Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 77
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20158, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882973

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is induced by cigarette smoking and characterized by inflammation of airway tissue. Since smokers with COPD have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than those without, we hypothesized that they carry more mutations in affected tissue. We called somatic mutations in airway brush samples from medium-coverage whole genome sequencing data from healthy never and ex-smokers (n = 8), as well as from ex-smokers with variable degrees of COPD (n = 4). Owing to the limited concordance of resulting calls between the applied tools we built a consensus, a strategy that was validated with high accuracy for cancer data. However, consensus calls showed little promise of representing true positives due to low mappability of corresponding sequence reads and high overlap with positions harbouring known genetic polymorphisms. A targeted re-sequencing approach suggested that only few mutations would survive stringent verification testing and that our data did not allow the inference of any difference in the mutational load of bronchial brush samples between former smoking COPD cases and controls. High polyclonality in airway brush samples renders medium-depth sequencing insufficient to provide the resolution to detect somatic mutations. Deep sequencing data of airway biopsies are needed to tackle the question.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007496, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765368

RESUMO

The sheer size of the human genome makes it improbable that identical somatic mutations at the exact same position are observed in multiple tumours solely by chance. The scarcity of cancer driver mutations also precludes positive selection as the sole explanation. Therefore, recurrent mutations may be highly informative of characteristics of mutational processes. To explore the potential, we use recurrence as a starting point to cluster >2,500 whole genomes of a pan-cancer cohort. We describe each genome with 13 recurrence-based and 29 general mutational features. Using principal component analysis we reduce the dimensionality and create independent features. We apply hierarchical clustering to the first 18 principal components followed by k-means clustering. We show that the resulting 16 clusters capture clinically relevant cancer phenotypes. High levels of recurrent substitutions separate the clusters that we link to UV-light exposure and deregulated activity of POLE from the one representing defective mismatch repair, which shows high levels of recurrent insertions/deletions. Recurrence of both mutation types characterizes cancer genomes with somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and the cluster of genomes exposed to gastric acid. Low levels of recurrence are observed for the cluster where tobacco-smoke exposure induces mutagenesis and the one linked to increased activity of cytidine deaminases. Notably, the majority of substitutions are recurrent in a single tumour type, while recurrent insertions/deletions point to shared processes between tumour types. Recurrence also reveals susceptible sequence motifs, including TT[C>A]TTT and AAC[T>G]T for the POLE and 'gastric-acid exposure' clusters, respectively. Moreover, we refine knowledge of mutagenesis, including increased C/G deletion levels in general for lung tumours and specifically in midsize homopolymer sequence contexts for microsatellite instable tumours. Our findings are an important step towards the development of a generic cancer diagnostic test for clinical practice based on whole-genome sequencing that could replace multiple diagnostics currently in use.

3.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(12): 3943-3952, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645421

RESUMO

The Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax) has been extensively used in research of chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer because its infection with the woodchuck hepatitis virus closely resembles a human hepatitis B virus infection. Development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches requires genetic information on immune pathway genes in this animal model. The woodchuck genome was assembled with a combination of high-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Illumina paired-end, mate-pair libraries and fosmid pool sequencing. The result is a 2.63 Gigabase (Gb) assembly with a contig N50 of 74.5 kilobases (kb), scaffold N50 of 892 kb, and genome completeness of 99.2%. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from seven different tissues aided in the annotation of 30,873 protein-coding genes, which in turn encode 41,826 unique protein products. More than 90% of the genes have been functionally annotated, with 82% of them containing open reading frames. This genome sequence and its annotation will enable further research in chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the understanding of immunological responses in the woodchuck.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12367, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451731

RESUMO

Patient-derived 3D cell culture systems are currently advancing cancer research since they potentiate the molecular analysis of tissue-like properties and drug response under well-defined conditions. However, our understanding of the relationship between the heterogeneity of morphological phenotypes and the underlying transcriptome is still limited. To address this issue, we here introduce "pheno-seq" to directly link visual features of 3D cell culture systems with profiling their transcriptome. As prototypic applications breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) spheroids were analyzed by pheno-seq. We identified characteristic gene expression signatures of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that are associated with invasive growth behavior of clonal breast cancer spheroids. Furthermore, we linked long-term proliferative capacity in a patient-derived model of CRC to a lowly abundant PROX1-positive cancer stem cell subtype. We anticipate that the ability to integrate transcriptome analysis and morphological patho-phenotypes of cancer cells will provide novel insight on the molecular origins of intratumor heterogeneity.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1749, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988298

RESUMO

Global loss of DNA methylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation are key epigenomic aberrations in cancer. Global loss manifests itself in partially methylated domains (PMDs) which extend up to megabases. However, the distribution of PMDs within and between tumor types, and their effects on key functional genomic elements including CGIs are poorly defined. We comprehensively show that loss of methylation in PMDs occurs in a large fraction of the genome and represents the prime source of DNA methylation variation. PMDs are hypervariable in methylation level, size and distribution, and display elevated mutation rates. They impose intermediate DNA methylation levels incognizant of functional genomic elements including CGIs, underpinning a CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP). Repression effects on tumor suppressor genes are negligible as they are generally excluded from PMDs. The genomic distribution of PMDs reports tissue-of-origin and may represent tissue-specific silent regions which tolerate instability at the epigenetic, transcriptomic and genetic level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
6.
Elife ; 82019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860479

RESUMO

Forced transcription factor expression can transdifferentiate somatic cells into other specialised cell types or reprogram them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with variable efficiency. To better understand the heterogeneity of these processes, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to follow the transdifferentation of murine pre-B cells into macrophages as well as their reprogramming into iPSCs. Even in these highly efficient systems, there was substantial variation in the speed and path of fate conversion. We predicted and validated that these differences are inversely coupled and arise in the starting cell population, with Mychigh large pre-BII cells transdifferentiating slowly but reprogramming efficiently and Myclow small pre-BII cells transdifferentiating rapidly but failing to reprogram. Strikingly, differences in Myc activity predict the efficiency of reprogramming across a wide range of somatic cell types. These results illustrate how single cell expression and computational analyses can identify the origins of heterogeneity in cell fate conversion processes.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3656, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842494

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. To disentangle etiological relationships between these conditions and identify genetically-determined metabolites involved in NAFLD processes, we mapped 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic and disease-related phenotypes in a mouse F2 cross derived from strains showing resistance (BALB/c) and increased susceptibility (129S6) to these diseases. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes identified diet responsive QTLs in F2 mice fed control or high fat diet (HFD). In HFD fed F2 mice we mapped on chromosome 18 a QTL regulating liver micro- and macrovesicular steatosis and inflammation, independently from glucose intolerance and adiposity, which was linked to chromosome 4. Linkage analysis of liver metabolomic profiling data identified a QTL for octopamine, which co-localised with the QTL for liver histopathology in the cross. Functional relationship between these two QTLs was validated in vivo in mice chronically treated with octopamine, which exhibited reduction in liver histopathology and metabolic benefits, underlining its role as a mechanistic biomarker of fatty liver with potential therapeutic applications.

8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(6): 2778-2792, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799488

RESUMO

The concept of tissue-specific gene expression posits that lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) determine the open chromatin profile of a cell via collaborative binding, providing molecular beacons to signal-dependent transcription factors (SDTFs). However, the guiding principles of LDTF binding, chromatin accessibility and enhancer activity have not yet been systematically evaluated. We sought to study these features of the macrophage genome by the combination of experimental (ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq and GRO-seq) and computational approaches. We show that Random Forest and Support Vector Regression machine learning methods can accurately predict chromatin accessibility using the binding patterns of the LDTF PU.1 and four other key TFs of macrophages (IRF8, JUNB, CEBPA and RUNX1). Any of these TFs alone were not sufficient to predict open chromatin, indicating that TF binding is widespread at closed or weakly opened chromatin regions. Analysis of the PU.1 cistrome revealed that two-thirds of PU.1 binding occurs at low accessible chromatin. We termed these sites labelled regulatory elements (LREs), which may represent a dormant state of a future enhancer and contribute to macrophage cellular plasticity. Collectively, our work demonstrates the existence of LREs occupied by various key TFs, regulating specific gene expression programs triggered by divergent macrophage polarizing stimuli.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Ativação Transcricional/fisiologia
9.
Bioinformatics ; 35(5): 737-742, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137223

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: DNA methylation is essential for normal embryogenesis and development in mammals and can be captured at single base pair resolution by whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS). Current available analysis tools are becoming rapidly outdated as they lack sensible functionality and efficiency to handle large amounts of data now commonly created. RESULTS: We developed gemBS, a fast high-throughput bioinformatics pipeline specifically designed for large scale BS-Seq analysis that combines a high performance BS-mapper (GEM3) and a variant caller specifically for BS-Seq data (BScall). gemBS provides genotype information and methylation estimates for all genomic cytosines in different contexts (CpG and non-CpG) and a set of quality reports for comprehensive and reproducible analysis. gemBS is highly modular and can be easily automated, while producing robust and accurate results. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: gemBS is released under the GNU GPLv3+ license. Source code and documentation are freely available from www.statgen.cat/gemBS. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Animais , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Sulfitos
11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 23(5): 727-741.e9, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220521

RESUMO

Here, we report DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation dynamics at nucleotide resolution using C/EBPα-enhanced reprogramming of B cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). We observed successive waves of hydroxymethylation at enhancers, concomitant with a decrease in DNA methylation, suggesting active demethylation. Consistent with this finding, ablation of the DNA demethylase Tet2 almost completely abolishes reprogramming. C/EBPα, Klf4, and Tfcp2l1 each interact with Tet2 and recruit the enzyme to specific DNA sites. During reprogramming, some of these sites maintain high levels of 5hmC, and enhancers and promoters of key pluripotency factors become demethylated as early as 1 day after Yamanaka factor induction. Surprisingly, methylation changes precede chromatin opening in distinct chromatin regions, including Klf4 bound sites, revealing a pioneer factor activity associated with alternation in DNA methylation. Rapid changes in hydroxymethylation similar to those in B cells were also observed during compound-accelerated reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPSCs, highlighting the generality of our observations.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5964, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654251

RESUMO

Fungal infections represent an increasingly relevant clinical problem, primarily because of the increased survival of severely immune-compromised patients. Despite the availability of active and selective drugs and of well-established prophylaxis, classical antifungals are often ineffective as resistance is frequently observed. The quest for anti-fungal drugs with novel mechanisms of action is thus important. Here we show that a new compound, 089, acts by arresting fungal cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle through targeting of SWE1, a mechanism of action unexploited by current anti-fungal drugs. The cell cycle impairment also induces a modification of fungal cell morphology which makes fungal cells recognizable by immune cells. This new class of molecules holds promise to be a valuable source of novel antifungals, allowing the clearance of pathogenic fungi by both direct killing of the fungus and enhancing the recognition of the pathogen by the host immune system.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Células K562 , Mamíferos
14.
Curr Biol ; 27(22): 3487-3498.e10, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29103940

RESUMO

Six extant species of non-human great apes are currently recognized: Sumatran and Bornean orangutans, eastern and western gorillas, and chimpanzees and bonobos [1]. However, large gaps remain in our knowledge of fine-scale variation in hominoid morphology, behavior, and genetics, and aspects of great ape taxonomy remain in flux. This is particularly true for orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes and phylogenetically our most distant relatives among extant hominids [1]. Designation of Bornean and Sumatran orangutans, P. pygmaeus (Linnaeus 1760) and P. abelii (Lesson 1827), as distinct species occurred in 2001 [1, 2]. Here, we show that an isolated population from Batang Toru, at the southernmost range limit of extant Sumatran orangutans south of Lake Toba, is distinct from other northern Sumatran and Bornean populations. By comparing cranio-mandibular and dental characters of an orangutan killed in a human-animal conflict to those of 33 adult male orangutans of a similar developmental stage, we found consistent differences between the Batang Toru individual and other extant Ponginae. Our analyses of 37 orangutan genomes provided a second line of evidence. Model-based approaches revealed that the deepest split in the evolutionary history of extant orangutans occurred ∼3.38 mya between the Batang Toru population and those to the north of Lake Toba, whereas both currently recognized species separated much later, about 674 kya. Our combined analyses support a new classification of orangutans into three extant species. The new species, Pongo tapanuliensis, encompasses the Batang Toru population, of which fewer than 800 individuals survive. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Pongo/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genômica , Hominidae/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Pongo/classificação , Pongo/fisiologia , Pongo abelii/genética , Pongo pygmaeus/genética
15.
mSphere ; 2(4)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28808688

RESUMO

Regulated erroneous protein translation (adaptive mistranslation) increases proteome diversity and produces advantageous phenotypic variability in the human pathogen Candida albicans. It also increases fitness in the presence of fluconazole, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not understood. To address this question, we evolved hypermistranslating and wild-type strains in the absence and presence of fluconazole and compared their fluconazole tolerance and resistance trajectories during evolution. The data show that mistranslation increases tolerance and accelerates the acquisition of resistance to fluconazole. Genome sequencing, array-based comparative genome analysis, and gene expression profiling revealed that during the course of evolution in fluconazole, the range of mutational and gene deregulation differences was distinctively different and broader in the hypermistranslating strain, including multiple chromosome duplications, partial chromosome deletions, and polyploidy. Especially, the increased accumulation of loss-of-heterozygosity events, aneuploidy, translational and cell surface modifications, and differences in drug efflux seem to mediate more rapid drug resistance acquisition under mistranslation. Our observations support a pivotal role for adaptive mistranslation in the evolution of drug resistance in C. albicans. IMPORTANCE Infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant fungi are an increasing threat to public health because of the high mortality rates and high costs associated with treatment. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance is of crucial interest for the medical community. Here we investigated the role of regulated protein mistranslation, a characteristic mechanism used by C. albicans to diversify its proteome, in the evolution of fluconazole resistance. Such codon ambiguity is usually considered highly deleterious, yet recent studies found that mistranslation can boost adaptation in stressful environments. Our data reveal that CUG ambiguity diversifies the genome in multiple ways and that the full spectrum of drug resistance mechanisms in C. albicans goes beyond the traditional pathways that either regulate drug efflux or alter the interactions of drugs with their targets. The present work opens new avenues to understand the molecular and genetic basis of microbial drug resistance.

16.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1997, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403478

RESUMO

The transition from commensalism to pathogenicity of Candida albicans reflects both the host inability to mount specific immune responses and the microorganism's dimorphic switch efficiency. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing and microarray analysis to investigate the genomic determinants of the phenotypic changes observed in two C. albicans clinical isolates (YL1 and YQ2). In vitro experiments employing epithelial, microglial, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were thus used to evaluate C. albicans isolates interaction with first line host defenses, measuring adhesion, susceptibility to phagocytosis, and induction of secretory responses. Moreover, a murine model of peritoneal infection was used to compare the in vivo pathogenic potential of the two isolates. Genome sequence and gene expression analysis of C. albicans YL1 and YQ2 showed significant changes in cellular pathways involved in environmental stress response, adhesion, filamentous growth, invasiveness, and dimorphic transition. This was in accordance with the observed marked phenotypic differences in biofilm production, dimorphic switch efficiency, cell adhesion, invasion, and survival to phagocyte-mediated host defenses. The mutations in key regulators of the hyphal growth pathway in the more virulent strain corresponded to an overall greater number of budding yeast cells released. Compared to YQ2, YL1 consistently showed enhanced pathogenic potential, since in vitro, it was less susceptible to ingestion by phagocytic cells and more efficient in invading epithelial cells, while in vivo YL1 was more effective than YQ2 in recruiting inflammatory cells, eliciting IL-1ß response and eluding phagocytic cells. Overall, these results indicate an unexpected isolate-specific variation in pathways important for host invasion and colonization, showing how the genetic background of C. albicans may greatly affect its behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Based on this approach, we propose that the co-occurrence of changes in sequence and expression in genes and pathways driving dimorphic transition and pathogenicity reflects a selective balance between traits favoring dissemination of the pathogen and traits involved in host defense evasion. This study highlights the importance of investigating strain-level, rather than species level, differences, when determining fungal-host interactions and defining commensal or pathogen behavior.

17.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13555, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898055

RESUMO

The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has substantially increased over the past decade, suggesting a role for non-genetic factors such as epigenetic mechanisms in disease development. Here we present an epigenome-wide association study across 406,365 CpGs in 52 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T1D in three immune effector cell types. We observe a substantial enrichment of differentially variable CpG positions (DVPs) in T1D twins when compared with their healthy co-twins and when compared with healthy, unrelated individuals. These T1D-associated DVPs are found to be temporally stable and enriched at gene regulatory elements. Integration with cell type-specific gene regulatory circuits highlight pathways involved in immune cell metabolism and the cell cycle, including mTOR signalling. Evidence from cord blood of newborns who progress to overt T1D suggests that the DVPs likely emerge after birth. Our findings, based on 772 methylomes, implicate epigenetic changes that could contribute to disease pathogenesis in T1D.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Tempo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
18.
Cancer Cell ; 30(5): 806-821, 2016 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846393

RESUMO

We analyzed the in silico purified DNA methylation signatures of 82 mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) in comparison with cell subpopulations spanning the entire B cell lineage. We identified two MCL subgroups, respectively carrying epigenetic imprints of germinal-center-inexperienced and germinal-center-experienced B cells, and we found that DNA methylation profiles during lymphomagenesis are largely influenced by the methylation dynamics in normal B cells. An integrative epigenomic approach revealed 10,504 differentially methylated regions in regulatory elements marked by H3K27ac in MCL primary cases, including a distant enhancer showing de novo looping to the MCL oncogene SOX11. Finally, we observed that the magnitude of DNA methylation changes per case is highly variable and serves as an independent prognostic factor for MCL outcome.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Linhagem da Célula , Simulação por Computador , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11306, 2016 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346250

RESUMO

The cost of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) remains a bottleneck for many studies and it is therefore imperative to extract as much information as possible from a given dataset. This is particularly important because even at the recommend 30X coverage for reference methylomes, up to 50% of high-resolution features such as differentially methylated positions (DMPs) cannot be called with current methods as determined by saturation analysis. To address this limitation, we have developed a tool that dynamically segments WGBS methylomes into blocks of comethylation (COMETs) from which lost information can be recovered in the form of differentially methylated COMETs (DMCs). Using this tool, we demonstrate recovery of ∼30% of the lost DMP information content as DMCs even at very low (5X) coverage. This constitutes twice the amount that can be recovered using an existing method based on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In addition, we explored the relationship between COMETs and haplotypes in lymphoblastoid cell lines of African and European origin. Using best fit analysis, we show COMETs to be correlated in a population-specific manner, suggesting that this type of dynamic segmentation may be useful for integrated (epi)genome-wide association studies in the future.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metilação de DNA , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sulfitos/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA