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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584698

RESUMO

Targeted temperature management (TTM) exerts substantial impact on hemodynamic function in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) and delivery (DO2) have not previously been investigated in a clinical setting during TTM at different levels of temperature after OHCA. A substudy of 151 patients randomized at a single center in the TTM-trial, where patients were randomly assigned TTM at 33°C (TTM33) or 36°C (TTM36) for 24 hours. We calculated VO2 according to the principle of Fick (VO2 = cardiac output*arteriovenous oxygen content difference). DO2 was calculated as cardiac output*arterial oxygen content. Cardiac output was measured by pulmonary artery catheter with thermodilution. Arteriovenous oxygen content difference was calculated from arterial and mixed venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin. Oxygen extraction ratio = VO2/DO2. At 24 hours, the VO2 was 169 ± 59 mL O2 per minute in TTM33 and 217 ± 53 mL O2 per minute in TTM36 (p < 0.0001). During 24 hours of TTM, the overall difference was 53 mL O2 minute (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31-74, pgroup < 0.0001). After rewarming at 36 and 48 hours, there was no difference in VO2 between the groups. DO2 was overall 277 mL O2 per minute (95% CI: 175-379, pgroup < 0.0001) higher in the TTM36-group during TTM. Oxygen extraction ratio during TTM was not significantly different between the two groups (2% [95% CI: -0.1 to 5, pgroup = 0.09]). VO2 during the first 36 hours after OHCA correlated significantly with temperature, and VO2 was 19 mL O2 per minute lower per degree reduction in temperature (95% CI: 15-22), p < 0.0001. TTM at 33°C compared to 36°C after OHCA is associated with significantly lower VO2 and DO2, however, oxygen extraction ratio was not significantly different. For each degree lower body temperature, the VO2 fell by 19 mL O2 per minute.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487472

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regional outcomes after implantation of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been described. We examined differences in patient selection, survival, and adverse events across 3 geographic regions of the world: the Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Europe. METHODS: Using data from The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support registry, all adult patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVADs were included in this International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support analysis (n = 15,560), of whom, 9,988 (64%) received axial-flow devices and 5,572 (36%) received centrifugal-flow devices. RESULTS: There were significant interregional differences in the rate of implantation of patients aged >70 years (Americas: 14%, Asia-Pacific: 1%, Europe: 5%; p < 0.0001), morbidly obese (Americas: 5%, Asia-Pacific: 1%, Europe: 1%; p < 0.0001), male (Americas: 79%, Asia-Pacific: 77%, Europe: 85%; p < 0.0001), and implanted as destination therapy (Americas: 48%, Asia-Pacific: 4%, Europe: 22%; p < 0.0001). The rates of centrifugal pump usage varied by region (Americas: 30%, Asia-Pacific: 34%, Eu: 74%; p < 0.0001). Survival rates varied by region and the type of pump flow, with survival at 12 and 48 months (axial flow vs centrifugal flow) being 82% vs 82% and 52% vs 53 in Americas; 92% vs 86% and 83% vs 74% in Asia-Pacific; and 80% vs 75% and 69% vs 53% in Europe, respectively (regional survival p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: There are marked global differences in LVAD recipient characteristics, device utilization, and post-operative care. These heterogeneities along with differences in patient management and transplantation rates may impact long-term survival. Regional differences in adverse event incidence warrant further investigation.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mumps, measles, rubella, and varicella-zoster viruses (MMRV) may cause severe infections in seronegative adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients but can be prevented by vaccination. We aimed to determine MMRV serostatus in adult SOT recipients before and one-year post-transplantation as well as evidence of MMRV infections in a large, prospective cohort of SOT recipients. METHODS: A prospective study of 1182 adult SOT recipients included in the Management of Posttransplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) cohort from 2011 to 2017 with a one-year follow-up. Systematic monitoring of MMRV serology was performed prior to transplantation and one-year post-transplantation. PCR was used to confirm viral replication in SOT-recipients presenting with clinical evidence of infection. RESULTS: Among 1182 adult SOT recipients, 28 (2.4%), 77 (6.5%), 65 (5.5%), and 22 (1.9%) were seronegative for measles, mumps, rubella, and VZV, respectively, and 165 (14%) were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. One-year post-transplantation, 29/823 (3.5%) of seropositive SOT recipients had seroreverted, and 63/111 (57%) of seronegative SOT recipients seroconverted for at least one MMRV virus. No evidence of MMR infections was found, but 8 (0.7%) SOT recipients developed symptoms and had a positive VZV PCR. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of SOT recipients were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. MMRV infections in SOT recipients may disseminate and become fatal, and although only few cases of VZV infection were detected, results from this study suggest increase attention towards vaccination of patients waiting for SOT.

5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415147

RESUMO

Congestion is the main reason for hospitalization in patients with acute decompensated heart failure and is an important target for therapy. However, achieving complete decongestion can be challenging. Furthermore, residual congestion before discharge from hospital is associated with a high risk of early rehospitalization and death. An improved understanding of the pathophysiology of congestion is of great importance in finding better and more personalized therapies. In this Review, we describe the two different forms of congestion - intravascular congestion and tissue congestion - and hypothesize that differentiating between and specifically treating these two different forms of congestion could improve the outcomes of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Although the majority of these patients have a combination of both intravascular and tissue congestion, one phenotype can dominate. Each of these two forms of congestion has a different pathophysiology and requires a different diagnostic approach. We provide an overview of novel and established biomarkers, imaging modalities and mechanical techniques for identifying each type of congestion. Treatment with loop diuretics, the current cornerstone of decongestive treatment, reduces circulating blood volume and thereby reduces intravascular congestion. However, the osmolality of the circulating blood decreases with the use of loop diuretics, which might result in less immediate translocation of fluid from the tissues (lungs, abdomen and periphery) to the circulation when the plasma refill rate is exceeded. By contrast, aquaretic drugs (such as vasopressin antagonists) predominantly cause water excretion, which increases the osmolality of the circulating blood, potentially improving translocation of fluid from the tissues to the circulation and thereby relieving tissue congestion.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(5): e006597, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are used for congestion relief, and dose adaptations are usually a consequence of the clinicians' clinical judgement about the congestive status of the patient. In EPHESUS (Eplerenone in Patients With Systolic Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction), many patients required diuretics for congestion relief. We thus hypothesized that blinded allocation to eplerenone would lead clinicians to reduce loop diuretics, as a consequence of the improvement in patients' status. METHODS: Cox and mixed-effects models were used over a median follow-up of 1.3 years in 6632 patients. RESULTS: A total of 6632 patients were included; at baseline, 3352 (50.5%) did not have diuretics, 2195 (33.1%) had diuretic doses between 1 and 40 mg/day, and 1085 (16.4%) had diuretic doses >40 mg/day. Patients with higher furosemide equivalent doses had a worse clinical status. Both baseline and follow-up incremental loop diuretic doses were associated with worse prognosis. Eplerenone treatment was associated with lower prescribed loop diuretic doses throughout the follow-up; lower doses were observed at 90 days and decreased further at 180 days and beyond. Eplerenone treatment led to a mean furosemide equivalent dose reduction of -2.2 mg/day (-2.9 to -1.6) throughout the follow-up. Eplerenone was effective in reducing morbidity and mortality regardless of the baseline loop diuretic dose used: hazard ratio for the outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization was 0.83 ([95% CI, 0.75-0.92]; P for interaction, 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Eplerenone treatment led to a loop diuretic dose reduction during follow-up without evidence of treatment effect modification by loop diuretics. These findings suggest that eplerenone reduces congestive signs and symptoms, which enables clinicians to reduce loop diuretic doses.

7.
Clin Transplant ; : e13984, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is characterized by diffuse thickening of the arterial intima. Statins reduce the incidence of CAV, but despite the use of statins, CAV remains one of the leading causes of long-term death after heart transplant. Inhibitors of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) substantially reduce cholesterol levels but have not been tested in heart transplant recipients. METHODS: The Cholesterol lowering with EVOLocumab to prevent cardiac allograft Vasculopathy in De-novo heart transplant recipients (EVOLVD) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03734211) is a randomized, double-blind trial designed to test the effect of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab on coronary intima thickness in heart transplant recipients. Adults who have received a cardiac transplant within the past 4 - 8 weeks are eligible. Exclusion criteria include an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 20 mL/min/1.73 m2 , renal replacement therapy, or contraindications to coronary angiography with intravascular ultrasound. 130 patients will be randomized (1:1) to 12-months' treatment with evolocumab or matching placebo. The primary endpoint is the coronary artery intima thickness as measured by intravascular ultrasound. CONCLUSION: The EVOLVD trial is a randomized clinical trial designed to show whether treatment with the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab can ameliorate CAV over the first year after heart transplant.

8.
J Palliat Med ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380928

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, palliative care must be available for everyone with life-threatening diseases. However, in daily practice the primary focus worldwide is on cancer patients. The aim of the article was to generate a national position statement as the first step in implementing palliative care in severe heart disease with focus on advanced heart failure, including tools to identify the need for and timing of palliative care and how palliative care could be organized in Denmark. A task force was formed in the Danish Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Working Group, and the position statement was prepared in collaboration with members from a broad group of specialties, including palliative medicine. Because of major gaps in evidence, the position statement was based on small and low-quality studies and clinical practice statements. This position statement was aligned with the European Society of Cardiology recommendation, focusing on relieving suffering from the early disease stages parallel to standard care and supplementing life-prolonging treatment. The statement delivers practical guidance on clinical aspects and managing symptoms during the three stages of advanced heart disease. Furthermore, the statement describes the importance of communication and topics to be broached, including deactivating implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The statement recommends a targeted effort on organizational strategies using high-quality assessment tools and emphasizes multidisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration. Danish cardiologists supported by allied professionals acknowledge the importance of palliative care in advanced heart disease. This national position statement intended to inform and influence policy and practice and can hopefully inspire other countries to take action toward implementing palliative care in advanced heart disease.

9.
J Card Fail ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device, preimplant predictors of poor physical performance are not well-described. We aimed to identify predictors of inability to walk more than 300 m on 6-minute walk test (6MWT) 6 months after HeartMate 3 implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the European Registry of Patients Implanted With a Full Magnetically Levitated LVAD, patients with available 6MWT at 6 months after implantation were included (N = 194) and grouped according to 6MWT distance (6MWD) of >300 m (n = 150) or 6MWD of <300 m (n = 44). Patients walking <300 m were older (60 ± 10 vs 52 ± 12 years; P < .001), more often New York Heart Association functional class IV (63% vs 42%; P = .03), and more often had type 2 diabetes (43% vs 17%; P < .001) at implantation. Atrial fibrillation was seen in 57% in those with a 6MWT of <300 m vs 31% in those walking longer (P < .002). Further, hemoglobin and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in those walking <300 m (both P < .01). In multivariable regression analysis, independent predictors of a 6MWD of <300 m were: atrial fibrillation (odds ratio [OR], 3.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-8.67), older age (OR for 10-year increment, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.55-5.07), New York Heart Association functional class IV (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.27-8.98), and Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profile 1 or 2 (OR, 6.53; 95% CI, 1.92-22.19). CONCLUSIONS: Six months after HeartMate 3 implantation, 77% of patients walked >300 meters in 6 minutes. Apart from age and measures of heart failure severity, atrial fibrillation at implantation is an independent predictor of low 6MWD at 6 months after implantation.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(5): 813-820, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246806

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the risk of heart failure (HF) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) complicated by development of intercurrent ischaemic heart disease (IHD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or both, compared to patients with T2D and no IHD and ESRD. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients with new-onset T2D with no history of HF between 1998 and 2015. Landmark analyses were used to estimate the 5-year absolute risk of HF at several follow-up times, and accounted for the occurrence of IHD and ESRD, identified before HF. The Aalen-Johansen estimator was used to account for censoring and the competing risk of death. A total of 285 024 patients with new-onset T2D were included. During follow-up, 19 960 developed incident HF. Among patients with T2D free of HF 5 years after T2D diagnosis, patients without IHD and ESRD had the lowest 5-year risk of HF [4.02%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.90-4.15), those with T2D complicated by IHD [11.51%; relative risk (RR) 2.86; 95% CI 2.72-3.02; P < 0.001] or ESRD (8.11%; RR 2.02; 95% CI 1.39-2.93; P < 0.001) an intermediate risk, and those with both IHD and ESRD (19.76%; RR 4.92; 95% CI 3.43-7.05; P < 0.001) the highest risk. CONCLUSION: Patients with T2D complicated by development of intercurrent IHD, ESRD, or both, showed a significantly higher risk of HF compared to those who did not develop IHD and ESRD. An effective way to delay or prevent the development of HF in patients with T2D may be to prevent IHD and ESRD.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227556

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the rates of all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF according to HF duration - new-onset HF and worsening of chronic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this nationwide observational cohort study, 17 176 patients were included at first hospital admission for HF in the period 2013-2015 using data from Danish nationwide registries. In total, 8860 (51.6%) patients were admitted with new-onset HF and 8316 (48.4%) with worsening of chronic HF. Patients with worsening of chronic HF were characterized by a greater comorbidity burden compared with patients with new-onset HF. The rates of outcomes were examined by multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. Worsening of chronic HF was associated with a higher rate of the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or HF readmission [hazard ratio (HR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-1.43], all-cause mortality (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.28), and HF readmission (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.69-1.93) compared with new-onset HF. There was an interaction between atrial fibrillation (AF), HF duration, and outcome: in worsening of chronic HF, the rate of the composite endpoint was higher in patients with AF compared with those without (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.19), whereas in new-onset HF, the rate of the composite endpoint was lower in patients with AF compared with those without (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.96) (P-value for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with decompensated HF, worsening of chronic HF was associated with poorer outcomes compared with new-onset HF.

13.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348960

RESUMO

AIMS: Neprilysin degrades natriuretic peptides in circulation and is also suggested to degrade the gut hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin. Neprilysin inhibition has become a therapeutic strategy and thus a regimen in need of further testing in terms of other hormonal axes besides natriuretic peptides. The aim of this study was to examine whether acute inhibition of neprilysin affects meal-induced responses in gastrin and cholecystokinin concentrations in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine healthy young men were included in an open-labelled, randomized cross-over clinical trial. The participants received a standardized meal (25 g fat, 26 g protein, 42 g carbohydrate) on two separate days with or without a one-time dosage of sacubitril ((194 mg)/valsartan (206 mg)). Blood pressure, heart rate and blood samples were measured and collected during the experiment. Statistical differences between groups were assessed using area under the curve together with an ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc test. Sacubitril/valsartan increased the postprandial plasma concentrations of both gastrin and cholecystokinin (80% (AUC0-270 min, P = 0.0038) and 60% (AUC0-270 min, P = 0.003), respectively) compared with the control meal. No significant hemodynamic effects were noted (blood pressure, AUC0-270 min, P = 0.86, heart rate, AUC0-270 min, P = 0.96). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that sacubitril/valsartan increases the postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrin and cholecystokinin in healthy individuals. The results thus suggest that neprilysin-mediated degradation of gastrin and cholecystokinin is physiologically relevant and may have a role in heart failure patients treated with sacubitril/valsartan.

16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 567-576, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059083

RESUMO

AIMS: Invasive haemodynamic profiles at rest and during exercise after heart transplantation (HTx) have never been described in a randomized trial where de novo everolimus (EVR)-based therapy with early calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal has been compared with conventional CNI treatment. We report central invasive haemodynamic parameters at rest and exercise during a 3 year follow-up after HTx in a sub-study of the SCandiavian Heart transplant Everolimus De novo stUdy with earLy calcineurin inhibitor avoidancE trial. We hypothesized that the nephroprotective properties, the less development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), and the antifibrotic properties of EVR, in comparison with CNI-based immunosuppression, would demonstrate favourable invasive haemodynamic profiles in patients at rest and during exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety of 115 HTx recipients randomized to EVR or CNI treatment performed right heart catheterization at rest and 68 performed right heart catheterization at exercise up to 3 years after HTx. Haemodynamic profiles were compared between EVR and CNI treatment groups. Resting haemodynamics improved in both groups from pre-HTx to the first follow-up at 7-11 weeks post-HTx and thereafter remained unchanged up to 3 years of follow-up. During follow-up, cardiac reserve during exercise increased with higher levels of maximum heart rate (118 to 148 b.p.m., P < 0.001), mean arterial pressure (103 to 128 mmHg, P < 0.001), and cardiac output (10.3 to 12.2 l/min, P < 0.001). No significant differences in haemodynamic parameters were observed between the EVR and CNI groups at rest or exercise. Isolated post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure > 20 mmHg, pulmonary arterial wedge pressure ≥ 15 mmHg, and pulmonary vascular resistance <3) were measured in 11% of the patients at 7-11 weeks, 5% at 12 months, and 6% at 36 months after HTx. The EVR group had significantly better kidney function (76 mL/min/1 vs. 60 mL/min/1, P < 0.001) and reduced CAV (P < 0.01) but an increased rate of early biopsy-proven treated rejections (21.2% vs 5.7%, P < 0.01) compared with the CNI group at any time point. The differences in renal function, CAV, or early biopsy-proven treated acute rejections were not associated with altered haemodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: De novo EVR treatment with early CNI withdrawal compared with conventional CNI therapy did not result in differences in haemodynamics at rest or during exercise up to 3 years after HTx despite significant differences in renal function, reduced CAV, and number of early biopsy-proven treated rejections.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 305: 106-112, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is widely associated with a median survival of 5 years. However, population level data on survival and HF progression has been limited for key subgroups. We assessed survival and HF progression, defined as hospitalization or outpatient diuretic intensification in patients ≤70 years without severe comorbidity, who received relevant medical therapy. METHODS: From administrative registers, we identified all Danish patients ≤70 years diagnosed with HF 2000-2012 without severe comorbidity, survived for 120 days to receive angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and beta blocker. Risk of death or progression of HF was assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Aalen Johansen estimators, respectively. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of death. RESULTS: We included 19,985 patients, median age 61, 25% women - 1/3 of all HF patients ≤70 years. We excluded 237 patients who died within 120 days and 21,065 due to severe comorbidity. Five-year cumulative incidence of all-cause death was 14% (95%-confidence interval [CI]:13-14). Risk of death was increased for patients first diagnosed in hospital compared to outpatient clinics (hazard ratio: 1.51, 95%-CI:1.38-1.65, p < 0.001). Five-year cumulative incidence of HF hospitalization: 18% (95%-CI, 18-19) and intensification of diuretic therapy: 14% (95%-CI, 14-15). CONCLUSIONS: In patients ≤70 years without severe comorbidity, five-year mortality was only 14% and almost 2/3 were alive after 5 years without evident HF progression. Discussion of prognosis should be tailored to age and health status to provide realistic expectations for patients newly diagnosed and treated with recommended therapies for HF.

18.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983013

RESUMO

Right Ventricular (RV) output mostly derives from longitudinal shortening in normal hearts. However, following even uncomplicated cardiac surgery with preserved RV function a significant and sustained decrease in longitudinal contraction has been observed. How the RV compensates and sustains output in this setting remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the RV contraction pattern by speckle tracking echocardiography to elucidate possible compensatory mechanisms mitigating the reduced RV longitudinal contraction after cardiac surgery. Thirty patients with normal preoperative ejection fraction and no valvulopathy underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). RV dedicated speckle tracking software measuring longitudinal and transverse displacement, as well as strain, was employed on transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) images as part of the Right Ventricular Echocardiography in cardiac SurgEry (ReVERSE) study. Data was recorded at baseline (after anesthesia induction), immediately after CPB and upon chest closure. Tricuspid Annulus Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) was reduced from 2.0 [1.6-2.5 cm] to 0.8 [0.6-11 mm] from baseline to after chest closure. RV longitudinal displacement was reduced from 6.1 [3.4-8.8 mm] to 2.9 [0.4-5.4 mm] at the same time-points. RV speckle tracking revealed concomitantly that transverse displacement of the free wall increased significantly from 1.2 [0-2.7 mm] at baseline to 5.4 [3.6-7.2 mm] after chest closure. RV speckle tracking strain did not change significantly. Increased transverse displacement likely compensates for reduction in RV longitudinal contraction following cardiac surgery and maintains cardiac output. The sustained output from the right ventricle was not related to an increased contractility.

19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(5): 1211-1219, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Critical care therapy after cardiac surgery includes interventions to aid pulmonary and cardiac function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of such interventions on right ventricular function (RVF). DESIGN: This was a prospective intervention study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a single tertiary university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients were studied in the intensive care unit (ICU) following CABG surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The following interventions were investigated: Trendelenburg position; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O; increased oxygen fraction; and AAI, DDD, and VVI pacing. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Transesophageal echocardiography and a pulmonary artery catheter were used to assess hemodynamics and RVF. Transesophageal echocardiography measures included right ventricular (RV) fractional area change, RV ejection fraction, RV stroke volume (SV), and RV global longitudinal strain (RV-GLS). Trendelenburg increased global echocardiographic measures of RVF as well as cardiac output (CO) 0.44 L/min (95% CI: 0.21-0.67). Increasing PEEP from 0 to 10 reduced SV and consequently CO by 0.41 L/min. Pulmonary vascular resistance was not changed by increasing PEEP. AAI or DDD pacing (15 beats above baseline) increased CO 0.35 L/min (95% CI 0.07-0.63). In contrast VVI pacing decreased CO by 24% (1.2 L/min [95% CI 0.9-1.6]). Applying 100% O2 did not affect hemodynamics, but RV-GLS was improved -4.4% (95% CI: -6.9 to -1.9). CONCLUSION: In patients with normal RVF undergoing CABG, several routine interventions in the ICU affect RVF, in particular PEEP and VVI pacing, which induces clinically important reductions in stroke volume.

20.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(2): e13252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may cause CMV disease. To optimize the implementation of existing prevention strategies, the Management of Post-transplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) program was developed. Two key performances of MATCH (diagnosing CMV infection at low viral load (VL) and before the onset of CMV disease) were assessed prior to, during and after the implementation of MATCH. METHODS: The MATCH program included a personalized surveillance plan, prophylaxis and preemptive therapy determined by the recipient's risk of CMV infection. The plan was composed through predefined algorithms and implemented through harvesting of real-time data from medical records. Risk of CMV disease was compared for recipients transplanted during and after vs prior to the implementation of MATCH. Lung and non-lung transplants were analyzed separately. RESULTS: A total of 593, 349, 520, and 360 SOT recipients were transplanted before (2007-2010), during (2011-2012), early after (2013-2015), and late after (2016-2017) implementation of MATCH with an observed reduction of diagnostic VL (P < .001) over time. Risk of CMV disease was reduced among non-lung transplant recipients transplanted during (adjusted hazard ratios [95% CI] 0.15 [0.04-0.54], P = .003), early after (aHR 0.27 [0.11-0.63], P = .003), and late after (aHR 0.17 [0.06-0.52], P = .002) compared with prior to MATCH. No significant change was observed among lung transplants. CONCLUSION: Implementation of CMV preventive strategies through MATCH was associated with a reduced risk of CMV disease among non-lung transplant recipients. Furthermore, the limitations of VL as a sole indicator for CMV disease in lung transplants were emphasized.

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