO

Synthetic lethality is a molecular-targeted therapy for selective killing of cancer cells. We exploited a lethal interaction between superoxide dismutase 1 inhibition and Bloom syndrome gene product (BLM) defect for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT 116) with a customized lung cancer screen-1-loaded nanocarrier (LCS-1-NC). The drug LCS-1 has poor aqueous solubility. To overcome its limitations, a customized NC, composed of a magnetite core coated with three polymeric shells, namely, aminocellulose (AC), branched poly(amidoamine), and paraben-PEG, was developed for encapsulating LCS-1. Encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were found to be 74% and 8.2%, respectively. LCS-1-NC exhibited sustained release, with ∼85% of drug release in 24 h. Blank NC (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited cytocompatibility toward normal cells, mainly due to the AC layer. LCS-1-NC demonstrated high killing selectivity (104 times) toward BLM-deficient HCT 116 cells over BLM-proficient HCT 116 cells. Due to enhanced efficacy of the drug using NC, the sensitivity difference for BLM-deficient cells increased to 1.7 times in comparison to that with free LCS-1. LCS-1-NC induced persistent DNA damage and apoptosis, which demonstrates that LCS-1-NC effectively and preferentially killed BLM-deficient CRC cells. This is the first report on the development of a potential drug carrier to improve the therapeutic efficacy of LCS-1 for specific killing of CRC cells having BLM defects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , RecQ Helicases/deficiência , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/uso terapêutico
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1531: 122-130, 2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174572

RESUMO

Analysis and purification of boronic acid pinacol esters by RPLC is very challenging due to their degradation in aqueous and alcoholic solvents. These compounds are difficult to purify by SFC too as they are equally sensitive to traditional co-solvents like methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol. 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol (TFE), which has been reported for the purification of a few alcohol sensitive compounds, was evaluated as a co-solvent in this study for the purification of chiral and achiral boronate esters by SFC. Examples of twelve compounds were presented in this paper where degradation of boronic acid pinacol esters was successfully controlled by replacing methanol with TFE as the co-solvent in SFC. A separate study showed that TFE can also control the epimerization of the enantiomers of 3 substituted 1,4 benzodiazepine analogues during the purification process. In addition to above benefits, 2,2,2trifloroethanol showed improved selectivity and resolution for most of the compounds. With its stronger solvent strength compared to other alcohols, TFE could also be used to reduce the co-solvent percentage needed for elution and to shorten retention time of highly polar samples which did not elute even in 50% of other co-solvents in SFC. A case study of compound B demonstrated that TFE provided a reduced co-solvent percentage and a shorter cycle time with much improved resolution as compared to methanol, thus resulting in higher loading and throughput with reduction of total solvent consumption.


Assuntos
Ácidos Borônicos/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Trifluoretanol/química , Ésteres/química , Metanol/química , Estereoisomerismo
7.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets ; 18(4): 337-346, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669337

RESUMO

Cancer is an evolutionary disease with multiple genetic alterations, accumulated due to chromosomal instability and/or aneuploidy and it sometimes acquires drug-resistant phenotype also. Whole genome sequencing and mutational analysis helped in understanding the differences among persons for predisposition of a disease and its treatment non-responsiveness. Thus, molecular targeted therapies came into existence. Among them, the concept of synthetic lethality have enthralled great attention as it is a pragmatic approach towards exploiting cancer cell specific mutations to specifically kill cancer cells without affecting normal cells and thus enhancing anti-cancer drug therapeutic index. Thus, this approach helped in discovering new therapeutic molecules for development of precision medicine. Nanotechnology helped in delivering these molecules to the target site in an effective concentration thus reducing off target effects of drugs, dose and dosage frequency drugs. Researchers have tried to deliver siRNA targeting synthetic lethal partner for target cancer cell killing by incorporating it in nanoparticles and it has shown efficacy by preventing tumor progression. This review summarizes the brief introduction of synthetic lethality, and synthetic lethal gene interactions, with a major focus on its therapeutic anticancer potential with the application of nanotechnology for development of personalized medicine.

8.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 5193-5208, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28541707

RESUMO

PI3Kδ plays an important role controlling immune cell function and has therefore been identified as a potential target for the treatment of immunological disorders. This article highlights our work toward the identification of a potent, selective, and efficacious PI3Kδ inhibitor. Through careful SAR, the successful replacement of a polar pyrazole group by a simple chloro or trifluoromethyl group led to improved Caco-2 permeability, reduced Caco-2 efflux, reduced hERG PC activity, and increased selectivity profile while maintaining potency in the CD69 hWB assay. The optimization of the aryl substitution then identified a 4'-CN group that improved the human/rodent correlation in microsomal metabolic stability. Our lead molecule is very potent in PK/PD assays and highly efficacious in a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2/imunologia , Cães , Canal de Potássio ERG1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Coelhos
9.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 75: 104-114, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415387

RESUMO

This paper is focused on preparation and characterization of regenerated muga and tasar fibroin flexible films from cocoon using ionic liquid. These flexible muga and tasar fibroin films were prepared by incorporating dextrose (5 to 15% w/w) as plasticizer. The mechanical, thermal, physical, morphological and biological properties of dextrose plasticized muga and tasar fibroin films were characterized. These plasticized films showed higher elongation at break as well as water holding capacity as compared to the un-plasticized films. The surface roughness and water absorbance capacity of the dextrose plasticized films were higher than un-plasticized films, which results in improved adherence and proliferation of L929 fibroblast cells. Gentamicin loaded plasticized muga and tasar fibroin films showed slightly higher rate of release as compared to un-plasticized films. The biodegradability of dextrose plasticized films was significantly higher as compared to their respective counterpart. The regeneration of flexible muga and tasar silk fibroin films pave the way to expand potential use of non-mulberry in the field of biomedical such as wound dressing.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Fibroblastos , Fibroínas , Gentamicinas , Glucose , Membranas Artificiais , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibroínas/química , Fibroínas/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/química , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Glucose/química , Glucose/farmacologia , Camundongos , Mariposas
10.
J Med Chem ; 60(9): 3795-3803, 2017 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418664

RESUMO

We have recently disclosed 5-phenyl-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-2-(pyrimidin-5-yl)quinazolin-4-amine 1 as a potent IKur current blocker with selectivity versus hERG, Na and Ca channels, and an acceptable preclinical PK profile. Upon further characterization in vivo, compound 1 demonstrated an unacceptable level of brain penetration. In an effort to reduce the level of brain penetration while maintaining the overall profile, SAR was developed at the C2' position for a series of close analogues by employing hydrogen bond donors. As a result, 5-[5-phenyl-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)quinazolin-2-yl]pyridine-3-sulfonamide (25) was identified as the lead compound in this series. Compound 25 showed robust effects in rabbit and canine pharmacodynamic models and an acceptable cross-species pharmacokinetic profile and was advanced as the clinical candidate. Further optimization of 25 to mitigate pH-dependent absorption resulted in identification of the corresponding phosphoramide prodrug (29) with an improved solubility and pharmacokinetic profile.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Quinazolinas/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Cães , Espectrometria de Massas , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Coelhos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
11.
Mol Pharm ; 14(4): 1204-1211, 2017 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263078

RESUMO

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) induces autophagy in mammalian cells and also has mycobactericidal activity, displaying a two-pronged therapeutic effect, on the host as well as the pathogen. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of inhaled NTZ were investigated. Particles containing NTZ in a matrix of PLGA were prepared by spray drying. HPLC and LC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated. Particles were administered as inhalations to mice. Drug concentrations in plasma and tissues were estimated at different time points. Drug loading (∼36%), entrapment efficiency (>90%), and the conversion of NTZ into metabolites in plasma and lung homogenates were assessed satisfactorily by HPLC. NTZ pharmacokinetics and biodistribution following intravenous administration or inhalation were established by LC-MS. NTZ converted into tizoxanide (99% in 30 min) and other metabolites. Pulmonary delivery of NTZ entrapped in particles increased the half-life of the drug by factors of 3, 12, and 200 in the plasma, lung tissue, and alveolar macrophages, respectively. Targeted delivery and prolonged lung retention along with dose sparing of the kidneys was observed upon pulmonary delivery as compared to intravenous administration.


Assuntos
Pulmão/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Meia-Vida , Ácido Láctico/química , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia
12.
Medchemcomm ; 8(4): 725-729, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108791

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of prodrug amino-alcohol 2 as a potent and efficacious S1P1 receptor modulator. This molecule is differentiated preclinically over the marketed drug fingolimod (Gilenya 1), whose active phosphate metabolite is an S1P1 full agonist, in terms of pulmonary and cardiovascular safety. S1P1 partial agonist 2, however, has a long half-life in rodents and was projected to have a long half-life in humans. The purpose of this communication is to disclose highly potent partial agonists of S1P1 with shorter half-lives relative to the clinical compound 2. PK/PD relationships as well as their preclinical pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessment are discussed.

13.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11138-11147, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002964

RESUMO

We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Mol Pharm ; 13(9): 3247-55, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463245

RESUMO

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has moderate mycobactericidal activity and is also an inducer of autophagy in mammalian cells. High-payload (40-50% w/w) inhalable particles containing NTZ alone or in combination with antituberculosis (TB) agents isoniazid (INH) and rifabutin (RFB) were prepared with high incorporation efficiency of 92%. In vitro drug release was corrected for drug degradation during the course of study and revealed first-order controlled release. Particles were efficiently taken up in vitro by macrophages and maintained intracellular drug concentrations at one order of magnitude higher than NTZ in solution for 6 h. Dose-dependent killing of Mtb and restoration of lung and spleen architecture were observed in experimentally infected mice treated with inhalations containing NTZ. Adjunct NTZ with INH and RFB cleared culturable bacteria from the lung and spleen and markedly healed tissue architecture. NTZ can be used in combination with INH-RFB to kill the pathogen and heal the host.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Rifabutina/administração & dosagem , Rifabutina/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tuberculose/metabolismo
15.
Pharm Res ; 33(8): 1899-912, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibits host defense mechanisms, including autophagy. We investigated particles containing rapamycin (RAP) alone or in combination with isoniazid (INH) and rifabutin (RFB) for: targeting lung macrophages on inhalation; inducing autophagy; and killing macrophage-resident Mtb and/or augmenting anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. METHODS: PLGA and drugs were spray-dried. Pharmacokinetics, partial biodistribution (LC-MS/MS) and efficacy (colony forming units, qPCR, acid fast staining, histopathology) in mice following dry powder inhalation were evaluated. RESULTS: Aerodynamic diameters of formulations were 0.7-4.7 µm. Inhaled particles reached deep lungs and were phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages, yielding AUC0-48 of 102 compared to 0.1 µg/ml × h obtained with equivalent intravenous dose. RAP particles induced more autophagy in Mtb-infected macrophages than solutions. Inhaled particles containing RAP alone in daily, alternate-day and weekly dosing regimens reduced bacterial burden in lungs and spleens, inducing autophagy and phagosome-lysosome fusion. Inhalation of particles containing RAP with INH and RFB cleared the lungs and spleens of culturable bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting a potent autophagy-inducing agent to airway and lung macrophages alone is feasible, but not sufficient to eliminate Mtb. Combination of macrophage-targeted inhaled RAP with classical anti-TB drugs contributes to restoring tissue architecture and killing Mtb.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Láctico/síntese química , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Ácido Poliglicólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Poliglicólico/síntese química , Ácido Poliglicólico/metabolismo , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Sirolimo/síntese química , Sirolimo/metabolismo
16.
Vet Med Int ; 2016: 2414769, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26981314

RESUMO

The study was conducted on pancreas of 24 buffalo fetuses collected from abattoir and Veterinary clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The buffalo fetuses were divided into three groups after measuring their CVRL, namely, group I (CVRL between 0 and 20 cm), group II (CVRL above 20 cm and up to 40 cm), and group III (CVRL above 40 cm) and their approximate age was calculated. The tissues were processed for light and ultrastructural studies. In group I, at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), the pancreas comprised tubules and solid nest of undifferentiated epithelial cells. At 7.5 cm CVRL (63 days) acinar cells with zymogen granules were observed. These acinar cells varied in shape from columnar to pyramidal. At 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days), parenchyma began to organize into lobes and lobules. The centroacinar cells were observed at 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days). In group II, at 28.3 cm CVRL (137 days), there was extensive branching of tubules that resulted in highly branched ductal tree connecting exocrine secretary units to the duct system. The interlobular and intralobular ducts were well observed at this age yet the intercalated ducts were not completely developed. In group III, exocrine pancreas showed a massive growth at 48 cm CVRL (182 days) with distinct pancreatic lobes and lobules. At 54 cm CVRL (195 days), well developed pancreatic architecture was seen with the presence of extensive development of exocrine part organized in lobes and lobules with interlobular and intralobular ducts whereas the intercalated ducts were observed in 80 cm CVRL (254 days).

17.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 102: 10-20, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829287

RESUMO

One of the promising host-directed chemotherapeutic interventions in tuberculosis (TB) is based on inducing autophagy as an immune effector. Here we consider the strengths and weaknesses of potential autophagy-based pharmacological intervention. Using the existing drugs that induce autophagy is an option, but it has limitations given the broad role of autophagy in most cells, tissues, and organs. Thus, it may be desirable that the agent being used to modulate autophagy is applied in a targeted manner, e.g. delivered to affected tissues, with infected macrophages being an obvious choice. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of delivering drugs to induce autophagy in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. One option, already being tested in models, is to design particles for inhalation delivery to lung macrophages. The choice of drugs, drug release kinetics and intracellular residence times, non-target cell exposure and feasibility of use by patients is discussed. We term here this (still experimental) approach, of compartment-targeting, autophagy-based, host-directed therapy as "Track-II antituberculosis chemotherapy."


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose/terapia , Autofagia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose/imunologia
18.
Curr Pharm Des ; 22(17): 2599-604, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks alongside the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as cause of death due to an infectious disease. Recently, host-targeted therapies (HDT) have gained attention as a means to shorten the course of treatment of drug-sensitive TB, improve treatment outcomes of drug-resistant TB and generally improve the efficacy and preserve or restore lung architecture of TB patients. It has been suggested that supplementing anti-TB therapy with host response modulators will augment standard TB treatment by overcoming antibiotic resistance in pathogenic strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and related species, thus aiding in killing non-replicating bacilli. METHODS: The aim of this review is to examine pulmonary delivery strategies that can enhance the safety as well as efficacy of HDT against pulmonary TB. We reviewed literature in the public domain and revisited our own results on inhaled HDT to arrive at broad conclusions. RESULTS: HDT can be viewed as a strategy to evoke one or more of the following macrophage responses: (i) soluble, intracellular factors such as free radicals and antimicrobial peptides; (ii) soluble extracellular signals like cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, lipids, etc.; (iii) organelles and assemblies such as phagolysosomes or the inflammasome; (iv) Autophagy, via mTOR/S6 Kinase; and (v) apoptosis via caspases, bcr/abl products, etc. All of these may be optimally addressed using drugs approved for other uses. CONCLUSION: Deployment of HDT in TB may be optimally achieved through macrophage-targeted inhaled delivery systems.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Gen Relativ Gravit ; 47(2): 11, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412861

RESUMO

The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

20.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 6(8): 850-5, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288683

RESUMO

JAK2 kinase inhibitors are a promising new class of agents for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms and have potential for the treatment of other diseases possessing a deregulated JAK2-STAT pathway. X-ray structure and ADME guided refinement of C-4 heterocycles to address metabolic liability present in dialkylthiazole 1 led to the discovery of a clinical candidate, BMS-911543 (11), with excellent kinome selectivity, in vivo PD activity, and safety profile.

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