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1.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimal time interval for diagnostic colonoscopy completion after an abnormal stool-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test is uncertain. We examined the association between time to colonoscopy and CRC outcomes among individuals who underwent diagnostic colonoscopy after abnormal stool-based screening. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of Veterans age 50-75 years with an abnormal fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) between 1999 and 2010. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards to generate CRC-specific incidence and mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 3-month colonoscopy intervals, with 1-3 months as the reference group. Association of time to colonoscopy with late-stage CRC diagnosis was also examined. RESULTS: Our cohort included 204,733 patients. Mean age was 61 years (SD: 6.9). Compared to patients who received a colonoscopy at 1-3 months, there was an increased CRC risk for patients who received a colonoscopy at: 13-15 months (HR=1.13, 95%CI:1.00-1.27), 16-18 months (HR=1.25, 95%CI:1.10-1.43), 19-21 months (HR=1.28, 95%CI:1.11-1.48), and 22-24 months (HR=1.26, 95%CI:1.07-1.47). Compared to patients who received a colonoscopy at 1-3 months, mortality risk was higher in groups who received a colonoscopy at: 19-21 months (HR=1.52, 95%CI:1.51-1.99) and 22-44 (HR=1.39, 95%CI:1.03-1.88). Odds for late stage CRC increased at 16 months. CONCLUSIONS: Increased time to colonoscopy is associated with higher risk of CRC incidence, death, and late stage CRC after abnormal FIT/FOBT. Interventions to improve CRC outcomes should emphasize diagnostic follow-up within 1 year of an abnormal FIT/FOBT result.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246073, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insomnia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in HIV (HIV-CVD); however, mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations of insomnia symptoms with biological mechanisms of HIV-CVD (immune activation, systemic inflammation, and coagulation) among 1,542 people with HIV from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Biomarker Cohort. Past-month insomnia symptoms were assessed by the item, "Difficulty falling or staying asleep?," with the following response options: "I do not have this symptom" or "I have this symptom and…" "it doesn't bother me," "it bothers me a little," "it bothers me," "it bothers me a lot." Circulating levels of the monocyte activation marker soluble CD14 (sCD14), inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and coagulation marker D-dimer were determined from blood specimens. Demographic- and fully-adjusted (CVD risk factors, potential confounders, HIV-related factors) regression models were constructed, with log-transformed biomarker variables as the outcomes. We present the exponentiated regression coefficient (exp[b]) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We observed no significant associations between insomnia symptoms and sCD14 or IL-6. For D-dimer, veterans in the "Bothers a Lot" group had, on average, 17% higher D-dimer than veterans in the "No Difficulty Falling or Staying Asleep" group in the demographic-adjusted model (exp[b] = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.01-1.37, p = .04). This association was nonsignificant in the fully-adjusted model (exp[b] = 1.09, 95%CI = 0.94-1.26, p = .27). CONCLUSION: We observed little evidence of relationships between insomnia symptoms and markers of biological mechanisms of HIV-CVD. Other mechanisms may be responsible for the insomnia-CVD relationship in HIV; however, future studies with comprehensive assessments of insomnia symptoms are warranted.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a key measure of colonoscopy quality. However, its efficient measurement can be challenging because many colonoscopies are performed for non-screening purposes. Measuring ADR without being restricted to screening indication may likely facilitate more widespread implementation of quality monitoring. We hypothesized that the ADR for all colonoscopies, irrespective of the indication, would be equivalent to the ADR for screening colonoscopies. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive colonoscopies at two Veterans Affairs centers performed by 21 endoscopists over 6 months in 2015. We calculated the ADR for screening exams, non-screening (surveillance and diagnostic) exams, and all exams (irrespective of indication), correcting for within-endoscopist correlation. We then performed simulation modeling to calculate the ADRs under 16 hypothetical scenarios of various indication distributions. We simulated 100,000 trials with 3,000 participants, randomly assigned indication (screening, surveillance, diagnostic, and FIT+) from a multinomial distribution, randomly drew adenoma using the observed ADRs per indication, and calculated 95% confidence intervals of the mean differences in ADR of screening and non-screening indications. RESULTS: Among 2628 colonoscopies performed by 21 gastroenterologists, the indication was screening in 28.9%, surveillance in 48.2% and diagnostic in 22.9%. There was no significant difference in the ADR, 50% (95%CI: 45-56%) for all colonoscopies vs 49% (95%CI: 43-56%) for screening exams (p=0.55). ADRs were 56% for surveillance and 38% for diagnostic exams. In our simulation modeling, only one out of 16 scenarios (screening 10%, surveillance 70%, diagnostic 10% and FIT+ 10%) resulted in a significant difference between the calculated ADRs for screening and non-screening indications. CONCLUSION: In our study, an overall ADR computed from all colonoscopies was not significantly different than the conventional ADR based on screening colonoscopies. Assessing ADR for colonoscopy irrespective of indication may be adequate for quality monitoring, and could facilitate the implementation of quality measurement and reporting. Future prospective studies should evaluate the validity of using overall ADR for quality reporting in other jurisdictions before adopting this method in clinical practice.

5.
Neurosurgery ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placement of the distal shunt catheter into the peritoneum during ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) surgery can be done with either laparoscopic assistance or laparotomy. OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes in laparoscopic-assisted vs laparotomy for placement of VPS in the Medicare population. METHODS: Patients undergoing VPS placement, between 2004 and 2014, were identified by International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes in the Medicare database. Demographic data including age, sex, comorbidities, and indications were collected. Six- and twelve-month complication rates were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1966 (3.2%) patients underwent laparoscopic-assisted VPS and 60 030 (96.8%) patients underwent nonlaparoscopic-assisted VPS placement. Compared with traditional open VPS placement, the laparoscopic approach was associated with decreased odds of distal revision at 6- and 12-mo postoperatively (6 mo: odds ratio [OR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-0.74; 12 mo: OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94). At 6- and 12-mo postoperatively, multivariable regression analysis demonstrated increased odds of distal revision in patients with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 Kg/M2, history of open abdominal surgery, and history of laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Additionally, history of prior abdominal surgery and BMI > 30 Kg/M2 were significantly associated with increase odds of shunt infection at 6 and 12-mo, respectively. CONCLUSION: In the largest retrospective analysis to date, patients with a history of abdominal surgery and obesity were found to be at increased risk of infection and distal revision after VPS placement. However, the laparoscopic approach for abdominal placement of the distal catheter was associated with reduced rates of distal revision in this population, suggesting an avenue for reducing complications in well-selected patients.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417940

RESUMO

Rising trends in the incidence and mortality of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) in those who are younger than 50 years have been well established. These trends have spurred intense investigation focused on elucidating the epidemiology and characteristics of early-onset CRC, as well as on identifying strategies for early detection and prevention. In this review, we provide a contemporary update on early-onset CRC with a particular focus on epidemiology, molecular characterization, red flag signs and symptoms, and screening for early-onset CRC.

9.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(11S): S429-S446, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153555

RESUMO

Incidental liver masses are commonly identified on imaging performed for other indications. Since the prevalence of benign focal liver lesions in adults is high, even in patients with primary malignancy, accurate characterization of incidentally detected lesions is of paramount clinical importance. This document reviews utilization of various imaging modalities for characterization of incidentally detected liver lesions, discussed in the context of several clinical scenarios. For each clinical scenario, a summary of current evidence supporting the use of a given diagnostic modality is reported. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

10.
Annu Rev Med ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208026

RESUMO

Preventable differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality across racial/ethnic, economic, geographic, and other groups can be eliminated by assuring equitable access and quality across the care continuum, but few interventions have been demonstrated to do so. Multicomponent strategies designed with a health equity framework may be effective. A health equity framework takes into account social determinants of health, multilevel influences (policy, community, delivery, and individual levels), screening processes, and community engagement. Effective strategies for increasing screening uptake include patient navigation and other interventions for structural barriers, reminders and clinical decision support, and data to continuously track metrics and guide targets for improvement. Community resource gaps should be addressed to assure high-quality services irrespective of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status. One model combines population-based proactive outreach screening with delivery screening at in-person or virtual points of contact, as well as community engagement. Patient- and provider-based behavioral interventions may be considered for increasing screening demand and delivery. Providing a choice of screening tests is recommended for CRC screening, and access to colonoscopy is required for completion of the CRC screening process. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 72 is January 27, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 466-469, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV (PLWH). It is unclear whether eGFR equations incorporating cystatin C (CysC) measurements are more predictive of preclinical cardiovascular disease than those using only creatinine (Cr). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine which of the 3 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) eGFR equations is most associated with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from 3 large cohorts compared the associations between the 3 CKD-EPI eGFR equations (Cr, CysC, and Cr-CysC) with CIMT and CAC score using multivariable regression analysis. eGFR and CIMT were analyzed as continuous variables. CAC scores were analyzed as a binary variable (detectable calcification versus nondetectable) and as a log10 Agatston score in those with detectable CAC. RESULTS: Thousand four hundred eighty-seven participants were included, and of these 910 (562 HIV+ and 348 HIV-) had CIMT measurements and 366 (296 HIV+ and 70 HIV-) had CAC measurements available. In HIV- participants, GFR estimated by any CKD-EPI equation did not significantly correlate with CIMT or CAC scores. When PLWH were analyzed separately including HIV-specific factors, only GFR estimated using Cr-Cys C correlated with CIMT [ß= -0.90, 95% CI: (-1.67 to -0.13) µm; P = 0.023]. Similarly, eGFR correlated with Agatston scores only when using cystatin C-based eGFR [ß= -8.63, 95% CI: (-16.49 to -0.77) HU; P = 0.034]. Associations between other eGFR formulas and CAC did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In PLWH, preclinical atherosclerosis may be more closely correlated with eGFR using formulae that incorporate CysC measurements than Cr alone.

13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the colonoscopy quality metric with the strongest association to interval or "missed" cancer. Accurate measurement of ADR can be laborious and costly. AIMS: Our aim was to determine if administrative procedure codes for colonoscopy and text searches of pathology results for adenoma mentions could estimate ADR. METHODS: We identified US Veterans with a colonoscopy using Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) codes between January 2013 and December 2016 at ten Veterans Affairs sites. We applied simple text searches using Microsoft SQL Server full-text searches to query all pathology notes for "adenoma(s)" or "adenomatous" text mentions to calculate ADRs. To validate our identification of colonoscopy procedures, endoscopists of record, and adenoma detection from the electronic health record, we manually reviewed a random sample of 2000 procedure and pathology notes from the 10 sites. RESULTS: Structured data fields were accurate in identification of colonoscopies being performed (PPV = 0.99; 95% CI 0.99-1.00) and identifying the endoscopist of record (PPV of 0.95; 95% CI 0.94-0.96) for ADR measurement. Simple text searches of pathology notes for adenoma mentions had excellent performance statistics as follows: sensitivity 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00), specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95), NPV 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00), and PPV 0.93 (0.91-0.94) for measurement of ADR. There was no clinically significant difference in the estimates of overall ADR vs. screening ADR (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Measuring ADR using administrative codes and text searches from pathology results is an efficient method to broadly survey colonoscopy quality.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e19474, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic patient questionnaires are becoming ubiquitous in health care. To address care gaps that contribute to poor asthma management, we developed the Electronic Asthma Management System, which includes a previsit electronic patient questionnaire linked to a computerized clinical decision support system. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the determinants (barriers and enablers) of patient uptake and completion of a previsit mobile health questionnaire. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with adult patients with asthma in Toronto, Canada. After demonstrating the questionnaire, participants completed the questionnaire using their smartphones and were then interviewed regarding perceived barriers and enablers to using and completing the questionnaire. Interview questions were based on the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify the determinants of health-related behavior. We generated themes that addressed the enablers and barriers to the uptake and completion of the questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 12 participants were interviewed for saturation. Key enablers were as follows: the questionnaire was easy to complete without additional knowledge or skills and was perceived as a priority and responsibility for patients, use could lead to more efficient and personalized care, completion on one's own time would be convenient, and uptake and completion could be optimized through patient reminders. Concerns about data security, the usefulness of questionnaire data, the stress of completing it accurately and on time, competing priorities, and preferences to complete the questionnaire on other devices were the main barriers. CONCLUSIONS: The barriers and enablers identified by patients should be addressed by developing implementation strategies to enhance e-questionnaire use and completion by patients. As the use of e-questionnaires grows, our findings will contribute to implementation efforts across settings and diseases.

15.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 25(5): 101157, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011094
16.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963990

RESUMO

Background: Breathe is a mobile health (mHealth) application developed for the self-management of asthma in adults. There is evidence to suggest that mHealth interventions can be used for asthma control; however, their effects on the use of health services remain poorly understood. We sought to determine whether Breathe reduces health services use amongst asthma patients who used the app compared to controls who did not. Methods: The impact of Breathe on health services use was estimated using a quasi-experimental approach. Two groups of subjects who had participated in a previous randomised clinical trial were included: an intervention group of asthma patients who used the app for 12 months, and a group of controls who did not use the app but received equivalent quality asthma care. A third, external control group of asthma patients were matched to the intervention participants. Generalised linear mixed models were used to determine relative changes in rates of asthma hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient physician visits and completion of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) over time. Results: A total of 677 individuals with asthma were included in the study: 132 in the intervention group, and 149 and 396 in the internal and external control groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the change of asthma hospitalisations, ED visits, physician office visits or completion of PFTs between the intervention group and either control group. Conclusions: Use of the Breathe app is not associated with changes in health services use in adults with asthma.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19358, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: mHealth tablet-based interventions are increasingly being studied and deployed in various health care settings, yet little knowledge exists regarding patient uptake and acceptance or how patient demographics influence these important implementation metrics. OBJECTIVE: To determine which factors influence the uptake and successful completion of an mHealth tablet questionnaire by analyzing its implementation in a primary care setting. METHODS: We prospectively studied a patient-facing electronic touch-tablet asthma questionnaire deployed as part of the Electronic Asthma Management System. We describe tablet uptake and completion rates and corresponding predictor models for these behaviors. RESULTS: The tablet was offered to and accepted by patients in 891/1715 (52.0%) visits. Patients refused the tablet in 33.0% (439/1330) visits in which it was successfully offered. Patients aged older than 65 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 2.30, 95% CI 1.33-3.95) and with concurrent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.05-4.67) were more likely to refuse the tablet, and those on an asthma medication (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30-0.99) were less likely to refuse it. Once accepted, the questionnaire was completed in 784/891 (88.0%) instances, with those on an asthma medication (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88) being less likely to leave it incomplete. CONCLUSIONS: Older age predicted initial tablet refusal but not tablet questionnaire completion, suggesting that perceptions of mHealth among older adults may negatively impact uptake, independent of usability. The influence of being on an asthma medication suggests that disease severity may also mediate mHealth acceptance. Although use of mHealth questionnaires is growing rapidly across health care settings and diseases, few studies describe their real-world acceptance and its predictors. Our results should be complemented by qualitative methods to identify barriers and enablers to uptake and may inform technological and implementation strategies to drive successful usage.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 383(11): 1028-1039, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Sulindaco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eflornitina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sulindaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Gastroenterology ; 159(5): 1992, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891624
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV (PLWH). It is unclear whether eGFR equations incorporating Cystatin C (CysC) measurements are more predictive of preclinical CVD than those using only creatinine (Cr). OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine which of the three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) eGFR equations is most associated with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of pooled data from three large cohorts compared the associations between the three CKD-EPI eGFR equations (Cr, CysC, and Cr-CysC) with CIMT and CAC score using multivariable regression analysis. eGFR and CIMT were analyzed as continuous variables. CAC scores were analyzed as a binary variable (detectable calcification versus nondetectable) and as a log10 Agatston score in those with detectable CAC. RESULTS: 1487 participants were included, and of these 910 (562 HIV+, 348 HIV-) had CIMT measurements and 366 (296 HIV+, 70 HIV-) had CAC measurements available. In HIV- participants, GFR estimated by any CKD-EPI equation did not significantly correlate with CIMT or CAC scores. When PLWH were analyzed separately including HIV-specific factors, only GFR estimated using Cr-Cys C correlated with CIMT [ß= -0.90, 95% CI (-1.67,-0.13) µm; p=0.023]. Similarly, eGFR correlated with Agatston scores only when using cystatin C-based eGFR [ß= -8.63, 95% CI (-16.49,-0.77) HU; p=0.034]. Associations between other eGFR formulas and CAC did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: In PLWH, preclinical atherosclerosis may be more closely correlated with eGFR using formulae that incorporate CysC measurements than Cr alone.

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