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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with >1 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the distinction between separate primary lung carcinomas (SPLCs) and intrapulmonary metastases (IPMs) is a common diagnostic dilemma with critical staging implications. Here, we compared the performance of comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) to standard histopathologic approaches for distinguishing NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We queried 4119 NSCLCs analyzed by 341-468 gene MSK-IMPACT NGS assay for patients with >1 surgically-resected tumor profiled by NGS. Tumor relatedness predicted by prospective histopathologic assessment was contrasted with comparative genomic profiling by subsequent NGS. RESULTS: Sixty patients with NGS performed on >1 NSCLCs were identified, yielding 76 tumor pairs. NGS classified tumor pairs into 51 definite SPLCs (median 14, up to 72 unique somatic mutations per pair), and 25 IPMs (24 definite, 1 high-probability; median 5, up to 16 shared somatic mutations per pair). Prospective histologic prediction was discordant with NGS in 17 cases (22%), particularly in the prediction of IPMs (44% discordant). Retrospective review highlighted several histologic challenges, including morphologic progression in some IPMs. We subsampled MSK-IMPACT data to model the performance of less comprehensive assays, and identified several clinicopathologic differences between NGS-defined tumor pairs, including increased risk of subsequent recurrence for IPMs. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive NGS allows unambiguous delineation of clonal relationship among NSCLCs. In comparison, standard histopathologic approach is adequate in most cases, but has notable limitations in the recognition of IPMs. Our results support the adoption of broad panel NGS to supplement histology for robust discrimination of NSCLC clonal relationships in clinical practice.

2.
Hum Pathol ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299266

RESUMO

Mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHX) enzyme subunits commonly lead to a loss of function of the holoenzyme complex, and germline SDHX mutations lead to a genetic predisposition to SDH-deficient neoplasms, including renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Similarly, loss of function alterations of fumarate hydratase (FH) leads to a genetic predisposition to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC)-associated RCC. Loss of FH leads to an accumulation of fumarate and aberrantly high levels of S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC). Subtype-specific consecutively diagnosed renal cell neoplasms were selected for the study and cases were not otherwise selected based on clinicopathologic features. Tissue Microarrays were constructed from 1009 renal cell neoplasms [papillary: 400, clear cell: 203, chromophobe: 87, oncocytomas (original diagnosis): 273, unclassified: 46] and these cases were immunostained for SDHA/SDHB to screen for SDH loss. A smaller subset (n=730; oncocytomas, papillary and unclassified RCCs) were screened for FH-deficiency using immunohistochemistry for FH/2SC. Loss of SDHA/SDHB was seen in three of 273 tumors originally diagnosed as oncocytomas (1.1%). Diffuse nuclear and cytoplasmic 2SC staining, with retained FH expression was seen in one case (suggestive of dysfunctional FH protein), while absent FH was seen in 3 cases (2/400 papillary RCCs, 0.5% and 2/46 unclassified RCCs, 4.35%). No aberrant FH/2SC expression was noted in 273 cases originally diagnosed as oncocytomas. SDH-deficient RCCs were identified only in the cases originally diagnosed as oncocytomas (1.1%), while FH-deficient RCCs were identified in the papillary (0.5%) and unclassified RCC cohorts (4.35%). These results can help guide immunohistochemistry-based screening strategies for these tumors.

4.
Am J Pathol ; 189(9): 1846-1862, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199921

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is commonly up-regulated in cancer, including bladder cancer. mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) is a major regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion, but the mechanisms by which mTORC2 regulates these processes are unclear. A discovery mass spectrometry and reverse-phase protein array-based proteomics dual approach was used to identify novel mTORC2 phosphoprotein targets in actively invading cancer cells. mTORC2 targets included focal adhesion kinase, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), among others. Functional testing shows that mTORC2 regulates Cav-1 localization and dynamic phosphorylation of Cav-1 on Y14. Regulation of Cav-1 activity by mTORC2 also alters the abundance of caveolae, which are specialized lipid raft invaginations of the plasma membrane associated with cell signaling and membrane compartmentalization. Our results demonstrate a unique role for mTORC2-mediated regulation of caveolae formation in actively migrating cancer cells.

5.
Hum Pathol ; 88: 48-59, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946934

RESUMO

Some rhabdomyosarcomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous elements resemble high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, creating a diagnostic difficulty. The purpose of this study was to characterize the overlap of adult genitourinary rhabdomyosarcomas, excluding those occurring at paratesticular sites, with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and identify features helpful in their separation. Seventeen cases of rhabdomyosarcoma (11 from the urinary bladder and 3 each from kidney and prostate) were compared to 10 cases of high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma from the urinary bladder. These tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for desmin, MyoD1, myogenin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, TTF1, and ASCL1, and RNA sequencing was performed on 4 cases of bladder rhabdomyosarcoma (2 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 sarcomatoid-rhabdomyosarcoma) and 10 cases of bladder high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. This was compared to public data from 414 typical urothelial carcinomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. Morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma was seen in half of the bladder tumors, which included 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 sarcomatoid rhabdomyosarcomas. RNA sequencing confirmed expression of neuroendocrine markers in these cases (2 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 sarcomatoid rhabdomyosarcomas). Differential neuroendocrine differentiation was highlighted by ASCL1 protein expression only in high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. Moreover, both a pure alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder demonstrated a fusion involving PPP1R12A. In summary, adult rhabdomyosarcomas of the urinary bladder are molecularly distinct from high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas based on specific patterns of expression of myogenic and epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related transcription factors as well as the presence of a novel PPP1R12A fusion which is seen in a subset of cases.

6.
Mod Pathol ; 32(9): 1344-1358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996253

RESUMO

Amplifications of JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 at 9p24.1 lead to constitutive expression of PD-L1. This, coupled with JAK2-activation dependent upregulation of PD-L1 and adaptive/induced expression leads to higher tumor PD-L1 expression and immune evasion. Renal tumors were therefore evaluated for 9p24.1 amplifications. A combination of next generation sequencing-based copy number analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization for JAK2/INSL6 and PD-L1/PD-L2 and immunohistochemistry for phospho-STAT3 (downstream target of JAK2), PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 was performed. In this study we interrogated a "Discovery" cohort of 593 renal tumors, a "Validation" cohort of 398 high-grade renal tumors, The Cancer Genome Atlas (879 cases) and other public datasets (846 cases). 9p24.1 amplifications were significantly enriched in renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation (5.95%, 15/252) when compared to all histologic subtypes in the combined "Discovery", "Validation" and public datasets (16/2636, 0.6%, p < 0.00001). Specifically, 9p24.1 amplifications amongst sarcomatoid tumors in public datasets, the "Discovery" and "Validation" cohorts were 7.7% (6/92), 15.1% (5/33), and 3.1% (4/127), respectively. Herein, we describe 13 cases and amplification status for these was characterized using next generation sequencing (n = 9) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 10). Correlation with PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (n = 10) revealed constitutive expression (mean H-score: 222/300, n = 10). Analysis of outcomes based on PD-L1 expression in tumor cells performed on 282 cases ("Validation" cohort) did not reveal a significant prognostic effect and was likely reflective of advanced disease. A high incidence of constitutive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells in the "Validation" cohort (H-Score ≥250/300) was noted amongst 83 rhabdoid (6%) and 127 sarcomatoid renal tumors (7.1%). This suggests additional mechanisms of constitutive expression other than amplification events. Importantly, two patients with 9p24.1-amplified sarcomatoid renal tumors showed significant response to immunotherapy. In summary, a subset of renal tumors with sarcomatoid transformation exhibits constitutive PD-L1 overexpression and these patients should be evaluated for enhanced response to immunotherapy.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(2): 307-317, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576871

RESUMO

Genomic amplification at 9p24.1, including the loci for JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2, has recently been described as a mechanism of resistance in postchemotherapy, triple-negative breast cancer. This genomic signature holds significant promise as a prognostic biomarker and has implications for targeted therapy with JAK2 inhibitors, as well as with immunotherapy. To guide future screening strategies, the frequency of these alterations was determined. A total of 5399 cases were included in the study. This encompassed 2890 institutional cases tested by the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets assay and 2509 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The combined incidence of 9p24.1 amplifications in both the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets and TCGA cohorts was 1.0% (56/5399 cases) and showed a >10-fold higher incidence in triple-negative breast cancer (triple-negative: 5.1%; non-triple-negative: 0.5%). Tumor mutation burden and stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, parameters used to assess response to immunotherapy, were not significantly higher for these cases. The significance of genomic losses at 9p24.1 is unclear, and further studies are needed. Herein, we studied the spectrum of copy number alterations in breast cancer cases within our institutional clinical sequencing cohort and those profiled by TCGA to determine the frequency of genomic alterations that may predict response or resistance to JAK2 inhibitors and/or immunotherapy.

8.
Hum Pathol ; 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236595

RESUMO

As immune checkpoint inhibitors are rapidly developing into the standard of care for patients with advanced melanoma, the value of diagnostic metrics to predict response to immunotherapy is steadily increasing. Next-generation sequencing based parameters include tumor mutation burden (TMB) as well as genomic amplification of PD-L1/PD-L2/JAK2 at 9p24.1. At present, there are limited studies documenting response to checkpoint blockade in 9p24.1 amplified solid tumors. Herein, we have compared a cutaneous melanoma with a mucosal melanoma, both with 9p24.1 amplifications and durable response to immunotherapy. While the cutaneous melanoma had a high TMB, the mucosal melanoma had a lower TMB compared to the mean TMB for all melanomas within the institutional clinical sequencing cohort. In summary, PD-L1/PD-L2/JAK2 amplification was associated with durable response to therapy for both cases and this genomic signature is a potential valuable metric in predicting response to immunotherapy.

9.
Endocr Pathol ; 29(3): 236-241, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453600

RESUMO

High-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (HGNECs) of the urinary bladder encompass small cell (SCNEC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC). Currently, recommended initial management is with systemic chemotherapy, followed by consolidative therapy with either radical cystectomy or radiotherapy in patients with localized disease. Nevertheless, survival in this setting remains poor. We therefore evaluated the potential to modify arginine metabolism as an alternative, targeted therapy approach in these carcinomas. In humans, arginine is a semi-essential amino acid and its synthesis enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) represents the rate-limiting step in arginine biosynthesis. Neoplasms that show low to absent ASS1 expression require extracellular arginine for cancer cell survival, and thus can be targeted using arginine-degrading enzymes such as pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20). An initial study by our group of 19 patients demonstrated that a high percentage of SCNEC lack ASS1 expression. Herein, we evaluated an expanded cohort of 74 radical cystectomy patients with HGNEC, including 63 SCNEC, 5 LCNEC, and 6 mixed morphology HGNEC patients. ASS1 expression was assessed through immunohistochemistry. Fifty-eight (of 74, 78%) patients with HGNEC showed absent ASS1 expression, including all patients with LCNEC and mixed morphology (11 of 11, 100%). Ten-year survival from disease-specific death was not statistically significant between ASS1-expressing and ASS1-deficient cases (p = 0.75). Our results show that HGNEC of the bladder may be candidates for arginine deprivation therapy using drugs such as ADI-PEG 20. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to determine the therapeutic efficacy of such agents.

10.
Endocr Pathol ; 28(3): 269-275, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752484

RESUMO

Ganglioneuromas represent the most well-differentiated spectrum of neoplasia arising from the sympathetic nervous system, while neuroblastomas represent the most poorly differentiated counterpart, and ganglioneuroblastomas represent intermediate stages of differentiation. Small series of cases have documented the co-occurrence of ganglioneuroma with a pheochromocytoma (Pheo)/paraganglioma (PGL) component. We report the clinicopathologic features of eight such cases, diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 with a mean follow-up of 22 months (1-47), which were evaluated for syndrome associations, SDHB expression, and clinical outcome. Mutations of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunits (A, B, C, D, and SDHAF2) have been implicated in predicting metastatic behavior and in identifying possible paraganglioma syndromes. The proliferative index was calculated by manual quantification of Ki-67-positive cells at selected hot-spots using ImageJ (NIH). In our series, composite Pheo/PGL-ganglioneuromas predominantly involved the adrenal gland (Pheo 7, PGL 1). The cases had an equal gender distribution (males 4, females 4), with a mean age at diagnosis of 67 years (range 53 to 86 years), an average size of 5.2 cm (range 2 to 8.2 cm), an average weight of 49.3 g (7.8 to 144.7 g, n = 6), and the majority were functionally active (7 of 8, 88%). The mean Ki67 proliferation rate was 2% (range 0.3 to 3%), and all cases retained SDHB expression (8/8, 100%). No patient (0/8, 0%) developed metastatic disease on follow-up. One patient had a retroperitoneal composite PGL-ganglioneuroma in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1. No recurrent disease or other associations were identified. In our study, composite Pheo/PGL-ganglioneuromas predominantly affected the adrenal gland in older patients, showed no loss of SDHB, and no disease recurrence was identified.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Ganglioneuroma/patologia , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/enzimologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Ganglioneuroma/enzimologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/enzimologia , Feocromocitoma/enzimologia
11.
Endocr Pathol ; 28(3): 253-268, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646318

RESUMO

Alterations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHX), and TMEM127 have been associated with the development of pheochromocytomas (PCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) and are also associated with the development of renal neoplasms. This study involved 2 primary renal PGL and 12 cases of PC/PGL with associated renal neoplasia with a mean follow up of 74 months. Germline VHL and SDHX mutation status was obtained from the medical record. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB and mutation analysis for TMEM127 was performed, in addition to analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets for SDHX and TMEM127 mutated renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The spectrum of renal neoplasia included clear cell and tubulocystic and papillary RCC, as well as a case of multiple papillary adenomas. Three patients had metastatic PC/PGL and three patients had VHL syndrome. Previously unreported TMEM127 alterations were identified in two patients, both without evidence of VHL syndrome or SDH-deficiency, and were classified as variants of uncertain significance. Primary renal PGL and neoplasia was associated with about 2% of 710 cases of PC/PGL. These were diagnosed concurrently or on average 27 months prior to the PC/PGL, and most were low-grade, low-stage clear cell RCCs. Up to half of patients with PC/PGL and renal neoplasia had VHL syndrome, SDH deficiency, or alterations in TMEM127. One (of three) case of metastatic PC/PGL had SDHB mutation and loss of SDHB by immunohistochemistry. The other two cases had retained SDHB expression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/patologia , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Succinato Desidrogenase , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mod Pathol ; 30(7): 998-1012, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338654

RESUMO

A subset of renal cell carcinomas shows TFEB overexpression secondary to MALAT1-TFEB gene fusion. As alternate mechanisms of TFEB overexpression are likely to have the same effect, we sought to determine the frequency of amplification of TFEB and the adjacent VEGFA gene at 6p21.1. As patients with metastatic renal cell carcinomas are managed with anti-VEGF therapies, we retrospectively assessed therapeutic response in patients with amplified tumors. Amplification status was analyzed for 875 renal cell carcinomas from our institution, a consultative case and 794 cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Cases were classified as having low level (5-10 copies), and high-level amplification (>10 copies), and were further analyzed for adjacent oncogene copy number status (n=6; 3 single-nucleotide polymorphism genomic microarray, 3 The Cancer Genome Atlas) and structural rearrangements (n=1; mate-pair sequencing). These were then reviewed for histopathology, immunophenotype, and response to VEGF-targeted therapy on follow-up. In all, 10/875 (1.1%) institutional cases, 1 consultative case, and 3/794 (0.4%) of The Cancer Genome Atlas cases showed TFEB high-level amplification, while 14/875 (1.6%) cases showed TFEB low-level amplification. All cases had associated VEGFA amplification. This was confirmed with evaluation for copy number changes (n=6). The 6p21.1 high and low-level amplified tumors occurred in adults (mean age: 66), with over half being ≥pT3 (13/25, 52%), and most showed oncocytic, tubulopapillary features and high grade (≥grade 3: 20/22, 91%). These were aggressive tumors with metastasis and death from renal cell carcinoma in 11 (of 24, 46%) cases. Four patients received targeted therapy and had a mean survival of 31 months (range: 17-50) post nephrectomy. In summary, a group of aggressive renal cell carcinomas show genomic amplification of the 6p21.1 region including TFEB and VEGFA genes and share morphologic features. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether these patients respond to anti-VEGF therapy.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Pathology ; 49(3): 259-266, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259358

RESUMO

In radical cystectomy specimens with bladder cancer, lymphatic and vascular invasion are often reported as 'angiolymphatic' or 'lymphovascular' invasion, terms that combine the findings of tumour within simple endothelial-lined lymphatic spaces and tumour within muscle-lined blood vessels. It is unclear if these patterns of invasion have different prognostic significance. In addition, there are conflicting data regarding the significance of lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion in patients with bladder cancer. Herein, we studied 1504 patients treated by radical cystectomy for bladder cancer at our institution and followed for a mean of 10.6 years. Cases were re-reviewed by a urological pathologist for lymphatic invasion defined as tumour within a non-muscle-lined endothelial-lined lymphatic space, vascular invasion defined as tumour in a muscle-lined blood vessel, and perineural invasion defined as tumour within the perineural sheath. Associations of clinical and pathological features with bladder cancer death were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and summarised with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis showed that lymphatic and vascular invasion but not perineural invasion were significantly associated with cancer specific survival (p<0.0001 and p=0.02, respectively). There was a significant association of lymphatic and vascular invasion but not perineural invasion with involved regional lymph nodes (p<0.0001 and p=0.004, respectively). In patients with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, lymphatic invasion remained significantly associated with outcome (p=0.02). The frequency of lymphatic and vascular invasion varied amongst histological subtypes of bladder cancer. Vascular and lymphatic invasion should be clearly defined and reported for radical cystectomy specimens containing bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias Vasculares/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neovascularização Patológica , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Neoplasias Vasculares/diagnóstico
14.
16.
Am J Pathol ; 2016 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979310

RESUMO

Loss of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), a key enzyme for arginine synthesis, occurs in many cancers, making cells dependent on extracellular arginine and targetable by the arginine-degrading enzyme pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20). We evaluated ASS1 expression and effects of ASS1 loss in bladder cancer which, despite affecting >70,000 people in the United States annually, has limited therapies. ASS1 loss was identified in conventional and micropapillary urothelial carcinoma, small cell, and squamous cell carcinoma subtypes of invasive bladder cancer, as well as in T24, J82, and UM-UC-3 but not in 5637, RT112, and RT4 cell lines. ASS1-deficient cells showed preferential sensitivity to ADI-PEG 20, evidenced by decreased colony formation, reduced cell viability, and increased sub-G1 fractions. ADI-PEG 20 induced general control nonderepressible 2-dependent eukaryotic initiation factor 2α phosphorylation and activating transcription factor 4 and C/EBP homologous protein up-regulation, associated with caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy. These effects were ablated with selective siRNA silencing of these proteins. ASS1 overexpression in UM-UC-3 or ASS1 silencing in RT112 cells reversed these effects. ADI-PEG 20 treatment of mice bearing contralateral flank UM-UC-3 and RT112 xenografts selectively arrested tumor growth in UM-UC-3 xenografts, which had reduced tumor size, reduced Ki-67, and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining. This suggests that ASS1 loss occurs in invasive bladder cancer and is targetable by ADI-PEG 20.

17.
Endocr Pathol ; 27(3): 243-52, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27262318

RESUMO

Paragangliomas of the urinary bladder can arise sporadically or as a part of hereditary syndromes including those with underlying mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes, which serve as tumor suppressors. SDH deficiency can be screened for by absence of immunohistochemical detection of SDHB. In this study of 11 cases, clinical follow-up was available for 9/11 cases. The cases were reviewed and graded based on the grading system for adrenal pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (GAPP) criteria. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Ki67 and SDHB. Proliferative index was calculated by quantification of Ki67-positive cells at hot spots. The medical record was accessed for documentation of germline SDH mutations. Urinary bladder paragangliomas had a female predilection (8/11 cases), and 5/11 cases exhibited metastatic behavior. Patients with metastatic disease tended to be younger (mean age 43 vs 49 years), have larger lesions (5.8 vs 1.5 cm), and presented with catecholamine excess (4/4 vs 2/6 patients with non-metastatic lesions). Patients with metastatic disease had a higher mean Ki67 proliferation rate (4.9 vs 1.3 %) and GAPP score (mean of 5.8 vs 3.8) (p = 0.01). IHC for SDHB expression revealed loss of expression in 2/6 cases of non-metastatic paragangliomas compared to 4/5 patients with metastatic paragangliomas. Interestingly, of these four patients, two had a documented mutation of SDHB, one patient had a SDHC mutation, and another patient had a history of familial disease without mutation analysis being performed. Our study, suggests that SDH loss was suggestive of metastatic behavior in addition to younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and higher Ki67 proliferation rate and catecholamine type.


Assuntos
Paraganglioma Extrassuprarrenal/enzimologia , Paraganglioma Extrassuprarrenal/patologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Succinato Desidrogenase/análise
18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 40(11): 1557-1563, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276240

RESUMO

Primary renal leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are rare, and there is a paucity of data regarding the pathologic features and outcomes of patients with these tumors. The objective of this study was to review a large series of renal smooth muscle tumors, in order to more fully elucidate their natural histories. Fifty-seven renal smooth muscle tumors were reviewed for various histopathologic features, and leiomyosarcomas were graded using the French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) system. Tumor cores in tissue microarrays were evaluated for smooth muscle actin, desmin, h-caldesmon, calponin, myogenin, cytokeratin (OSCAR), CD117, Ki67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1). Leiomyomas were selected on the basis of preexisting diagnostic criteria, which included a lack of cytologic atypia, necrosis, and mitotic activity (0 to 1 mitoses/10 hpf). These were found to have a strong predilection for women, tended to arise from the renal capsule, were small (mean size, 4.2 cm), and had a low Ki67 proliferative rate (mean 1.4%). In addition, they uniformly expressed all smooth muscle markers and were ER/PR/WT1 positive in nearly all cases. In 10 patients with clinical follow-up, none had a tumor recurrence. In contrast, leiomyosarcomas had an equal sex distribution, were larger (mean size, 9.8 cm), had significantly higher mitotic activity (mean 8.6 mitoses/10 hpf), with most being FNCLCC grade 2. Leiomyosarcomas expressed at least 1 muscle marker, higher Ki67 proliferative activity (mean 20.4%) than leiomyomas, and most were ER/PR/WT1 negative. Tumor recurrence occurred in 65% of patients, and 35% of patients died of disease. This study therefore validates existing criteria to distinguish between leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Leiomioma/patologia , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Análise Serial de Tecidos
19.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 140(6): 543-51, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031776

RESUMO

CONTEXT: -Sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma (UCa) is a rare but aggressive variant of bladder cancer that can show diagnostic challenges even using ancillary techniques. OBJECTIVE: -To examine immunohistochemical markers in the context of sarcomatoid UCa, including those associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. DESIGN: -Twenty-eight cases of sarcomatoid UCa were rereviewed. Clinical outcomes were obtained through database search. Immunohistochemistry for clinical and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers was performed. RESULTS: -All patients had biopsy-proven invasive UCa; 61% (17 of 28) had sarcomatoid UCa at initial diagnosis. A recognizable epithelial component(s) was present in 17 lesions. The sarcomatoid component accounted for 65% of the lesion (average), with heterologous elements present in 3 of 28 cases (11%). The morphologic spectrum of the sarcomatoid element included spindled not otherwise specified, myxoid, pseudoangiosarcomatous, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like undifferentiated features. The sarcomatoid component was immunoreactive for pancytokeratin (22 of 26; 85%), p63 (20 of 26; 77%), cytokeratin 903 (17 of 26; 65%), cytokeratin 7 (16 of 26; 62%), GATA3 (16 of 26; 62%), and cytokeratin 5/6 (16 of 26; 62%). STAT-6, CD31, CD34, and HMB45 were all nonreactive, whereas smooth muscle actin often showed at least focal immunoreactivity (22 of 26; 85%). Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers were frequently expressed, including vimentin (26 of 26; 100%), FoxC2 (26 of 26; 100%), SNAIL (23 of 26; 88.5%), and ZEB1 (18 of 26; 69.2%). Follow-up was available for 24 patients (median, 7 months). Sixteen of 28 patients (57%) died of disease (overall mean survival, 9.1 months). The presence of myxoid or chordoid features was associated with reduced survival (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: -Sarcomatoid UCa is an aggressive form of UCa that frequently expresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, suggesting a possible mechanism associated with aggressive tumor behavior.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Urotélio/metabolismo
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