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1.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34853932

RESUMO

This randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the efficacy of topical aloe vera with low-level laser therapy in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). A randomized, parallel arm, single-blind study comprising of 60 patients with OLP was randomly divided into two groups. Group A was given topical aloe vera extract gel applied thrice daily for 2 months, and group B was given low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at 980 nm twice weekly for 2 months. Both groups were followed up for 9 months. Patients were assessed for various parameters according to the Escudier scale at baseline, after treatment at 9 months. Results were assessed using the McNemar-Bowker test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Both individual groups showed significant (p < 0.05) results at the end of the treatment period (0-2 months) and the follow-up period (2-7 months). Intergroup comparison showed significant results in the laser group (reduction of VAS by 44.1%, site score by 24.6%, and activity score by 50%) as compared with the aloe vera group (reduction of VAS by 26.7%, site score by 9.2%, and the activity score by 26%) in the treatment period. In the follow-up period, both groups showed insignificant differences in comparison to each other. Within the limitations of the study, LLLT was more effective as compared with topical aloe vera in managing oral lichen planus during the active treatment time, while both were equally effective during the follow-up period. The clinical study was registered under the Clinical Trials Registry India with the registration number CTRI/2018/04/013147.

2.
Int J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 14(4): 575-579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824517

RESUMO

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by stiffness of oral mucosa, blanching and functional limitation, and areca nut predisposition is considered to be one of the main etiological factors. In recent years, there is an increasing prevalence of OSMF in the Indian subcontinent owing to increased consumption of smokeless tobacco products. Very few cases of pediatric OSMF are reported in PubMed literature. Oral submucous fibrosis has a malignant transformation rate of 7-13% and hence, it is important to intervene at an appropriate stage and manage it well in time. Aim and objective: To report a case of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) in a 6-year-old Indian girl along with its management and follow-up. Case description: A 6-year-old girl of Indian origin was diagnosed with OSMF and we have used sesame oil pulling as a novel treatment approach and observed good results with long-term follow-up. We have also reviewed PubMed literature for cases of pediatric OSMF reported till date. Conclusion: A timely diagnosis and intervention becomes necessary in pediatric OSMF to improve oral function and prevent malignant transformation. Clinical significance: It is important to report oral potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) cases in pediatric patients and create awareness through health education programs so that parents and children know about the ill effects of consuming tobacco products. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Gupta S, Chaudhary C, et al. Novel Treatment Approach of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in a 6-year-old Girl: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021;14(4):575-579.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830037

RESUMO

Two genes, HvSAP8 and HvSAP16, encoding Zinc-finger proteins, were identified earlier as active in barley plants. Based on bioinformatics and sequencing analysis, six SNPs were found in the promoter regions of HvSAP8 and one in HvSAP16, among parents of two barley segregating populations, Granal × Baisheshek and Natali × Auksiniai-2. ASQ and Amplifluor markers were developed for HvSAP8 and HvSAP16, one SNP in each gene, and in each of two populations, showing simple Mendelian segregation. Plants of F6 selected breeding lines and parents were evaluated in a soil-based drought screen, revealing differential expression of HvSAP8 and HvSAP16 corresponding with the stress. After almost doubling expression during the early stages of stress, HvSAP8 returned to pre-stress level or was strongly down-regulated in plants with Granal or Baisheshek genotypes, respectively. For HvSAP16 under drought conditions, a high expression level was followed by either a return to original levels or strong down-regulation in plants with Natali or Auksiniai-2 genotypes, respectively. Grain yield in the same breeding lines and parents grown under moderate drought was strongly associated with their HvSAP8 and HvSAP16 genotypes. Additionally, Granal and Natali genotypes with specific alleles at HvSAP8 and HvSAP16 were associated with improved performance under drought via higher 1000 grain weight and more shoots per plant, respectively.

4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 686120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277470

RESUMO

Introduction: Exophiala spp. are important opportunist pathogens causing subcutaneous or even fatal disseminated infections in otherwise both immunosuppressed and healthy individuals but there are no systematic studies on the isolates of Exophiala species from India. Methods: Twenty-four isolates of Exophiala species were retrieved from the National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (NCCPF) and identified phenotypically and by molecular methods (ITS region sequencing) followed by antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) as per CLSI-M38A3 guidelines. A review of the literature of cases from India was performed up to 1st January 2021 using the Medline and Cochrane database. Results: E. dermatitidis (n = 8), E. jeanselmei (n = 6), E. spinifera (n = 6), E. mesophila (n = 1), E. oligosperma (n = 1), E. xenobiotica (n = 1) were identified and the sequencing of ITS, ß-tubulin and ß-actin revealed a novel species, E. arunalokei sp. nov. (n = 1). The ITS sequence phylogram of E. jeanselmei revealed that the majority (83%) formed a separate cluster close to type A while majority (75%) of E. dermatitidis were type B. The MIC50 (mg/L) of amphotericin, itraconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and posaconazole, was 1, 0.25, 0.125, 0.12, 0.125, 0.062, and 0.062, respectively. Sixteen more cases were identified on the literature review and a significant association of E. dermatitidis with history of surgical procedures (p = 0.013), invasive disease (p = 0.032) and of E. mesophila with tuberculosis (p = 0.026) was seen. Conclusion: This, to the best of our knowledge is the first study from India elucidating the molecular and clinical characteristics of Exophiala species and the first Indian report of human infection due to E. xenobiotica and E. arunalokei.


Assuntos
Exophiala , Anfotericina B , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Exophiala/genética , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Contemp Clin Dent ; 12(1): 81-83, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967544

RESUMO

Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) associated with natal/neonatal teeth is extremely rare. In general, POF occurs as a soft-tissue gingival nodule occurring in young adults. We report an unusual and a rare case in a 5-month-old male child who had two, localized, soft-tissue growth over the mandibular anterior alveolar ridge. History revealed the presence of natal teeth in the same mandibular anterior region, which exfoliated at the age of 2 months. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed soft tissue density with evidence of calcifications that also corroborated with the histopathological finding of masses of mineralized areas. Excision of the lesions followed by histopathological examination proved the final diagnosis of POF. Inspite of being a benign reactive lesion, a high recurrence rate has been reported. Such lesions require long-term follow-up subsequent to excision with histopathological examination due to a high recurrence rate.

6.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1288-1293, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041167

RESUMO

Context: Postprandial dyslipidemia plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and possible macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Aims: To assess and compare the fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in type 2 DM patients. Settings and Design: This case-control study was conducted in the Medicine department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods and Materials: The study included 100 subjects; 50 type 2 diabetic patients and 50 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Fasting and postprandial lipid levels were estimated in all the subjects and compared. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student's t-test and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison between two and more than two groups, respectively, for normally distributed data. Results: Mean total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels were significantly higher and high density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly lower in the diabetics in comparison to the controls in both fasting (200.82, 172.59, 126.20, 37.63, and 40.74 mg/dL in diabetics versus 179.90, 98.03, 109.54, 19.60, and 50.46 mg/dL in controls) and postprandial states (223.75, 232.99, 139.19, 46.52, and 40.54 mg/dL in diabetics versus 185.36, 102.20, 110.36, 20.24, and 48.96 mg/dL in controls). The mean postprandial TC and TG levels (223.75, 232.99 mg/dL) in diabetics were significantly higher when compared to their fasting values (200.82, 172.59 mg/dL) in these patients. Conclusions: Type 2 DM patients show significant postprandial lipid abnormalities particularly postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. Raised postprandial lipid parameters highlight that estimating lipids in the postprandial state is equally important as is estimation of lipids in the fasting state in type 2 DM.

9.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(5): 1547-1560, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093568

RESUMO

Tuberculosis posses a major threat for health practitioners due to lengthy treatment regimen, increase in the drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) and unavailability of drugs for its persistent form. Therefore, there is an urgent need for discovery of new and improved anti-tubercular drugs. In M. tb, the two step de novo biosynthesis of L-cysteine, an essential metabolic pathway is reported to be up-regulated in the persistent phase of the organism, involves two enzymes CysE and CysK. Although, structural insights for rational drug discovery are available for the later, not much information is known for the former. This study proposes a 3-dimensional model of M. tb CysE followed by in-silico screening of 67,030 anti-tuberculosis bioactive compounds. Subsequently, post-processing of 1000 best hits was carried out and top 200 compounds thus obtained were docked into the active site cleft of E. coli homologue as a control, but revealed unexpected results. Differences in the active site architectures and comparative analysis of molecular electrostatic potentials between the two CysEs provide molecular basis for the compounds C1, C3, C4 and C7 exhibiting preferential binding for M. tb CysE. In addition, shorter N-terminus along with positive and irregular trimeric base of M. tb CysE indicates its biological assembly as trimer. Based on mapping of residues involved in cysteine sensitivity on to the model structure of M. tb CysE, it is hypothesized that feedback inhibition of this homologue by cysteine may be affected.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Serina O-Acetiltransferase , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Serina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167455

RESUMO

Down-regulator associated protein, DrAp1, acts as a negative cofactor (NC2α) in a transcription repressor complex together with another subunit, down-regulator Dr1 (NC2ß). In binding to promotors and regulating the initiation of transcription of various genes, DrAp1 plays a key role in plant transition to flowering and ultimately in seed production. TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes were identified, and their expression and genetic polymorphism were studied using bioinformatics, qPCR analyses, a 40K Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray, and Amplifluor-like SNP genotyping in cultivars of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and breeding lines developed from a cross between spelt (T. spelta L.) and bread wheat. TaDrAp1 was highly expressed under non-stressed conditions, and at flowering, TaDrAp1 expression was negatively correlated with yield capacity. TaDrAp2 showed a consistently low level of mRNA production. Drought caused changes in the expression of both TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes in opposite directions, effectively increasing expression in lower yielding cultivars. The microarray 40K SNP assay and Amplifluor-like SNP marker, revealed clear scores and allele discriminations for TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 and TaRht-B1 genes. Alleles of two particular homeologs, TaDrAp1-B4 and TaDrAp2-B1, co-segregated with grain yield in nine selected breeding lines. This indicated an important regulatory role for both TaDrAp1 and TaDrAp2 genes in plant growth, ontogenesis, and drought tolerance in bread and spelt wheat.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Secas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
J Cutan Aesthet Surg ; 13(1): 43-45, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655251

RESUMO

Sometimes, suture thread detaches from needle while suturing. This leads to wastage of left over thread and we have to repeat whole process of suturing as the extra suture needles are not easily available. The present article highlights the use of hypodermic needle as suture needle in such emergencies.

14.
Cornea ; 39(7): 868-876, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398423

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report rare dematiaceous and hyaline fungal pathogens causing fungal keratitis (FK) at our center and review the published literature in this field. METHODS: In a retrospective review of FK cases from 2005 to 2011, a total of 14 rare pathogens causing isolated cases of FK of a total of 393 isolates were revived from our collection and reconfirmed by using molecular techniques. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) was performed against a 6-antifungal drug panel by the CLSI microbroth-dilution method. We reviewed the literature on keratitis due to these rare fungi. RESULTS: Two novel fungi, Alternaria tenuissima and Epicoccum nigrum, were reported in addition to 6 dematiaceous (black pigmented) fungi (Acrophialophora fusispora, Chaetomium globosum, Cladophialophora carionii, Nigrospora sphaerica, Papulaspora equi, and Scytalidium lignicola), 5 hyaline (colorless) fungi (Aspergillus tamarii, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium lichenicola, and Fusarium sacchari), and one yeast (Trichosporon asahii). Amphotericin B had good in vitro activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤1 µg/mL) against most dematiaceous fungi, but not hyaline fungi (MIC ≥1 µg/mL). Natamycin showed variable MIC, itraconazole and voriconazole had good in vitro activity, except in Fusarium species. Alternaria tenuissima and A. fusispora had a very high MIC (≥16 µg/mL) against echinocandins. Literature search revealed 27 FK cases due to F. lichenicola (n = 6), P. equi (n = 5), F. sacchari (n = 4), A. fusispora (n = 3), S. lignicola (n = 2), and others (n = 7), and more than 50% of these were reported from India. CONCLUSIONS: Plant fungal pathogens with variable antifungal susceptibility are an emerging cause of human keratitis with predominance of dematiaceous fungi. Identification and antifungal susceptibility testing are important for epidemiology and to optimize therapy and improve the patient outcome.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hialina , Ceratite/microbiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Ceratite/epidemiologia
15.
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 151: 1240-1249, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751684

RESUMO

The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major concern that necessitates the development of unique therapeutics. The essential requirement of serine acetyltransferase (SAT/CysE) for survival of several human pathogens makes it a very promising target for inhibitor designing and drug discovery. In this study, as an initial step to structure-based drug discovery, CysE from K. pneumonia was structurally and biochemically characterized. Subsequently, blind docking of selected natural products into the X-ray crystallography determined 3D structure of the target was carried out. Experimental validation of the inhibitory potential of the top-scorers established quercetin as an uncompetitive inhibitor of Kpn CysE. Molecular dynamics simulations carried out to elucidate the binding mode of quercetin reveal that this small molecule binds at the trimer-trimer interface of hexameric CysE, a site physically distinct from the active site of the enzyme. Detailed analysis of conformational differences incurred in Kpn CysE structure on binding to quercetin provides mechanistic understanding of allosteric modulation. Binding of quercetin to CysE leads to conformation changes in the active site loops and proximal loops that affect its internal dynamics and consequently its affinity for substrate/co-factor binding, justifying the reduced enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Serina O-Acetiltransferase/química , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cinética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Desnaturação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Serina O-Acetiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Serina O-Acetiltransferase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol ; 129(2): e204-e211, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microcephalic osteodysplastic dwarfism (MOPD) type II (OMIM 210720) is a rare autosomal recessive form of primordial dwarfism, characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, distinctive facial features, and osteodysplastic skeletal changes. The dental literature describing the oral manifestations of this syndrome is scarce. STUDY DESIGN: The aim of this article is to report the case of an 8-year-old male of Indian origin with MOPD type II and to describe his oral and dental manifestations. Genetic analysis was performed to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: The patient presented with interesting dental findings, including oligodontia, enamel hypoplasia, early exfoliation of primary dentition, accelerated eruption of permanent teeth with generalized grade II mobility, histopathologic features suggestive of dentin dysplasia, and a new mutation in the Pericentrin gene, which has not been documented earlier. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report from India of a case with this syndrome. The article presents various dentomaxillofacial features that have not been documented in dental literature earlier with sufficient evidence.


Assuntos
Nanismo , Microcefalia , Antígenos , Criança , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação
18.
Med Mycol ; 58(4): 425-433, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342074

RESUMO

Apophysomyces elegans species complex is an important cause of cutaneous mucormycosis in India. However, majority of those cases are reported as case reports only. We desired to analyze our patients with Apophysomyces infection reported over 25 years (1992-2017) to understand the epidemiology, management, and outcome of the disease. During the study period 24 cases were reported, and the majority (95.8%) of them presented with necrotizing fasciitis following accidental/surgical/iatrogenic trauma. One patient presented with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) related peritonitis. Healthcare related Apophysomyces infection was noted in 29.2% patients. In addition to trauma, comorbidities were noted in 37.5% patients (type 2diabetes mellitus-6, chronic alcoholism-2, and chronic kidney disease-1). Of the 24 isolates, 11 isolates starting from year 2014 were identified as Apophysomyces variabilis by molecular methods. Majority (95.8%) of the patients were managed surgically with or without amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy, while one patient was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate alone. Among 24 patients, seven (29.1%) recovered, six (25%) patients could not afford antifungal management and left the hospital against medical advice, and 11 (45.9%) patients died.The present case series highlights that necrotizing fasciitis caused by A. variabilis is prevalent in India, and the disease may be healthcare related. Although diagnosis is not difficult, awareness among surgeons is still limited about the infection, leading to a delay in sending samples to the mycology laboratory. Apophysomyces infection must be considered in the differential diagnosis in apatient with progressive necrosis of a wound who is not responding to antibacterial therapy.


Assuntos
Mucorales/patogenicidade , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Fasciite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucorales/classificação , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Mucormicose/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Contemp Clin Dent ; 11(4): 395-398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850408

RESUMO

Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive, rare genetic osteosclerotic disorder that caused by mutation in gene coding for Cathepsin K. The bones in pycnodysostosis are abnormally dense and brittle because of insufficient reabsorption process. This syndrome has a number of characteristic clinical and radiographic signs that differentiate it from other osteosclerotic conditions. This is a rare case report of a male patient with a history of multiple fractures of bones and osteomyelitis of maxilla which is a rare entity.

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