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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(3)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110948

RESUMO

: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), transmitted by small insects known as thrips, is one of the major threats to tomato productivity across the globe. In addition to tomato, this virus infects more than 1000 other plants belonging to 85 families and is a cause of serious concern. Very little, however, is known about the molecular mechanism of TSWV induced signaling in plants. Here, we used a tandem mass tags (TMT)-based quantitative proteome approach to investigate the protein profiles of tomato leaves of two cultivars (cv 2621 and 2689; susceptible and resistant to TSWV infection, respectively) following TSWV inoculation. This approach resulted in the identification of 5112 proteins of which 1022 showed significant changes in response to TSWV. While the proteome of resistant cultivar majorly remains unaltered, the proteome of susceptible cultivar showed distinct differences following TSWV inoculation. TSWV modulated proteins in tomato included those with functions previously implicated in plant defense including secondary metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling, calcium signaling and jasmonate biosynthesis, among others. Taken together, results reported here provide new insights into the TSWV induced signaling in tomato leaves and may be useful in the future to manage this deadly disease of plants.

2.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; : 954411919898301, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026750

RESUMO

In orthopedic and trauma surgical operations, drilling of bone is one of the commonly used procedures performed in hospitals and is a clinical practice for fixing the fractured parts of human bones. Force, torque and temperature play a significant role during the bone drilling and decide the stability of the medical implants. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize force, torque and temperature while drilling to avoid the thermal necrosis and osteosynthesis. This study focused on studying the influence of various types of bone drilling parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, drill diameter and ultrasonic amplitude), tools (solid tool, hollow tool and conventional twist drill bit) and techniques (conventional surgical drilling, rotary ultrasonic bone drilling and rotary bone drilling) on force, torque, temperature and microcracks produced in the drilled surface of the bone. The experimental investigations were conducted on porcine bone samples to perform the comparative study. Results revealed that increasing the diameter of drill tool and feed rate results in the increase in force, torque and temperature, while low rotational speed (500 r/min) generated a low temperature, high cutting force and torque for all types of drilling processes and tools evaluated in this study. Experimental results also revealed that rotary ultrasonic bone drilling with hollow tool generated the lowest cutting force, torque, temperature (<47 °C) and microcracks in the drilled surface of the bone as compared to the other four types of drilling techniques evaluated in this study. Influence of external irrigation technique on temperature was also studied with respect to the rotary ultrasonic bone drilling with a hollow tool, which could eliminate the problem of thermal necrosis. In conclusion, this study revealed that the rotary ultrasonic bone drilling process with hollow tool produced lesser cutting force as compared to rotary bone drilling and conventional surgical drilling for hollow and solid tools. The study also revealed that rotary ultrasonic bone drilling process has the potential to minimize the cutting force, torque and temperature as compared to the conventional surgical drilling for orthopedic surgery.

3.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(1): 101-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941741

RESUMO

We present the case of an 83-year-old woman, with known asthma, admitted with increasing dyspnoea, wheeze and a productive cough. In addition to maintenance inhaled therapy, the patient was also on long-term mirtazapine and furosemide. Following acute treatment with nebulised salbutamol she became increasingly dyspnoeic and developed a metabolic acidosis with a significantly raised blood lactate level. After cessation of ß2-adrenergic medication, the patient's clinical condition improved with resolution of her lactic acidosis; salbutamol induced lactic acidosis was diagnosed. This clinical scenario is common but not well described. Here we discuss the mechanisms, investigation and management of raised serum lactate and lactic acidosis in the context of acute asthma and the possible interactions of polypharmacy and comorbidities in the acute medical setting.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(2): e1081, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating next-generation sequencing (NGS) for retinal disorders may not reflect clinical practice. We report results of retrospective analysis of patients referred for clinical testing at two institutions (US and India). METHODS: This retrospective study of 131 patients who underwent clinically validated targeted NGS or exome sequencing for a wide variety of clinical phenotypes categorized results into a definitive, indeterminate, or negative molecular diagnosis. RESULTS: A definitive molecular diagnosis (52%) was more common in the India cohort (62% vs. 39%, p = .009), while an indeterminate molecular diagnosis occurred only in the US cohort (12%). In the US cohort, a lower diagnostic rate in Hispanic, non-Caucasians (23%) was seen compared to Caucasians (57%). The India cohort had a high rate of homozygous variants (61%) and different frequency of genes involved compared to the US cohort. CONCLUSION: Despite inherent limitations in clinical testing, the diagnostic rate across the two cohorts (52%) was similar to the 50%-65% diagnostic rate in the literature. However, the diagnostic rate was lower in the US cohort and appears partly explained by racial background. The high rate of consanguinity in the Indian population is reflected in the high rate of homozygosity for pathogenic mutations and may have implications for population level screening and genetic counseling. Clinical laboratories may note diagnostic rates that differ from the literature, due to factors such as heterogeneity in racial background or consanguinity rates in the populations being tested. This information may be useful for post-test counseling.

5.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 133: 109442, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874688

RESUMO

Concerns about dwindling fossil fuels and their unfavorable environmental impacts shifted the global focus towards the development of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The structure of this biomass is very complex due to which variety of enzymes (cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic, auxiliary/AA9) and proteins (e.g. swollenin) required for efficient deconstruction. Major impediments in large-scale commercial production of cellulosic ethanol are the cost of cellulases and inability of any single microorganism to produce all cellulolytic components in sufficient titers. In the recent past, various methods for reducing the enzyme cost during cellulosic ethanol production have been attempted. These include designing optimal synergistic enzyme blends/cocktail, having certain ratios of enzymes from different microbial sources, for efficient hydrolysis of pretreated biomass. However, the mechanisms underlying the development, strategies for production and evaluation of optimal cellulolytic cocktails still remain unclear. This article aims to explore the technical and economic benefits of using cellulolytic enzyme cocktail, basic enzymatic and non-enzymatic components required for its development and various strategies employed for efficient cellulolytic cocktail preparation. Consideration was also given to the ways of evaluation of commercially available and in-house developed cocktails. Discussion about commercially available cellulolytic cocktails, current challenges and possible avenues in the development of cellulolytic cocktails included.

6.
J Cancer Educ ; 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786798

RESUMO

This piece reflects on an innovative project that we undertook: interviewing master physicians across the world of oncology and asking them what was their secret to success. It provides insights into the answers received from over fifty interviews and the process that was followed.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18793, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827134

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies have shown limited efficacy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients despite its overexpression. Identifying molecular mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs such as erlotinib remains an unmet need and a therapeutic challenge. In this study, we employed an integrated multi-omics approach to delineate mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to erlotinib by carrying out whole exome sequencing, quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling. We observed amplification of several genes including AXL kinase and transcription factor YAP1 resulting in protein overexpression. We also observed expression of constitutively active mutant MAP2K1 (p.K57E) in erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. An integrated analysis of genomic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic data revealed alterations in MAPK pathway and its downstream targets in SCC-R cells. We demonstrate that erlotinib-resistant cells are sensitive to MAPK pathway inhibition. This study revealed multiple genetic, proteomic and phosphoproteomic alterations associated with erlotinib resistant SCC-R cells. Our data indicates that therapeutic targeting of MAPK pathway is an effective strategy for treating erlotinib-resistant HNSCC tumors.

9.
Jpn Dent Sci Rev ; 55(1): 126-138, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687052

RESUMO

This review article compiles the characteristics of resin based dental composites and an effort is made to point out their future perspectives. Recent research studies along with few earlier articles were studied to compile the synthesis schemes of commonly used monomers, their characteristics in terms of their physical, mechanical and polymerization process with selectivity towards the input parameters of polymerization process. This review covers surface modification processes of various filler particles using silanes, wear behaviour, antimicrobial behaviour along with its testing procedures to develop the fundamental knowledge of various characteristics of resin based composites. In the end of this review, possible areas of further interests are pointed out on the basis of literature review on resin based dental materials.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723391

RESUMO

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and ANCA-associated vasculitis are classically thought to be separate diseases with different pathophysiologies. An overlap of these diseases has been reported few times in the literature. We present a unique case of a Caucasian male in his third decade of life, without a previous personal or family history of autoimmune disease, with serological and biopsy findings of both diseases occurring simultaneously. ANCA, typically p-ANCA, can be detected in up to 30% of SLE patients and can be higher with renal involvement. Patients with overlap syndrome have increased complications and higher mortality rates than those with either disease alone. Our patient was found to have necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, most consistent with ANCA vasculitis, specifically microscopic polyangitis with MPO positive staining. The biopsy also revealed abundant immune-complex deposits consistent with WHO class V diffuse membranous lupus glomerulonephritis. These diseases are typically seen in young to middle aged females, and given the rarity of this case, biopsy findings were confirmed by two pathologists from separate institutions. Presentations of autoimmune diseases and vasculitis can be multi-systemic. Immediate action and appropriate work up with a multidisciplinary team is required for optimal patient care. Our patient displayed pulmonary-renal involvement in addition to systemic features such as fevers, myalgia and profound anemia. Considering overlap syndromes, especially in patients with underlying connective tissue disease or systemic vasculitis, is vital for the prevention of excess morbidity in this population.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1383, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737011

RESUMO

Rice blast disease, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the major constraints to rice production, which feeds half of the world's population. Proteomic technologies have been used as effective tools in plant-pathogen interactions to study the biological pathways involved in pathogen infection, plant response, and disease progression. Advancements in mass spectrometry (MS) and apoplastic and plasma membrane protein isolation methods facilitated the identification and quantification of subcellular proteomes during plant-pathogen interaction. Proteomic studies conducted during rice-M. oryzae interaction have led to the identification of several proteins eminently involved in pathogen perception, signal transduction, and the adjustment of metabolism to prevent plant disease. Some of these proteins include receptor-like kinases (RLKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and proteins related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling and scavenging, hormone signaling, photosynthesis, secondary metabolism, protein degradation, and other defense responses. Moreover, post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as phosphoproteomics and ubiquitin proteomics, during rice-M. oryzae interaction are also summarized in this review. In essence, proteomic studies carried out to date delineated the molecular mechanisms underlying rice-M. oryzae interactions and provided candidate proteins for the breeding of rice blast resistant cultivars.

12.
Cureus ; 11(9): e5794, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728241

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease in adults, including congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, can be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally, but they can also be a cause of sudden cardiac death. The recent guidelines on the management of adults with congenital heart disease from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiologists (ACC) identify that an anomalous coronary artery origin can lead to myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, or sudden cardiac death. When the course of the coronary artery runs between the aorta and pulmonary trunk, it is described as having a "malignant course." Emergency surgical correction is required to restore the normal anatomy of the aberrant coronary artery. This report is of a 57-year-old man with a history of hypertension who had a normal electrocardiogram (ECG). A nuclear exercise stress test showed a resting and exercise ejection fraction (EF) of 56% with transient ischemic dilatation (TID) of the left ventricle. Coronary artery computed tomography angiography (CTA) identified an anomalous right coronary artery (AORCA) originating from the left sinus of Valsalva and coursing between the aorta and pulmonary trunk. TID on nuclear imaging is usually associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, microvascular disease, or multivessel macrovascular disease and has not been previously described in AORCA.

13.
Indian J Orthop ; 53(6): 721-726, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673172

RESUMO

Background: The type of graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is still a topic of debate and there is still no clear consensus on the ideal graft for ACL reconstruction. Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the outcome of ACL reconstruction surgery between hamstring tendon graft and bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty professional athletes were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups by computerized randomization. In Group I, ACL reconstruction was done using BPTB graft, and in Group II, ACL reconstruction was done using semitendinosus gracilis graft with preserved tibial insertion (STGPI). Postoperatively, patients were assessed for knee stability, Lysholm score, and WOMAC score. Results: Mean KT-1000 side-to-side difference at 1 year was 2.31 ± 1.68 mm in BPTB cohort and 2.52 ± 1.6 mm in STGPI cohort (P = 0.4); and at 2 years, it was 1.98 ± 1.62 mm in BPTB cohort and 2.23 ± 1.6 mm in STGPI cohort (P = 0.4). Mean Lysholm score at 2 years was 96.1 ± 5.81 in STGPI cohort and 97.3 ± 4.62 in BPTB cohort (P = 0.15). Mean WOMAC score at 2 years was 3.3 ± 2.76 in STGPI cohort and 2.84 ± 2.21 in BPTB cohort (P = 0.25). Graft rupture rate was 3.75%; 3 patients in each group had graft rupture. Kneeling pain was present in 15% (12/80) of patients with BPTB graft whereas none of the patients in STGPI cohort had kneeling pain. Conclusion: There was no difference between two grafts in term of knee stability, visual analog scale score and functional outcome. However, hamstring tendon graft is associated with less donor site morbidity.

16.
Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res ; 24(5): 394-396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516527

RESUMO

Background: Professional and paramedical students have a key role in oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) among the nursing students in Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among 409 nursing students from five different institutes who were selected by simple random sampling. A 27-item questionnaire was used to assess KAP. The resulting data were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: Over 50% of the students used toothbrush and toothpaste twice a day to maintain their oral hygiene. Besides, 41% recognized the importance of dental visit in case of gingival bleeding and knew that poor oral hygiene is responsible for bad breath. Conclusions: Oral health-related behavior among the nursing students needs improvement. More educational and preventive programs should be organized to achieve better results.

17.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 9(4): 347-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528537

RESUMO

Introduction: Elusive second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) in maxillary first molar are often missed during endodontic therapy and are a major cause of treatment failures. Its prevalence is known to vary among different populations and there is limited information on its prevalence in Indian population. Aim: This study investigated the prevalence and location of second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images in an Indian population. Materials and methods: CBCT images of 598 three rooted maxillary first molars were studied. In each CBCT image, the floor of pulp chamber was located and advanced by 2 mm to standardize the observation for MB2 canal. Its location was determined in relation to mesiobuccal (MB1) and palatal (P) canal. Statistical analysis: The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The presence of MB2 canal was correlated with age, gender and tooth position using Chi square test. Results: The prevalence of MB2 canal in three rooted maxillary first molar was 61.9%. It was seen that the prevalence of MB2 was highest in 20-40years age group (67.4%) followed by > 40 years (57.5%) and lowest in <20 years (50.6%) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.005). It is located mesiopalatally; 2.5 mm ±â€¯0.6 mm palatally and 1.0 ±â€¯0.4mmmesially to the MB1 canal or present directly on the line joining the MB1 and palatal canal. Conclusion: There is a high probability of finding MB2 canal in Indian patients. The access cavity must be modified from a triangular shape to rhomboid shape. Troughingmesiopaltally (about 2.5 mm palatally and 1 mm mesially) from MB1 to a depth of about 2 mm from the floor of pulp chamber may be necessary for locating MB2 canal.

18.
Expert Rev Proteomics ; 16(9): 795-804, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398080

RESUMO

Introduction: The last decade has yielded significant developments in the field of proteomics, especially in mass spectrometry (MS) and data analysis tools. In particular, a shift from gel-based to MS-based proteomics has been observed, thereby providing a platform with which to construct proteome atlases for all life forms. Nevertheless, the analysis of plant proteomes, especially those of samples that contain high-abundance proteins (HAPs), such as soybean seeds, remains challenging. Areas covered: Here, we review recent progress in soybean seed proteomics and highlight advances in HAPs depletion methods and peptide pre-fractionation, identification, and quantification methods. We also suggest a pipeline for future proteomic analysis, in order to increase the dynamic coverage of the soybean seed proteome. Expert opinion: Because HAPs limit the dynamic resolution of the soybean seed proteome, the depletion of HAPs is a prerequisite of high-throughput proteome analysis, and owing to the use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approaches, few soybean seed proteins have been identified or characterized. Recent advances in proteomic technologies, which have significantly increased the proteome coverage of other plants, could be used to overcome the current complexity and limitation of soybean seed proteomics.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389316

RESUMO

Coagulase negative Staphylococci are important .The common antibiotics used for the treatment of the infections caused by CoNS are penicillins, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin and vancomycin.Linezolid is an oxazolidinone group of antibiotic with activity against Gram- positive bacteria. It is used for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, including streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The common antibiotics used for the treatment of the infections caused by CoNS are penicillins, oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin and vancomycin. Linezolid is approved as an alternative drug to be given for catheter related blood stream infections. In the earlier studies, linezolid-resistant staphylococci have been reported increasingly all over the world. We are discussing five cases of Linezolid resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus which were reported in our laboratory during one year from patients with device related infections and also review of literature is being presented for an update. This study emphasizes the judicious use of newer antibiotics to contain the spread of resistance.

20.
Cells ; 8(9)2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438645

RESUMO

Tobacco in its smoke and smokeless form are major risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, molecular alterations associated with smokeless tobacco exposure are poorly understood. In the Indian subcontinent, tobacco is predominantly consumed in chewing form. An understanding of molecular alterations associated with chewing tobacco exposure is vital for identifying molecular markers and potential targets. We developed an in vitro cellular model by exposing non-transformed esophageal epithelial cells to chewing tobacco over an eight-month period. Chronic exposure to chewing tobacco led to increase in cell proliferation, invasive ability and anchorage independent growth, indicating cell transformation. Molecular alterations associated with chewing tobacco exposure were characterized by carrying out exome sequencing and quantitative proteomic profiling of parental cells and chewing tobacco exposed cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed increased expression of cancer stem cell markers in tobacco treated cells. In addition, tobacco exposed cells showed the Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) phenotype with decreased expression of enzymes associated with glycolytic pathway and increased expression of a large number of mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport chain as well as enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Electron micrographs revealed increase in number and size of mitochondria. Based on these observations, we propose that chronic exposure of esophageal epithelial cells to tobacco leads to cancer stem cell-like phenotype. These cells show the characteristic OXPHOS phenotype, which can be potentially targeted as a therapeutic strategy.

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