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1.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614273

RESUMO

Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are known to serve as nitrogen reserves in many dicot plants but remain undiscovered in grasses, most widely grown group of crops globally. We identified and characterized a VSP in maize and demonstrated that its overexpression improved drought tolerance. Nitrogen supplementation selectively induced a mesophyll lipoxygenase (ZmLOX6), which was targeted to chloroplasts by a novel N-terminal transit peptide of 62 amino acids. When ectopically expressed under the control of various tissue specific promoters, it accumulated to a five-fold higher level upon expression in the mesophyll cells than the wildtype plants. Constitutive expression or targeted expression specifically to the bundle sheath cells increased its accumulation by less than two-fold. The overexpressed ZmLOX6 was remobilized from the leaves like other major proteins during grain development. Evaluated in the field over locations and years, transgenic hybrids overexpressing ZmLOX6 in the mesophyll cells significantly outyielded non-transgenic sibs under managed drought stress imposed at flowering. Additional storage of nitrogen as a VSP in maize leaves ameliorated the effect of drought on grain yield.

2.
J Investig Med ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611034

RESUMO

Long COVID is characterized by the emergence of multiple debilitating symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Its etiology is unclear and it often follows a mild acute illness. Anecdotal reports of gradual clinical responses to histamine receptor antagonists (HRAs) suggest a histamine-dependent mechanism that is distinct from anaphylaxis, possibly mediated by T cells, which are also regulated by histamine. T cell perturbations have been previously reported in post-viral syndromes, but the T cell landscape in patients who have recovered from mild COVID-19 and its relationship to both long COVID symptoms and any symptomatic response to HRA remain underexplored. We addressed these questions in an observational study of 65 individuals who had recovered from mild COVID-19. Participants were surveyed between 87 and 408 days after the onset of acute symptoms; none had required hospitalization, 16 had recovered uneventfully, and 49 had developed long COVID. Symptoms were quantified using a structured questionnaire and T cell subsets enumerated in a standard diagnostic assay. Patients with long-COVID had reduced CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory (EM) cell numbers and increased PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) expression on central memory (CM) cells, whereas the asymptomatic participants had reduced CD8+ EM cells only and increased CD28 expression on CM cells. 72% of patients with long COVID who received HRA reported clinical improvement, although T cell profiling did not clearly distinguish those who responded to HRA. This study demonstrates that T cell perturbations persist for several months after mild COVID-19 and are associated with long COVID symptoms.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617524

RESUMO

Hydrogen bonding plays significant roles in various biological processes during substrate orientation and binding and therefore assists in assorted organic transformations. However, replicating the intricate selection of hydrogen bonds, as observed in nature, in synthetic complexes has met with only limited success. Despite this fact, recent times have seen the emergence of several notable examples where hydrogen bonds have been introduced in synthetic complexes. A few such examples have also illustrated the substantial role played by the hydrogen bonds in influencing and often controlling the catalytic outcome. This perspective presents selected examples illustrating the significance of hydrogen bonds offered by the coordination and the organometallic complexes that aid in providing the desired orientation to a substrate adjacent to a catalytic metal center and remarkably assisting in the catalysis.

5.
Indian Heart J ; 73(4): 481-486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2017, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association revised guidelines for diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults. The regional impact of the updated guidelines on the prevalence of hypertension in India is unknown. METHODS: Data from nationally representative Indian households were analyzed to estimate the regional prevalence of hypertension according to the old and the new guidelines in men (age 18-54 years) and women (age 18-49 years). The old guidelines defined hypertension as a systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mmHg or treatment. The new guidelines define hypertension as a systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of ≥80 mmHg or treatment. We calculated the increase in the prevalence of hypertension among the states and union territories of India (hereafter "states"). RESULTS: Among 679,712 participants (85.6% women), the median age was 31 years (interquartile range 24, 40) and was comparable among men and women (33 vs. 31 years, respectively). The overall weighted prevalence according to old and new guidelines was 18.5% (95% CI 18.2, 18.7) and 43.0% (95% CI 42.8, 43.3), respectively. There was a significant increase in hypertension prevalence, both among men and women, and across all regions. The northeast region of the country had the highest prevalence. CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of hypertension significantly increases with the new compared to the old guidelines, however, the regional heterogeneity of prevalence of hypertension is maintained.

6.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(4): 11-12, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend prescription of statins in all high-risk patients with hypertension irrespective of their cholesterol levels. We performed a prescription audit in India to determine the application of recommendations. METHODS: A registry-based audit of patients with primary diagnosis of hypertension (n=3073) was performed. Details of co-morbidities and medications were obtained. Patients with known vascular disease were excluded. Patients were classified into subgroups based on risk factors and type of therapy. A multivariate model of risk was developed using clinical data and patients were classified into low, moderate and high risk. Statin prescriptions were divided into low, medium and high intensity based on US guidelines. Descriptive statistics are reported. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 59±13 years, 47 % were women and 26 % were less than 50 years age. Diabetes was noted in 31.1 %, current smoking in 1.3 %, obesity in 14.7 % and hypothyroidism in 7.9 %. Statins were prescribed in 41.2 % (95% CI 39.4-42.9%), more in men compared to women (47.7% vs 33.7%, p<0.001). Most of the patients received moderate intensity statins (83.9%). In age-groups >40, 40-59, 60-79 and 80+ years, statins were prescribed in 18.7%, 36.5%, 49.5% and 49.4% respectively (ptrend <0.001). Statins were prescribed in 52.0% diabetics, 60.9% obese, 52.5% smokers and 34.8% hypothyroid. In the multivariate model statins use in low, medium and high risk patients was 28.4%, 46.6% and 55.1% respectively (ptrend <0.001). CONCLUSION: In an Indian secondary care practice only half of patients with moderate to high risk uncomplicated hypertension receive statins.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições , Fatores de Risco
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19393, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588479

RESUMO

In recent years, the use of bacteriophages (or 'phages') against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa has drawn considerable attention, globally. In this work, we report the isolation and detailed characterization of a highly lytic Pseudomonasphage DRL-P1 isolated from wastewater. Under TEM, DRL-P1 appeared as a member of the phage family Myoviridae. DRL-P1 featured rapid adsorption (~ 5 min), short-latency (~ 30 min), and large burst size (~ 100 PFU per infected cell). DRL-P1 can withstand a wide temperature range (4 °C to 40 °C) and pH (5.0 to 10.0) conditions. The 66,243 bp DRL-P1 genome (MN564818) encodes at least 93 ORFs, of which 36 were functionally annotated based on homology with similar phage proteins available in the databases. Comparative analyses of related genomes suggest an independent evolutionary history and discrete taxonomic position of DRL-P1 within genus Pbunavirus. No toxin or antibiotic resistance genes was identified. DRL-P1 is tolerant to lyophilization and encapsulation techniques and retained lytic activity even after 18 months of storage. We also demonstrated decontaminating potentials of DRL-P1 in vitro, on an artificially contaminated cover-slip model. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Pbunavirus to be reported from India. Our study suggests DRL-P1 as a potential candidate for various applications.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): 2113775, June. 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1283951

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021. EXPOSURES: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 AM (1:30 AM-3:00 AM). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 PM and 10 PM, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 AM and 6 AM (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8PM) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.


Assuntos
Sono , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade , Polissonografia
10.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217890

RESUMO

Recent studies have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction as a trigger of inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We have investigated the role of the mitochondria gate-keeper protein, the voltage-dependent-anion channel 1 (VDAC1), in gastrointestinal inflammation and tested the effects of the newly developed VDAC1-interacting molecules, VBIT-4 and VBIT-12, on UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in mice. VDAC1, which controls metabolism, lipids transport, apoptosis, and inflammasome activation, is overexpressed in the colon of CD and UC patients and DSS-treated mice. VBIT-12 treatment of cultured colon cells inhibited the DSS-induced VDAC1 overexpression, oligomerization, and apoptosis. In the DSS-treated mice, VBIT-12 suppressed weight loss, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, crypt and epithelial cell damage, and focal inflammation. VBIT-12 also inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells, apoptosis, mtDNA release, and activation of caspase-1 and NRLP3 inflammasome to reduce the inflammatory response. The levels of the ATP-gated P2X7-Ca2+/K+ channel and ER-IP3R-Ca2+ channel, and of the mitochondrial anti-viral protein (MAVS), mediating NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, were highly increased in DSS-treated mice, but not when VBIT-12 treated. We conclude that UC may be promoted by VDAC1-overexpression and may therefore be amenable to treatment with novel VDAC1-interacting molecules. This VDAC1-based strategy exploits a completely new target for UC treatment and opens a new avenue for treating other inflammatory/autoimmune diseases.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330073

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of mobile-phone based intervention for reducing cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). METHODS: We screened adults 20-60 years in 10 villages in India for MetSyn using stratified cluster sampling. Lifestyle and biochemical risk factors were assessed. International Harmonized Criteria were used for diagnosis. Villages were randomized with 5 each in control and intervention groups. Interactive voice response system (IVRS) in Hindi was developed. In intervention clusters two messages for promotion of healthy lifestyle and medical treatment were broadcast daily over 12-months and risk factors reassessed. RESULTS: 1012/1200(84%) persons were screened and MetSyn diagnosed in 286(28.3%). Villages were divided into 5 control(n = 136) and 5 intervention(n = 147) clusters. Baseline characteristics in both clusters were similar. Acceptability of intervention was >60% in 80% participants. At 12 months, significantly greater participants in intervention vs control clusters had healthier lifestyle (healthy diet 28.8vs14.7%, physical activity 25.9vs13.1%, tobacco 13.7vs32.5%), anthropometry (waist circumference 85.7 ± 6.3vs88.6 ± 14.0 cm, body mass index 21.9 ± 2.8vs23.1 ± 2.9 kg/m2), systolic BP 123.6 ± 7.7vs128.6 ± 14.1 mmHg, fasting glucose 95.6 ± 19.4vs109.4 ± 43.7 mg/dl, cholesterol 175.5 ± 36.5vs186.4 ± 43.3 mg/dl, and triglycerides 147.6 ± 48.3vs159.5 ± 60.7 mg/dl (p < 0.01). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome declined in intervention group by 22.3%vs3.9%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An interactive voice response system based technology significantly reduced multiple cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

12.
Indian Heart J ; 73(3): 301-306, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) increases worldwide, and indications expand from high-risk aortic stenosis patients to low-risk aortic stenosis. Studies have shown that minimalistic TAVR done under conscious sedation is safe and effective. We report single-operator, the single-center outcome of 105 minimalist transfemoral, conscious sedation TAVR patients, analyzed retrospectively. METHODS: All patients underwent TAVR in cardiac catheterization lab via percutaneous transfemoral, conscious sedation approach. A dedicated cardiac anesthetist team delivered the conscious sedation with a standard protocol described in the main text. The outcomes were analyzed as per VARC-2 criteria and compared with the latest low-risk TAVR trials. RESULTS: A total of 105 patients underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement between July 2016 to February 2020. The mean age of the population was 73 years, and the mean STS score was 3.99 ± 2.59. All patients underwent a percutaneous transfemoral approach. Self-expanding valve was used in 40% of cases and balloon-expandable valve in 60% (Sapien3™ in 31% and MyVal™ in 29%) of cases. One patient required conversion to surgical aortic valve replacement. The success rate was 99 percent. The outcomes were: all-cause mortality: 0.9%, stroke rate 1.9%, New pacemaker rate 5.7%, 87.6% had no paravalvular leak. The mild and moderate paravalvular leak was seen in 2.8% and 1.9%, respectively. The mean gradient decreased from 47.5 mmHg to 9 mmHg. The average ICU stay was 26.4 h, and the average hospital stay was 5.4 days. Our outcomes are comparable with the latest published low-risk trial. CONCLUSION: Minimalist, conscious sedation, transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement when done following a standard protocol is safe and effective.

13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113775, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190997

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a growing public health threat leading to serious health consequences. Late bedtime and sleep loss are common in modern society, but their associations with specific obesity types are not well characterized. Objective: To assess whether sleep timing and napping behavior are associated with increased obesity, independent of nocturnal sleep length. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large, multinational, population-based cross-sectional study used data of participants from 60 study centers in 26 countries with varying income levels as part of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Participants were aged 35 to 70 years and were mainly recruited during 2005 and 2009. Data analysis occurred from October 2020 through March 2021. Exposures: Sleep timing (ie, bedtime and wake-up time), nocturnal sleep duration, daytime napping. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were prevalence of obesity, specified as general obesity, defined as body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 30 or greater, and abdominal obesity, defined as waist circumference greater than 102 cm for men or greater than 88 cm for women. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for study centers were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs. Results: Overall, 136 652 participants (81 652 [59.8%] women; mean [SD] age, 51.0 [9.8] years) were included in analysis. A total of 27 195 participants (19.9%) had general obesity, and 37 024 participants (27.1%) had abdominal obesity. The mean (SD) nocturnal sleep duration was 7.8 (1.4) hours, and the median (interquartile range) midsleep time was 2:15 am (1:30 am-3:00 am). A total of 19 660 participants (14.4%) had late bedtime behavior (ie, midnight or later). Compared with bedtime between 8 pm and 10 pm, late bedtime was associated with general obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.29) and abdominal obesity (AOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.12-1.28), particularly among participants who went to bed between 2 am and 6 am (general obesity: AOR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.54; abdominal obesity: AOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58). Short nocturnal sleep of less than 6 hours was associated with general obesity (eg, <5 hours: AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43), but longer napping was associated with higher abdominal obesity prevalence (eg, ≥1 hours: AOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.31-1.47). Neither going to bed during the day (ie, before 8pm) nor wake-up time was associated with obesity. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that late nocturnal bedtime and short nocturnal sleep were associated with increased risk of obesity prevalence, while longer daytime napping did not reduce the risk but was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity. Strategic weight control programs should also encourage earlier bedtime and avoid short nocturnal sleep to mitigate obesity epidemic.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192687

RESUMO

We investigate the effect of Fe and Cr doping at Zn and V sites, respectively, on the electrical transport behavior of polycrystalline spinel ZnV2O4. The resistivity studies as a function of temperature reveal the presence of two different transport mechanisms: Arrhenius conduction (170-300 K) and Mott variable range hopping conduction (VRH) (80-170 K). The results also show that Fe doping at Zn sites has a pronounced effect on the electrical transport property together with the V-V distance, accompanied by a decreasing magnetic transition temperature, TN. Cr doping, on the other hand, shows a contrasting Arrhenius transport behavior with decreasing V-V distance as well as a decreasing TN. In the VRH transport regime, a systematic variation of the values of the Mott parameters due to the change in the localization length along the V-V chains is observed. Further, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies supporting the stabilization of the doped cation phases are presented in this paper.

15.
Echocardiography ; 38(7): 1173-1178, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study is based on the World Heart Federation (WHF) echocardiographic criteria to assess the prevalence of subclinical rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and elucidate evolution of the disease when the cases were placed on appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis and regular follow-up. The prevalence of subclinical RHD reported by previous active surveillance studies among asymptomatic school children is not comparable to our study because of major differences in screening methods. METHODS: A random inclusion strategy was adopted to recruit urban and rural school children of Bikaner district in the state of Rajasthan, India. The diagnosis of RHD was based on the echocardiographic criteria proposed by the WHF. All studies were reported on-site by a single experienced cardiologist and the digitally preserved studies were reported by a second cardiologist off-site. The final diagnosis was made by consensus. The second echocardiogram was performed for cases diagnosed with RHD after two years from start of study to document early evolution of the disease with ongoing antibiotic prophylaxis. RESULTS: A high prevalence of subclinical RHD was observed in the study population. Pathological mitral and/or aortic valve regurgitation was the commonest lesion, and a significant proportion of cases improved while on regular antibiotic prophylaxis. No case showed fixity of leaflets/ stenosis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of subclinical RHD is high in the study population, and the disease seems to regress over time in the presence of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 53(1): 7-26, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814602

RESUMO

New cardiopulmonary bypass device techniques emerge and are reported in the scientific literature. The extent to which they are actually adopted into clinical practice is not well known. Since 1989, we have periodically surveyed pediatric cardiac centers to ascertain practice patterns. In December 2016, a 186-question perfusion survey was distributed to pediatric cardiac surgery centers all over the world using a Web-based survey tool. Responses were received from 93 North American (NA) centers (the United States and Canada) and 67 non-NA (NNA) centers, representing 19,645 cumulative annual procedures in NA and 27,776 in NNA centers on patients <18 years. Wide variation in practice was evident across geographic regions. However, the most common pediatric circuit consisted of a hard-shell (open) venous reservoir, an arterial roller pump, and a hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator with a separate or integrated arterial filter. Compared with our previous surveys, there was increased utilization of all types of safety devices. The use of an electronic perfusion record was reported by 50% of NA centers and 31% of NNA centers. There was wide regional variation in cardioplegia delivery systems and cardioplegia solutions. Seventy-nine percent of the centers reported the use of some form of modified ultrafiltration. The survey demonstrated that there remains variation in perfusion practice for pediatric patients. Future surveys will be useful to evaluate the adoption of emerging perfusion practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Criança , Parada Cardíaca Induzida , Humanos , Oxigenadores , Perfusão
17.
Inorg Chem ; 60(8): 5779-5790, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829770

RESUMO

With aromatic and aliphatic thiol-S donor Schiff base ligands, the copper-sulfur clusters, [(L1)8CuI6CuII2](ClO4)2·DMF·0.5CH3OH (1) and [(L2)12CuI5CuII11(µ4-S)(µ4-O)6](ClO4)·4H2O, respectively, have been reported ( Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 3334); HL1/HL2 are 2-(((3-methylthiophen-2-yl)methylene)amino)benzene/ethanethiol). Complex 1 comprises a wheel shaped Cu8S8 framework, made up of interlinked Cu2{µ-S(R)}2 units. To understand the properties with relevance to the CuA site and to check whether self-assembly generates similar type clusters to 1, three complexes, [(L3)8CuI6CuII2](ClO4)2·(C2H5)2O·2.5H2O (2), [(L3Cl)8CuI6CuII2](ClO4)2·1.25(C2H5)2O·1.25CH3OH·2H2O (3), and [(L3CF3)8CuI6CuII2](ClO4)2·2(C2H5)2O·H2O (4) have been synthesized with supporting ligands HL3X (HL3 = 2-((furan-2-ylmethylene)amino)benzenethiol when X = -H; X = -Cl or -CF3 para to thiol-S are HL3Cl and HL3CF3 ligands, respectively). The X-ray structures of 3 and 4 feature a similar Cu8S8 architecture to 1. The spectroscopic properties and the X-ray structures revealed that 2-4 are fully spin delocalized mixed valence (MV) of class-III type clusters. The structural parameters of the N2Cu2{µ-S(R)}2 units of 3 and 4 closely resemble those of the MV binuclear CuA site. With the aid of UV-vis-NIR, EPR, and spectroelectrochemical studies, the electronic properties of these complexes have been described in comparison with the MV model complexes and CuA site.

19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 631-649, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683310

RESUMO

Importance: Cohort studies report inconsistent associations between fish consumption, a major source of long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Whether the associations vary between those with and those without vascular disease is unknown. Objective: To examine whether the associations of fish consumption with risk of CVD or of mortality differ between individuals with and individuals without vascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis of individual participant data involved 191 558 individuals from 4 cohort studies-147 645 individuals (139 827 without CVD and 7818 with CVD) from 21 countries in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study and 43 413 patients with vascular disease in 3 prospective studies from 40 countries. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated by multilevel Cox regression separately within each study and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. This analysis was conducted from January to June 2020. Exposures: Fish consumption was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. In 1 of the cohorts with vascular disease, a separate qualitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess intake of individual types of fish. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality and major CVD events (including myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, or sudden death). Results: Overall, 191 558 participants with a mean (SD) age of 54.1 (8.0) years (91 666 [47.9%] male) were included in the present analysis. During 9.1 years of follow-up in PURE, compared with little or no fish intake (≤50 g/mo), an intake of 350 g/wk or more was not associated with risk of major CVD (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04) or total mortality (HR, 0.96; 0.88-1.05). By contrast, in the 3 cohorts of patients with vascular disease, the HR for risk of major CVD (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96) and total mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) was lowest with intakes of at least 175 g/wk (or approximately 2 servings/wk) compared with 50 g/mo or lower, with no further apparent decrease in HR with consumption of 350 g/wk or higher. Fish with higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids were strongly associated with a lower risk of CVD (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97 per 5-g increment of intake), whereas other fish were neutral (collected in 1 cohort of patients with vascular disease). The association between fish intake and each outcome varied by CVD status, with a lower risk found among patients with vascular disease but not in general populations (for major CVD, I2 = 82.6 [P = .02]; for death, I2 = 90.8 [P = .001]). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this pooled analysis of 4 cohort studies indicated that a minimal fish intake of 175 g (approximately 2 servings) weekly is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD but not in general populations. The consumption of fish (especially oily fish) should be evaluated in randomized trials of clinical outcomes among people with vascular disease.

20.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 44, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest radiograph (CXR) prescribing pattern and practice vary widely among pediatric intensive care units (PICU). 'On demand' approach is increasingly recommended as against daily 'routine' CXRs; however, the real-world practice is largely unknown. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study performed in children younger than 12 years admitted to PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Data were collected on all consecutive CXRs performed between December 2016 and April 2017. The primary outcome was to assess the factors that were associated with higher chest radiograph prescriptions in PICU. Secondary outcomes were to study the indications, association with mechanical ventilation, image quality and avoidable radiation exposure. RESULTS: Of 303 children admitted during the study period, 159 underwent a total of 524 CXRs in PICU. Median (IQR) age of the study cohort was 2 (0.6-5) years. More than two thirds [n = 115, 72.3%] were mechanically ventilated. Most CXRs (n = 449, 85.7%) were performed on mechanically ventilated patients, amounting to a median (IQR) of 3 (2-5) radiographs per ventilated patient. With increasing duration of ventilation, the number of CXRs proportionately increased in the first two weeks of mechanical ventilation. In non-ventilated children, about two thirds (68%) underwent only one CXR. Majority of the prescriptions were on demand (n = 461, 88%). Most common indications were peri-procedure prescriptions (37%) followed by evaluation for respiratory disease status (24%). About 40% CXRs resulted in interventions; adjustment in ventilator settings (13.5%) was the most frequent intervention. In 26% (n = 138) of radiographs, image quality required improvement. One or more additional body part exposure other than chest and upper abdomen were noted 336 (64%) images. Children with > 3 CXR had higher PRISM III score, more often mechanically ventilated, had higher number of indwelling devices [mean (SD) 2.6 (1.2) vs. 1.7 (1.0)] and stayed longer in PICU [median (IQR) 11(7.5-18.5) vs. 6 (3-9)]. CONCLUSION: On demand prescription was the prevalent practice in our PICU. Most non-ventilated children underwent only one CXR while duration of PICU stay and the number of devices determined the number of CXRs in mechanically ventilated children. Quality improvement strategies should concentrate on the process of acquisition of images and limiting the radiation exposure to unwanted body parts.

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