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1.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 12(1): 17-33, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517874

RESUMO

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are one of the developed technologies for addressing the bioavailability and targeting issues of drug delivery. In this review article, we attempted to incorporate all the essential details of SLNs like various methods of preparation, different models of SLNs, updated characterization methods, in vivo behavior (uptake), their applications, route of administration as well as advancements taken place in the field of delivery of biological drugs like gene vector, new adjuvant for vaccines, protein, and peptide with SLNs. Surface modified SLNs hold excellent potential for targeted and controlled drug delivery which is discussed and summarized. Based on the available data, the future success of SLNs is widened because they could be easily fabricated with various functionalities which would display enormous potential for targeting and diagnosing various diseases. This review would help the budding researchers to find out the unexplored areas of SLNs with the present discussion that reframes the potential of SLNs by gathering the various research findings of SLNs in tabular form along with the approved patent technologies of SLNs.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Prev Med ; 12: 134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally Noncommunicable Diseases is lead causes of mortality. This calls for the need of sensitive and cost appropriate screening tools to identify asymptomatic healthy individuals with higher risk and/or subclinical NCD in the community. The study aims to generate pilot evidence based, validated, good quality, cost appropriate, and sustainable risk assessment score for NCD for developing countries like India. METHODS: This descriptive retrospective study of diabetic camp data of 84 patients was conducted. A risk score having 10 questions and three measurements for NCDs appropriate for Indian communities was generated. It was compared to IDRS, FINDRISC, FRS, CBAC, and WHO/ISH prediction charts. RESULTS: The study finally included 36 patients with NCD as case and 44 subjects without NCD as control. The means of weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and blood sugar were significantly different among the two groups. AMNRAS of more than 14 was highly predictive for an individual to be at risk of NCD or sub clinical case of NCD requiring evaluation. The proposed cut-off of 8 for AMNRAS, the sensitivity and NPV was highest compared to other score, 88.9% and 84.6%, respectively. Score for the Area under curve was significantly higher for AMNRAS [0.83 (0.74 to 0.92)] compared to other scores. CONCLUSIONS: AMNRAS has higher performance parameters than the other five tested in the present study. Other scoring system performs only modestly in discrimination of NCD cases. The accuracy of AMNRAS for NCD risk will have to be determined in large size cohorts.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550552

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an autoimmune, chronic proliferative, inflammatory skin disease with high comorbidity. Psoriasis is not a curable disease; it can only be managed. Cyclosporine A (CyA) is one of the FDA-approved immunosuppressant drug used in severe Psoriasis. Till date only oral route is used for its administration. Administration of CyA by this route causes serious side effects such as hypertension and renal toxicity. Due to these side effects, a number of researches have been done and taking place in the current times for the dermal delivery of CyA for the management of psoriasis. Dermal delivery of CyA is not an easy task because of its physiochemical properties like high molecular weight, lipophilicity and resistance offered by stratum corneum (SC). Because of the above problems in the dermal delivery a number of new approaches such as nanolipid carriers, microemulsion, liposomes, niosomes etc. are explored. To those deep findings for psoriasis management with dermal delivery of CyA have not been discussed. This comprehensive review includes all the studies, advancements and their critical findings which took place in the recent times for the dermal delivery of CyA and along with the suitable modification needed for the efficient dermal delivery of CyA are also suggested.

5.
J Public Health Res ; 10(4)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, unintentional injury has been a documented public health problem among adolescents having debilitating consequences and accountable for economic burden. The study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of unintentional injury, identify the determinants and consequences among adolescents. DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 222 adolescents using systematic random sampling from a site covered under UHTC Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarkhand. Binary and multivariate logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for establishing an association between risk factors and unintentional injury. Descriptive measures (causes, consequences, etc.) describing injuries were presented in tabular, graphical form in proportions. RESULTS: 73.1% of the adolescents suffered from unintentional injury. The risk factors associated (statistically insignificant) with unintentional injury was  males (AOR=1.019, 95% CI=0.524-1.979) , living in nuclear family (AOR=1.540, 95% CI =0.766-3.093), smoked tobacco (AOR=2.797, 95% CI=0.227-34.4377), visually impaired (AOR =1.629, 95% CI=0.548-6.458) and living in house with overcrowding (AOR=1.66, 95% CI=0.818-3.395). Five percent of those affected with unintentional injury had disability. CONCLUSIONS: Health education addressing causes, risk factors, consequences of unintentional injury among adolescents, parents, school, and district health authorities should be mandated for the formulation of policy to prevent unintentional injuries.

6.
J Public Health Res ; 10(1): 2109, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708751

RESUMO

Background: The rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is a threat to India. Increasingly, individuals interested in improving their health and making healthy lifestyle changes are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a health-care option. Design and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictor of alternative medicine use among NCDs patients undergoing allopathic treatment in an urban health centre. The study design was a hospital-based crosssectional study, which was done in a government hospital, Srinagar, Pauri District, Uttarakhand, India among adult males and females aged above 20 years. The patients having NCDs were systematically sampled. Result: Among 233 studied patients 57.1% were males. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years (SD 13.5). Of the total studied patients 46.8% were diagnosed with DM, and 43.8% of HTN. Nearly one-fifth of the patients were known to have a CVD or COPD. A total of 49.8% of the studied NCD patients reported use of both allopathic and alternative medicine treatment and nearly 3.4% of the studied NCD patients in the last one year to seek exclusive alternative medicine treatment. The overall use of exclusive alternative medicine was low that is 3.7%, 1.0%, and 5% in diabetes, hypertension, and chronic lung disease patients, respectively. The most common form of alternative medicine used by studied patients was medicinal herbs/biological-based medicine (MB) (62.9%). Among MB commonly used were a bitter gourd, aloe vera, and others. 29.8% of the patients used Indian/Ayurveda medicine in total. Conclusions: The use of exclusive alternative medicine is low in adult patients with NCD. However, medical pluralism is prevalent. A better understanding of practices especially that focuses on alternative medicine needs a qualitative study, which was beyond the scope of this study.

7.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 18(10): 1574-1584, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite significant biological effects, the clinical use of chrysin has been restricted because of its poor oral bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the targeting potential of Mannose decorated chrysin (5,7- dihydroxyflavone) loaded solid lipid nanocarrier (MC-SLNs) for gastric cancer. METHODS: The Chrysin loaded SLNs (C-SLNs) were developed, optimized, characterized and further mannosylated. The C-SLNs were developed with a high shear homogenizer, optimized with 32 full factorial designs and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and evaluated for particle size/polydispersity index, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, % release and haemolytic toxicity. The ex-vivo cytotoxicity study was performed on gastric cancer (ACG) and normal cell lines. RESULTS: DSC and XRD data predict the chrysin encapsulation in the lipid core and FTIR results confirm the mannosylation of C-SLNs. The optimized C-SLNs exhibited a narrow size distribution with a particle size of 285.65 nm. The % Entrapment Efficiency (%EE) and % controlled release were found to be 74.43% and 64.83%. Once C-SLNs were coated with mannose, profound change was observed in a dependent variable - an increase in the particle size of MC-SLNs (307.1 nm) was observed with 62.87% release and 70.8% entrapment efficiency. Further, the in vitro studies depicted MC- SLNs to be least hemolytic than pure chrysin and C-SLNs. MC-SLNs were most cytotoxic and were preferably taken up ACG tumor cells as evaluated against C-SLNs. CONCLUSION: These data suggested that the MC-SLNs demonstrated better biocompatibility and targeting efficiency to treat gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Linhagem Celular , Portadores de Fármacos , Flavonoides , Humanos , Lipídeos , Tamanho da Partícula , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 11(1): 10-27, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747849

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that has affected mankind. The anti-TB treatment has been used from ancient times to control symptoms of this disease but these medications produced some serious side effects. Herbal products have been successfully used for the treatment of TB. Gold is the most biocompatible metal among all available for biomedical purposes so Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have sought attention as an attractive biosynthesized drug to be studied in recent years for bioscience research. GNPs are used as better catalysts and due to unique small size, physical resemblance to physiological molecules, biocompatibility and non-cytotoxicity extensively used for various applications including drug and gene delivery. Greenly synthesized GNPs have much more potential in different fields because phytoconstituents used in GNP synthesis itself act as reducing and capping agents and produced more stabilized GNPs. This review is devoted to a discussion on GNPs synthesis with herbs for TB. The main focus is on the role of the natural plant bio-molecules involved in the bioreduction of metal salts during the GNPs synthesis with phytoconstituents used as antitubercular agents.

9.
Intest Res ; 19(3): 291-300, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), an established modality for pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) is seldomly utilized in adults. The present study reports the outcome of EEN in adult CD patients at a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of CD patients who received EEN as a sole modality/adjunct to other treatment. The primary and secondary outcomes changed in Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and clinical response (decline in CDAI > 70), respectively, at 4 and 8 weeks. Subgroup analysis evaluated response across different phenotypes, EEN formulations and prior treatment. Linear mixed effect model was created to assess the predictors of EEN response. RESULTS: Thirty-one CD patients received EEN over median duration of 4 weeks (range, 2-6 weeks). CDAI showed a significant improvement post EEN at 4 (baseline 290 [260-320] vs. 240 [180-280], P= 0.001) and 8 weeks (baseline 290 [260-320] vs. 186 [160-240], P= 0.001), respectively. The cumulative clinical response rates at 4 and 8 weeks were 37.3% and 80.4% respectively. The clinical response rates at 8 weeks across B1 (n = 4), B2 (n = 18) and B3 (n = 9) phenotypes were 50%, 78.8% and 100% respectively (log-rank test, P= 0.093). The response rates at 8 weeks with polymeric (n = 8) and semi-elemental diet (n = 23) were 75% and 82.6%% respectively (log-rank test, P= 0.49). Baseline CDAI (odds ratio, 1.008; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.017; P= 0.046) predicted response to EEN. CONCLUSIONS: EEN was effective in inducing clinical response across different phenotypes of CD. Baseline disease activity remained the most important predictor of clinical response to EEN.

10.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(4): E892-E903, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603239

RESUMO

Introduction: Breastfeeding is the most effective intervention to improve child health. Young adults, both genders play an important role in society supporting breastfeeding as they will be stepping towards parenthood in the near future. Bringing awareness and busting the myths among them is essential. This study aimed to develop a Gender Friendly Breastfeeding Knowledge scale based on a conceptual framework that reflected the knowledge of young adults and evaluates its validity and reliability. Methodology: Development of the questionnaire for Conceptual framework and item generation was done using PubMed, Google Scholar, other sources and expert opinion. The type of measurement was structured as a 5-point Likert scale. The Lawshe technique to assess the content validity ratio. A cross-sectional survey in graduation colleges situated in Mangalagiri or within the radius of 30 km of Mangalagiri, Andhra Pradesh, India was conducted in 2020. 1400 Adult males and females aged 20-25 years and perusing full-time graduation course were recruited. For each item in the Gender Friendly Breastfeeding Awareness scale, we assessed individual item characteristics and item-test correlation. To check to construct validity, we performed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Expert panel retained 23 items from initially 30 items. The content validity index score for the each of 23-items in the scale was more than 0.80. A four-factor structure perfectly fitted the data and illustrated 54% of the variation in knowledge of breastfeeding. 4 stages of CFA were completed. The chi-square = 860.534 was significantly above the 0.01 level. Cronbach's alpha = 0.787 based on standardized items reflected the overall internal consistency of the Gender Friendly Breastfeeding Awareness scale. Conclusion: Gender Friendly Breastfeeding Knowledge scale is a valid and reliable tool, it is recommended that this scale be used in communities, educational institutions, and in relevant research to assess Breastfeeding knowledge among young adults of both genders, thereby promoting breastfeeding practices in the future.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20409, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230192

RESUMO

The effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (Bacillus sp.) and silver nanoparticles on Zea mays was evaluated. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized from Tagetes erecta (Marigold) leaf and flower extracts, whereas PGPR isolated from spinach rhizosphere. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were purified using ultra centrifugation and were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy at gradient wavelength and also by High Resolution Transmission Electron microscopy (HRTEM). The average particles size of AgNPs was recorded approximately 60 nm. Almost all potential isolates were able to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), ammonia and Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), solubilized tricalcium phosphate and inhibited the growth of Macrophomina phaseolina in vitro but the isolate LPR2 was found the best among all. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the isolate LPR2 was characterized as Bacillus cereus LPR2. The maize seeds bacterized with LPR2 and AgNPs individually showed a significant increase in germination (87.5%) followed by LPR2 + AgNPs (75%). But the maximum growth of root and shoot of maize plant was observed in seeds coated with LPR2 followed by AgNPs and a combination of both. Bacillus cereus LPR2 and silver nanoparticles enhanced the plant growth and LPR2 strongly inhibited the growth of deleterious fungal pathogen. Therefore, LPR2 and AgNPs could be utilized as bioinoculant and growth stimulator, respectively for maize.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/farmacologia , Tagetes/química , Zea mays/microbiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Amônia/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Bacillus cereus/genética , Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Prata/química , Simbiose/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(8): 3793-3796, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110769

RESUMO

The impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable groups would rely in part on the quality of communication regarding health risk and danger. Strategic planning should take full account of the way life conditions, cultural values, and risk experience affect actions during a pandemic. Concept of information education communication, Social behaviour change communication, social marketing usually technology and media is recapitulation. Ignorance with sociocultural, economic, psychological, and health factors can jeopardize effective communication at all levels. We summarized the framework for effective communication during pandemic. Understanding and practicing various communication strategies is crucial for physicians and health care workers to develop therapeutic relationships with COVID-19 patients. Addressing psychology in all people is vital during a pandemic and effective communication network is key to it. Effective communication, if ignored, will generate gaps for vulnerable populations and result in added difficulty in combating COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 186: 110681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812077

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a widespread chronic disease affecting 1-3 % of total population. In major cases (>80 %), it is treated by topical application of corticosteroids. However, the topical route is very challenging due to physico-chemical nature of diseased stratum corneum and so no single treatment works for every patient. The oral route showed severe side effects due to systemic immunosuppression, which can be avoided by topical route. The aim of the research work was to investigate cyclosporine loaded microemulsion based gel for effective cyclosporine permeation and retention in the skin tissue for psoriasis treatment. The pseudo ternary phase diagram at three Smix ratios (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2; Tween 80: isopropyl alcohol) were constructed using isopropyl myristate as oil phase. The Smix at 2:1 ratio showed large microemulsion area. The transmission electron microscope images showed spherical non-aggregated oil globules with the size < 50 nm. The selected microemulsion (Cy-2-ME12O55SM) was incorporated in Carbopol 940 gel for topical application. The ex vivo diffusion study showed improved permeation (>24 h) with microemulsion-gel in comparison to cyclosporine suspension. The microemulsion-gel was non-irritating on the rabbit skin. In drug retention studies, microemulsion-gel showed high drug retention (trapping, 38.92 %) in the skin tissue, which was due to destabilization of microemulsion after penetration in the skin layer causing precipitation of cyclosporine. The depot effect due to cyclosporine precipitates could be helpful for sustained effect of cyclosporine for the effective treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Ciclosporina/química , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Géis/administração & dosagem , Géis/química , Géis/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade
14.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(10): 3086-3089, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742124

RESUMO

Social marketing has expanded its purview in the modern era aiming at a behavioral change of target audience on a large scale. Public health practitioners now admit the value of community-based approaches to social change. Three main patterns of health education materials are social marketing communication material, information and education communication (IEC) material, and behavior change communication (BCC) material. Social marketing is a strategy based on marketing principles of selling products. The communication material suggests that the healthcare option for a particular disease is the best solution, and therefore choice or critical thinking is not necessary. IEC strategy attempts at informing people and increasing their knowledge about a disease, having them use it as a basis for action. BCC strategy promotes individual change leading to healthy community behavior. Social marketing communication material for communities should be creative, innovative, original, with clear messages in English and other local languages, reproducible, acceptable, and reflective. Primary care requires customizing health education material using translatable strategies based on social marketing to change health-care patient behavior for wellbeing. The concept of social marketing should be emphasized in early medical education. In the present times, doctors and medical students should be informed about different communication strategies to transform communication material into program tools to achieve health.

15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(3): 2733-2748, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915686

RESUMO

Glycosylation is a post-translational protein modification in eukaryotes and plays an important role in controlling several diseases. N-glycan structure is emerging as a new paradigm for biomarker discovery of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the relationship between N-glycosylation pattern and depression is not well elucidated to date. This study aimed to explore whether serum N-glycan structures are altered in depressive-like behavior using a stress based mouse model. We used two groups of BALB/c mice; (i) treated group exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) as a model of depression, and (ii) control group. Behavioral tests in mice (e.g., sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and fear conditioning test) were used to evaluate the threshold level to which mice displayed a depressive-like phenotype. Serum N-glycans were analyzed carefully using glycoblotting followed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to exhibit N-glycan expression levels and to illustrate the changes in the N-glycome profile. N-glycan expression levels were commonly altered in the depressive-like model and correlated well with the behavioral data. Our results indicated that sialylated N-glycan was identified as a biomarker associated with depressive symptoms, which may have utility as a candidate biomarker for the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/análise , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glicoproteínas/análise , Glicoproteínas/sangue , Glicosilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polissacarídeos/sangue , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos
16.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(4): 809-814, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234058

RESUMO

Background: The rising burden of obesity is a threat to both developed and developing countries. Obesity is a killer lifestyle disease. Different aspects of the local environment play a key role in the occurrence of obesity. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult, its associated factors, and its relationship with retail food outlet density in Srikot, Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional study, carried out in Srikot, Uttarakhand, in 2016 among 155 adults systematically sampled, aged above 20 years. A semi-structured pretested questionnaire was used to interview the participants, and anthropometry measurements were done. The details regarding the geographic location and count of outlets were carried out. Obesity was considered body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. Results: In the present study, 61.3% were females. The mean age of the study participants was 38.3 (±13.6) years. The prevalence of overweight was 14.8% and obesity was 55.5%. A total of 92.9% of the study participants reported consumption of junk food. On mapping the study area, it was found that the total number of food outlets were 116. It was found that density of any food outlet per study participant was 0.7. Conclusion: The Srikot in Uttarakhand is in an early stage of urbanization as evident from the burden of obesity, and this might worsen by prevalent outlet density of food in the environment.

17.
Curr Pharm Des ; 24(16): 1811-1820, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29788881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the present investigation, a factorial design approach attempt was applied to develop the Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) of Glibenclamide (GLB) a poorly water-soluble drug (BCS -II) used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: Prime objectives of this experiment are to optimize the SLN formulation of Glibenclamide and improve the therapeutic effectiveness of the developed formulation. METHODS: Glibenclamide loaded SLNs (GLB-SLN) were fabricated by High speed homogenization technique. A 32-factorial design approach has been employed to assess the influence of two independent variables, namely amount of Poloxamer 188 and Glyceryl Monostearate on entrapment efficiency (% EE) (Y1), Particle Size (nm) (Y2), % drug release at 8hr Q8 (Y3) and 24 hr Q24 (Y4) of prepared SLNs. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed the compatibility of the drug into lipid matrix with a surfactant, while Transmission electron and Scanning electron microscopy studies indicated the size and shape of SLN. RESULTS: The entrapment efficiency, particle size, Q8 and Q24 of the optimized SLNs were 88.93%, 125 nm, 31.12±0.951% and 86.07±1.291% respectively. Optimized GLB-SLN formula was derived from an overlay plot. Three-dimensional response surface plots and regression equations confirmed the corresponding influence of selected independent variables on measured responses. In vivo testing of the GLB-SLN in diabetic albino rats demonstrated the significant antidiabetic effect of GLB-SLN. CONCLUSION: The hypoglycemic effect obtained by GLB-SLN remained significantly higher than that given by drug alone and marketed formulation, further confirming the higher therapeutic effectiveness of the GLB-SLN formulation. Our findings suggested the feasibility of the investigated system for oral administration of Glibenclamide.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glibureto/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Poloxâmero/química , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Difusão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Glibureto/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Poloxâmero/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem , Tensoativos/química
18.
J Microencapsul ; 35(3): 259-271, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To optimise the Eudragit/Surelease®-coated pH-sensitive pellets for controlled and target drug delivery to the colon tissue and to avoid frequent high dosing and associated side effects which restrict its use in the colorectal-cancer therapy. METHODS: The pellets were prepared using extrusion-spheronisation technique. Box-Behnken and 32 full factorial designs were applied to optimise the process parameters [extruder sieve size, spheroniser-speed, and spheroniser-time] and the coating levels [%w/v of Eudragit S100/Eudragit-L100 and Surelease®], respectively, to achieve the smooth optimised size pellets with sustained drug delivery without prior drug release in upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). RESULTS: The design proposed the optimised batch by selecting independent variables at; extruder sieve size (X1 = 1 mm), spheroniser speed (X2 = 900 revolutions per minute, rpm), and spheroniser time (X3 = 15 min) to achieve pellet size of 0.96 mm, aspect ratio of 0.98, and roundness 97.42%. The 16%w/v coating strength of Surelease® and 13%w/v coating strength of Eudragit showed pH-dependent sustained release up to 22.35 h (t99%). The organ distribution study showed the absence of the drug in the upper part of GIT tissue and the presence of high level of capecitabine in the caecum and colon tissue. Thus, the presence of Eudragit coat prevent the release of drug in stomach and the inner Surelease® coat showed sustained drug release in the colon tissue. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the potential of optimised Eudragit/Surelease®-coated capecitabine-pellets for effective colon-targeted delivery system to avoid frequent high dosing and associated systemic side effects of drug.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Capecitabina/farmacocinética , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Colo/metabolismo , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Celulose/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ratos Wistar
19.
J Clin Diagn Res ; 11(4): LC08-LC11, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571170

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High total health expenditures via Out-of-Pocket (OOP) as formal user fees and informal payments put India in challenging situation to achieve towards universal health coverage. AIM: To assess the (OOP) expenditure and its determinants among outpatient in primary care settings of Uttarakhand, North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in a Outpatient Department of Urban Health Training Centre, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India and Rural Health Training Centre, Kritinagar, Uttarakhand in 2015. A total of 200 patients were enrolled in the study using random sampling. Questionnaire covering costs like: travel cost, drug cost, investigation cost, and others was used for measuring OOP expenditure incurred toward health care by patients. RESULTS: Of the total 200 patients, 43.5% were males and 56.5% were females with mean age 40.36 (SD 19.45) in years. Average annual family income was 11718.5 INR±13457.3 INR. Of the total study subjects, 42.5% were unskilled or had no occupation (unemployed, student, and homemaker). The majority (68.5%) had travelled less than or equal to 10 km to reach the health facility. About 50% of the study subjects presented with communicable diseases and 20% with non-communicable diseases. The health expenditure of the outpatient revealed that major part of the expenditure is the direct cost of the treatment, including registration fee, drugs, and investigation. Mean OOP expenditure for drugs and investigations was 509 INR and 673.1 INR, respectively. Mean total out-of-patient expenditure was 303.1 INR. The proportion of monthly family income spent on out-of-patient expenditure was 2.58%. CONCLUSION: The implementation of primary health care needs to be further strengthened in order to improve access of public sector hospitals for curative care.

20.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 2(2): 658-661, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33473937

RESUMO

Pengba fish, Osteobrama belangeri is a freshwater inhabitant, highly endemic, threatened and economically important minor carp for its food value. In the present investigation, population structure of O. belangeri was examined using mitochondrial ATPase 6/8 gene from geographically distinct locations along the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. A total of 80 individuals were collected belonging to natural and farm populations. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance and conventional Fst values (0.825 in ATPase 6/8, p < .05) indicated significant genetic structure among populations. The result showed that ATPase 6/8 genes are potential marker in determining the genetic divergence between natural and farm populations of O. belangeri from North-East India.

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