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2.
Br Dent J ; 228(9): 660, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385437
3.
Colorectal Dis ; 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418307

RESUMO

AIM: In addition to respiratory symptoms, COVID-19 can present with gastrointestinal complaints suggesting possible faeco-oral transmission. The primary aim of this review was to establish the incidence and timing of positive faecal samples for SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature review identified studies describing COVID-19 patients tested for faecal virus. Search terms for Medline included 'clinical', 'faeces', 'gastrointestinal secretions', 'stool', 'COVID-19', 'SARS-CoV-2' and '2019-nCoV'. Additional searches were done in AJG, Gastroenterology, Gut, Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The WHO Database, CEBM, NEJM, social media and the NICE, bioRxiv and medRxiv preprints. Data were extracted concerning the type of test, number and timing of positive samples, incidence of positive faecal tests after negative nasopharyngeal swabs and evidence of viable faecal virus or faeco-oral transmission of the virus. RESULTS: There were 26 relevant articles identified. Combining study results demonstrated that 53·9% of those tested for faecal RNA were positive. Duration of faecal viral shedding ranged from 1 to 33 days after a negative nasopharyngeal swab with one result remaining positive 47 days after onset of symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that COVID-19 is transmitted via faecally shed virus. CONCLUSION: There is a high rate of positive PCR tests with persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in faecal samples of patients with COVID-19. Further research is needed to confirm if this virus is viable and the degree of transmission through the faeco-oral route. This may have important implications on isolation, recommended precautions and protective equipment for interventional procedures involving the gastrointestinal tract.

4.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358974

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 has brought day to day life at a standstill. During such difficult times, safety of medical staff becomes more important as they are on the frontlines in tackling the disease. Despite aggressive safety measures and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), infections and deaths have been reported among HCP's.1 This has led to a panic and stigma in the medical community.

5.
J Postgrad Med ; 66(2): 105-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270780

RESUMO

Fixed drug eruption is one of the most common forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. Analgesics and antibiotics are the most common drugs causing fixed drug eruption. Here, we report a case of multiple widespread fixed drug eruption caused by rabeprazole.

6.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304576

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 has made social distancing necessary as a result, daily outpatient departments (OPD) are at a standstill due to rule imposed by many governing bodies to close all non-essential OPDs.

7.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170639

RESUMO

Although continuous researches are going on for the discovery of new chemotherapeutic agents, resistance to these anticancer agents has made it really difficult to reach the fruitful results. There are many causes for this resistance that are being studied by the researchers across the world, but still, success is far because there are several factors that are going along unattended or have been studied less. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are one of these factors, on which less study has been conducted. DMEs include Phase I and Phase II enzymes. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are major Phase I enzymes while glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenases are the major enzymes belonging to the Phase II enzymes. These enzymes play an important role in detoxification of the xenobiotics as well as the metabolism of drugs, depending upon the tissue in which they are expressed. When present in tumorous tissues, they cause resistance by metabolizing the drugs and rendering them inactive. In this review, the role of these various enzymes in anticancer drug metabolism and the possibilities for overcoming the resistance have been discussed.

8.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186205

RESUMO

Purpose: To study the clinical profile and predictors of outcome in children undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) for non-traumatic intracranial hypertension (ICH).Materials and methods: Mixed observational study of children, aged 1 month-12 years, who underwent DC for non-traumatic ICH in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit from 2012 to 2017. Data on clinical profile and outcome were retrieved retrospectively and survivors were assessed prospectively. The primary outcome was neurological outcome using Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) at minimum 6 months' post-discharge. GOS-E of 1-4 were classified as a poor and 5-8 as a good outcome.Results: Thirty children, median (IQR) age of 6.5 (2, 50) months, underwent DC; of which 26 (86.7%) were boys. Altered sensorium (n = 26, 86.7%), seizures (n = 25, 83.3%), pallor (n = 19, 63.3%) and anisocoria (n = 14, 46.7%) were common signs and symptoms. Median (IQR) Glasgow Coma Scale at admission was 9 (6,11). Commonest etiology was intracranial bleed (n = 24; 80%). Median (IQR) time to DC was 24 (24,72) h. Eight (26.7%) children died; 2 during PICU stay and 6 during follow-up. Neurological sequelae at discharge (n = 28) were seizures (n = 25; 89.2%) and hemiparesis (n = 16; 57.1%). Twenty-one children were followed-up at median (IQR) duration of 12 (6,54) months. Good neurological outcome was seen in 14/29 (48.2%) and hemiparesis in 10/21 (47.6%) patients. On regression analysis, anisocoria at admission was an independent predictor of poor outcome [OR 7.33; 95%CI: 1.38-38.87; p = 0.019].Conclusions: DC is beneficial in children with non-traumatic ICH due to a focal pathology and midline shift. Evidence on indications and timing of DC in NTC is still evolving.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 149: 1323-1330, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027901

RESUMO

The present study describes synthesis, characterization and antibacterial application of oxidized sodium alginate (OSA)-zinc oxide (ZnO) hybrid nanostructures (OSA-ZnO). In continuation to our previous study on oxidized guar gum (OGG)-ZnO (OGG-ZnO) nanocomposite, in the present study we have chosen OSA to understand the role of polysaccharide charge type in designing the antibacterial material. The nanomaterial has been characterized using UV-visible, FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM analyses. The nanostructure has shown crystalline nature having hexagonal phase with preferred (101) orientation, while TEM image indicated that the material has ~6 nm particle size. It exhibited very good antibacterial performance against Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Cellulomonas cellulans (C. cellulans), Staphylococcus typhi (S. typhi), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial strains, ZOI for B. subtilis, C. cellulans, S. typhi, and E. coli being 22, 18, 19.5 and 18.5 mm respectively. Under identical conditions, pure ZnO showed significantly lower ZOI for the corresponding bacterial strains (14, 12.5, 12 and 13.5 mm respectively), while native SA and OSA did not exhibit any biological activity.

10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(2): 179-188, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031092

RESUMO

Aims: The present study aimed at assessing two fixed points of reference from where the mesial and distal point of all rugae can be measured so that the exact movement of particular rugae in any direction can be evaluated and assessing the changes in the palatal rugae after orthodontic treatment. Methods: A longitudinal study conducted among a sample of 20 (8 male and 12 female) adult patients. Pre- and post-orthodontic treatment casts of patients were obtained from the Department of Orthodontics College of Dentistry Jazan University. Antero-posterior linear distances (Technique I) between medial and lateral points of primary, secondary and tertiary rugae were measured. Also, the transverse linear distance (Technique II) between medial and lateral points of right and left rugae were measured. Technique III involved marking two fixed points and using these two points a third point is located on the medial or lateral end of rugae of right and left side in pre and post-treatment orthodontic casts. The independent sample t-test was employed to compare gender. Difference between the pre- and post-treatment mean values were checked by the paired t-test. Results: Technique III successfully showed the statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05, 95% CI) in the overall pre and post-treatment values on the patients' cast (N = 20) which was not observed with a technique I and technique II. Conclusion: The triangle created by the three reference points in the technique III was able to identify the changes in the palatine rugae more precisely than the technique I and Technique II.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Técnica de Fundição Odontológica/normas , Mucosa Bucal/anatomia & histologia , Ortodontia/normas , Palato Duro , Palato/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Ciências Forenses , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Oncol ; 31(4): 451-469, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081575

RESUMO

In view of the planned new edition of the most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of primary breast cancer published in 2015, it was decided at the ESMO Asia Meeting in November 2018, by both the ESMO and the Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO), to convene a special face-to-face guidelines meeting in 2019 in Seoul. The aim was to adapt the latest ESMO 2019 guidelines to take into account the ethnic and geographical differences associated with the treatment of early breast cancer in Asian patients. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with early breast cancer representing the oncology societies of Korea (KSMO), China (CSCO), India (ISMPO) Japan (JSMO), Malaysia (MOS), Singapore (SSO) and Taiwan (TOS). The voting was based on scientific evidence, and was independent of both the current treatment practices, and the drug availability and reimbursement situations, in the individual participating Asian countries.

12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(3): 873-888, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897515

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Pearl millet breeding programs can use this heterotic group information on seed and restorer parents to generate new series of pearl millet hybrids having higher yields than the existing hybrids. Five hundred and eighty hybrid parents, 320 R- and 260 B-lines, derived from 6 pearl millet breeding programs in India, genotyped following RAD-GBS (about 0.9 million SNPs) clustered into 12 R- and 7 B-line groups. With few exceptions, hybrid parents of all the breeding programs were found distributed across all the marker-based groups suggesting good diversity in these programs. Three hundred and twenty hybrids generated using 37 (22 R and 15 B) representative parents, evaluated for grain yield at four locations in India, showed significant differences in yield, heterosis, and combining ability. Across all the hybrids, mean mid- and better-parent heterosis for grain yield was 84.0% and 60.5%, respectively. Groups G12 B × G12 R and G10 B × G12 R had highest heterosis of about 10% over best check hybrid Pioneer 86M86. The parents involved in heterotic hybrids were mainly from the groups G4R, G10B, G12B, G12R, and G13B. Based on the heterotic performance and combining ability of groups, 2 B-line (HGB-1 and HGB-2) and 2 R-line (HGR-1 and HGR-2) heterotic groups were identified. Hybrids from HGB-1 × HGR-1 and HGB-2 × HGR-1 showed grain yield heterosis of 10.6 and 9.3%, respectively, over best hybrid check. Results indicated that parental groups can be formed first by molecular markers, which may not predict the best hybrid combination, but it can reveal a practical value of assigning existing and new hybrid pearl millet parental lines into heterotic groups to develop high-yielding hybrids from the different heterotic groups.

14.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 187-194, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915357

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and single most important cause of premature death in developed countries. Off pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery has recently became widespread internationally and has produced good clinical outcome even in left main coronary artery disease following off pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. A prospective observational study was conducted in the department of Cardiac Surgery, National Heart Foundation Hospital and Research Institute, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2015 to September 2016 after fulfillment of enrollment criteria, 428 patients were studied for the purpose of the study and they were grouped in two, significant left main coronary artery disease in group A and non left main coronary artery disease requiring surgery in group B. Comparison of risk factors between groups demonstrates that diabetes mellitus and smoking habit between two groups were almost identical. 69.2% of patient with significant left main coronary artery group were hypertensive and 25.2% were dyslipidaemic in comparison to non left main coronary artery disease group which were 50.9% and 6.5% respectively. Requirement of per operative inotropic support was significantly higher in left main coronary artery group. 33.6% of patient of left main coronary artery group required per operative inotropic support whereas non left main coronary artery group require 24.8%. Postoperative inotropic support, mechanical ventilation time, ICU stay, hospital stay and complication were similar in both these groups. So, we can say that off pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery for significant left main coronary artery disease is as safe as non left main coronary artery disease.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Postgrad Med ; 66(1): 57-58, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929315
16.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(2): 172-179, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncultured extracted hair follicle outer root sheath cell suspension (NC-EHF-ORS-CS) is an upcoming surgical technique to treat stable vitiligo. Conventionally it employs trypsin to tap the hair follicle (HF) reservoir for autologous melanocytes and their precursors for transplantation. However, a perifollicular dermal sheath composed of type 1 collagen encases the target 'bulge' region of the HF. Adding collagenase type 1 would digest the ORS, facilitating better release of cells. AIM: To compare the repigmentation achieved using trypsin and a combination of collagenase plus trypsin, respectively, with dermabrasion alone, and to compare cell counts, viability and composition of both suspensions. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, comparative, therapeutic trial, conducted as a pilot study on 22 patients with stable vitiligo. Three similar patches were randomized into three parallel treatment arms [(A) trypsin plus collagenase, (B) trypsin alone and (C) dermabrasion with vehicle alone]. Each patient's HF sample was divided and digested by the two methods, and transplanted as suspensions onto dermabraded patches, while a third dermabraded patch received the vehicle only. Suspensions were sent for laboratory analysis. Repigmentation was assessed over a follow-up of 6 months. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in cell yield and comparable viability when collagenase was added. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometry studies showed a nonsignificant increase in HMB45+ melanocytes and their precursor stem cells in group A. This trend was reflected clinically in the extent of repigmentation [group A (33.22%) > B (24.31%) > C (16.59%); P = 0.13]. Adding collagenase induced significantly higher repigmentation than dermabrasion alone (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating collagenase type I into the conventional NC-EHF-ORS-CS technique resulted in enhanced retrieval of pigment-forming cells and subsequently improved repigmentation in vitiligo.

17.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 32(2): e39-e45, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551125

RESUMO

AIMS: Stereotactic radiation therapy has been investigated predominantly in patients with low-intermediate-risk disease. We conducted a clinical trial of stereotactic hypofractionated radiation therapy delivered in once-weekly fractions on patients with all-risk non-metastatic disease to test feasibility, acute toxicities and patient-reported outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this phase I/II study, 30 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma, any Gleason score, T1-4N0 and prostate-specific antigen ≤60 ng/ml were treated with volumetric intensity modulated arc radiation therapy to a dose of 35 Gy in five fractions delivered once weekly. Patients with high-risk disease also received elective nodal irradiation to a dose of 25 Gy in five fractions simultaneously. Androgen deprivation was offered to intermediate- and high-risk patients. The primary outcome was acute toxicity. Secondary outcome measures included biochemical control and late toxicity. Patient-reported outcomes were measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ). RESULTS: All 30 patients completed treatment per-protocol. Most patients had T3 (60%) and Gleason 7 (50%) tumours. The median prostate-specific antigen was 17 ng/ml. High-risk disease was present in 20 patients (66.7%). There was a low incidence of acute toxicities (grade 2 + urinary 3.3%, grade 2 rectal 0%). Within the EORTC QLQ framework, only the urinary symptom score showed a clinically meaningful worsening from a mean of 20/100 at baseline to 34/100 at the end of treatment (P < 0.001), but reduced to 24/100 at 6 months (P = 0.08). With a median follow-up of 41.5 months, two patients each reported grade 2 late urinary and rectal toxicity. The 3- and 4-year biochemical control rates were 96.7 and 87.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of mainly high-risk cancers, stereotactic once-weekly radiation therapy was easy to implement and well tolerated, with a low incidence of acute and late toxicity and excellent biochemical control.

18.
QJM ; 113(2): 93-99, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a monophasic disease characterized by acute polyradiculoneuropathy. AIM: This study investigated cardiovascular complications in patients with GBS and their relationship with outcomes. DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 96 patients, who were diagnosed with GBS according to Brighton case definitions. All enrolled patients were evaluated according to a predetermined algorithm, which included nerve conduction studies, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, electrocardiography, 2D echo, cardiac markers and autonomic function testing. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 96 patients. The mean age of patients was 35.75 ± 17.66 years. Furthermore, 54.2% of patients developed cardiovascular complications, of which changes in electrocardiography (ECG) findings (50%), hypertension (28.12%), labile hypertension (12.5), tachycardia (26.04), bradycardia (13.54%) and a fluctuating heart rate (HR) (11.46) were common. Other cardiovascular complications seen in GBS patients were increased pro-BNP (26.04%), raised troponin T levels (3.12%), acute coronary syndrome (2.08%), heart failure (2.08%) and abnormal 2D echo findings (8.33%). The results of the univariate analysis revealed that a history of preceding infection, a Medical Research Council sum score, neck muscle weakness, facial nerve involvement, bulbar involvement, respiratory failure, cardiovascular complications, autonomic dysfunction, acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy subtype and baseline Hughes score were significantly (P < 0.005) associated with poor outcomes. However, none of these factors were found to be independently associated with poor outcomes in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of patients with GBS developed cardiovascular complications and it needs attention.

19.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(3): 173-180, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782823

RESUMO

Bacterial communities strongly influence the digestion, health and immune status of fish. This study investigates the microbial distribution of the anterior, middle and distal gut sections of three economically important carp species in Bangladesh, rohu, catla and mrigal (commonly known as Indian major carps), using 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing technology. The alpha-diversity measurement with one-way ANOVA indicated high species richness, Shannon and Simpson indices in the middle and distal gut, while the anterior gut of IMCs had the lowest diversity. At the phylum level, there was high abundance of Proteobacteria in the GITs of rohu and mrigal, whereas Fusobacteria was dominant in the anterior and middle guts of catla. At the genus level, diverse microbial communities were identified across the three GIT sections, with six indicator genera found in rohu, catla and mrigal, as revealed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) at a 0·05 level of significance. Of the 218 genera identified, only 33 were common across the anterior, middle and distal guts of all three species. Bacterial diversity was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in mrigal, followed by catla and rohu, respectively. Alongside the common bacteria Aeromonas, Enterobacter and Serratia, the overwhelming abundance of Cetobacterium, Shewanella and Plesiomonas warrants further investigation. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study investigates the microbial communities of the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of three Indian major carp (IMC) species-rohu, catla and mrigal, obtained from a polyculture pond under the same feeding regime. Diverse microbial communities were found, with significantly different relative abundances and diversities of phyla and genera. The results provide valuable information on GIT microbial communities that may be useful for nutrition and health management in IMCs.

20.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(1): 75-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786707

RESUMO

Increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in myriad applications including electronics, medicines and agriculture has led to serious concerns regarding its release to plant ecosystems. Over the years, numerous studies have demonstrated the toxic impact of AgNPs in a variety of cell and tissue systems involved in vegetative growth across a wide range of plant species. However, assessing their impact on haploid phase of plant life cycle was restricted only to a study with Kiwifruit. In this study, in vitro pollen performance of Peltophorum pterocarpum at two endpoints i.e., germination and tube growth was assessed to evaluate the impact of nanoparticulate or ionic form of silver. Increasing concentrations of AgNO3/AgNPs significantly reduced the pollen germination and retarded the tube growth. The EC 50 values indicated a more potent toxic effect of AgNPs than AgNO3 on pollen germination as well as tube growth. Impairment of pollen performance was more pronounced at the stage of emergence of pollen tube. Extensive alterations in the muri and lumen of exine as revealed through SEM analysis and subsequent blockage of germpore might disrupt the emergence of pollen tube. The dynamics of pollen tube growth was analyzed with polynomial models of different degrees. A high degree of polynomial, the quintic model was able to approximate the real data points with highest coefficient of determination and smallest RMSE, compared to other models. An oscillating pattern of tube growth was portrayed with the passage of time in all the treatments that fits well with the established mechanistic oscillatory model of tube growth. It appears that exposure to AgNO3/AgNPs inhibited pollen germination and retarded tube growth without affecting the oscillatory behavior of tip-growth.

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