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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5040, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028839

RESUMO

Bringing together cancer genomes from different projects increases power and allows the investigation of pan-cancer, molecular mechanisms. However, working with whole genomes sequenced over several years in different sequencing centres requires a framework to compare the quality of these sequences. We used the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes cohort as a test case to construct such a framework. This cohort contains whole cancer genomes of 2832 donors from 18 sequencing centres. We developed a non-redundant set of five quality control (QC) measurements to establish a star rating system. These QC measures reflect known differences in sequencing protocol and provide a guide to downstream analyses and allow for exclusion of samples of poor quality. We have found that this is an effective framework of quality measures. The implementation of the framework is available at: https://dockstore.org/containers/quay.io/jwerner_dkfz/pancanqc:1.2.2 .


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/normas , Neoplasias/genética , Controle de Qualidade , Mapeamento Cromossômico/normas , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Software , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
2.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 148, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olive tree (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, Oleaceae) has been the most emblematic perennial crop for Mediterranean countries since its domestication around 6000 years ago in the Levant. Two taxonomic varieties are currently recognized: cultivated (var. europaea) and wild (var. sylvestris) trees. However, it remains unclear whether olive cultivars derive from a single initial domestication event followed by secondary diversification, or whether cultivated lineages are the result of more than a single, independent primary domestication event. To shed light into the recent evolution and domestication of the olive tree, here we analyze a group of newly sequenced and available genomes using a phylogenomics and population genomics framework. RESULTS: We improved the assembly and annotation of the reference genome, newly sequenced the genomes of twelve individuals: ten var. europaea, one var. sylvestris, and one outgroup taxon (subsp. cuspidata)-and assembled a dataset comprising whole genome data from 46 var. europaea and 10 var. sylvestris. Phylogenomic and population structure analyses support a continuous process of olive tree domestication, involving a major domestication event, followed by recurrent independent genetic admixture events with wild populations across the Mediterranean Basin. Cultivated olives exhibit only slightly lower levels of genetic diversity than wild forms, which can be partially explained by the occurrence of a mild population bottleneck 3000-14,000 years ago during the primary domestication period, followed by recurrent introgression from wild populations. Genes associated with stress response and developmental processes were positively selected in cultivars, but we did not find evidence that genes involved in fruit size or oil content were under positive selection. This suggests that complex selective processes other than directional selection of a few genes are in place. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that a primary domestication area in the eastern Mediterranean basin was followed by numerous secondary events across most countries of southern Europe and northern Africa, often involving genetic admixture with genetically rich wild populations, particularly from the western Mediterranean Basin.

3.
Genome Res ; 30(9): 1217-1227, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820006

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm associated with a broad variety of genetic lesions. In spite of this genetic heterogeneity, MMs share a characteristic malignant phenotype whose underlying molecular basis remains poorly characterized. In the present study, we examined plasma cells from MM using a multi-epigenomics approach and demonstrated that, when compared to normal B cells, malignant plasma cells showed an extensive activation of regulatory elements, in part affecting coregulated adjacent genes. Among target genes up-regulated by this process, we found members of the NOTCH, NF-kB, MTOR signaling, and TP53 signaling pathways. Other activated genes included sets involved in osteoblast differentiation and response to oxidative stress, all of which have been shown to be associated with the MM phenotype and clinical behavior. We functionally characterized MM-specific active distant enhancers controlling the expression of thioredoxin (TXN), a major regulator of cellular redox status and, in addition, identified PRDM5 as a novel essential gene for MM. Collectively, our data indicate that aberrant chromatin activation is a unifying feature underlying the malignant plasma cell phenotype.

4.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817379

RESUMO

Infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria often leave limited or no treatment options. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARG) carrying plasmids between bacterial species by horizontal gene transfer represents an important mode of expansion of ARGs. Here, we demonstrate the application of Nanopore sequencing in a hospital setting for monitoring transfer and rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance plasmids within and across multiple species. In 2009, we experienced an outbreak with extensively multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring the carbapenemase-encoding bla IMP-8 gene. In 2012, the first Citrobacter freundii and Citrobacter cronae strains harboring the same gene were detected. Using Nanopore and Illumina sequencing, we conducted comparative analysis of all bla IMP-8 bacteria isolated in our hospital over a 6-year period (n = 54). We developed the computational platform plasmIDent for Nanopore-based characterization of clinical isolates and monitoring of ARG transfer, comprising de novo assembly of genomes and plasmids, plasmid circularization, ARG annotation, comparative genome analysis of multiple isolates, and visualization of results. Using plasmIDent, we identified a 40-kb plasmid carrying bla IMP-8 in P. aeruginosa and C. freundii, verifying the plasmid transfer. Within C. freundii, the plasmid underwent further evolution and plasmid fusion, resulting in a 164-kb megaplasmid, which was transferred to C. cronae Multiple rearrangements of the multidrug resistance gene cassette were detected in P. aeruginosa, including deletions and translocations of complete ARGs. In summary, plasmid transfer, plasmid fusion, and rearrangement of the ARG cassette mediated the rapid evolution of opportunistic pathogens in our hospital. We demonstrated the feasibility of near-real-time monitoring of plasmid evolution and ARG transfer in clinical settings, enabling successful countermeasures to contain plasmid-mediated outbreaks.IMPORTANCE Infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a major threat to global health. While the spread of multidrug-resistant bacterial clones is frequently studied in the hospital setting, surveillance of the transfer of mobile genetic elements between different bacterial species was difficult until recent advances in sequencing technologies. Nanopore sequencing technology was applied to track antimicrobial gene transfer in a long-term outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, and Citrobacter cronae in a German hospital over 6 years. We developed a novel computational pipeline, pathoLogic, which enables de novo assembly of genomes and plasmids, antimicrobial resistance gene annotation and visualization, and comparative analysis. Applying this approach, we detected plasmid transfer between different bacterial species as well as plasmid fusion and frequent rearrangements of the antimicrobial resistance gene cassette. This study demonstrated the feasibility of near-real-time tracking of plasmid-based antimicrobial resistance gene transfer in hospitals, enabling countermeasures to contain plasmid-mediated outbreaks.

5.
Cell Rep ; 32(7): 108048, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814051

RESUMO

During thymic development and upon peripheral activation, T cells undergo extensive phenotypic and functional changes coordinated by lineage-specific developmental programs. To characterize the regulatory landscape controlling T cell identity, we perform a wide epigenomic and transcriptional analysis of mouse thymocytes and naive CD4 differentiated T helper cells. Our investigations reveal a dynamic putative enhancer landscape, and we could validate many of the enhancers using the high-throughput CapStarr sequencing (CapStarr-seq) approach. We find that genes using multiple promoters display increased enhancer usage, suggesting that apparent "enhancer redundancy" might relate to isoform selection. Furthermore, we can show that two Runx3 promoters display long-range interactions with specific enhancers. Finally, our analyses suggest a novel function for the PRC2 complex in the control of alternative promoter usage. Altogether, our study has allowed for the mapping of an exhaustive set of active enhancers and provides new insights into their function and that of PRC2 in controlling promoter choice during T cell differentiation.

6.
J Exp Med ; 217(9)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667968

RESUMO

Cell differentiation is accompanied by epigenetic changes leading to precise lineage definition and cell identity. Here we present a comprehensive resource of epigenomic data of human T cell precursors along with an integrative analysis of other hematopoietic populations. Although T cell commitment is accompanied by large scale epigenetic changes, we observed that the majority of distal regulatory elements are constitutively unmethylated throughout T cell differentiation, irrespective of their activation status. Among these, the TCRA gene enhancer (Eα) is in an open and unmethylated chromatin structure well before activation. Integrative analyses revealed that the HOXA5-9 transcription factors repress the Eα enhancer at early stages of T cell differentiation, while their decommission is required for TCRA locus activation and enforced αß T lineage differentiation. Remarkably, the HOXA-mediated repression of Eα is paralleled by the ectopic expression of homeodomain-related oncogenes in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These results highlight an analogous enhancer repression mechanism at play in normal and cancer conditions, but imposing distinct developmental constraints.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(9): 1205-1215, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619640

RESUMO

Autozygosity is associated with an increased risk of genetic rare disease, thus being a relevant factor for clinical genetic studies. More than 2400 exome sequencing data sets were analyzed and screened for autozygosity on the basis of detection of >1 Mbp runs of homozygosity (ROHs). A model was built to predict if an individual is likely to be a consanguineous offspring (accuracy, 98%), and probability of consanguinity ranges were established according to the total ROH size. Application of the model resulted in the reclassification of the consanguinity status of 12% of the patients. The analysis of a subset of 79 consanguineous cases with the Rare Disease (RD)-Connect Genome-Phenome Analysis Platform, combining variant filtering and homozygosity mapping, enabled a 50% reduction in the number of candidate variants and the identification of homozygous pathogenic variants in 41 patients, with an overall diagnostic yield of 52%. The newly defined consanguinity ranges provide, for the first time, specific ROH thresholds to estimate inbreeding within a pedigree on disparate exome sequencing data, enabling confirmation or (re)classification of consanguineous status, hence increasing the efficiency of molecular diagnosis and reporting on secondary consanguinity findings, as recommended by American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(6): 747-755, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518403

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is the leading technique for characterizing the transcriptomes of individual cells in a sample. The latest protocols are scalable to thousands of cells and are being used to compile cell atlases of tissues, organs and organisms. However, the protocols differ substantially with respect to their RNA capture efficiency, bias, scale and costs, and their relative advantages for different applications are unclear. In the present study, we generated benchmark datasets to systematically evaluate protocols in terms of their power to comprehensively describe cell types and states. We performed a multicenter study comparing 13 commonly used scRNA-seq and single-nucleus RNA-seq protocols applied to a heterogeneous reference sample resource. Comparative analysis revealed marked differences in protocol performance. The protocols differed in library complexity and their ability to detect cell-type markers, impacting their predictive value and suitability for integration into reference cell atlases. These results provide guidance both for individual researchers and for consortium projects such as the Human Cell Atlas.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Benchmarking , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/normas , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/normas
9.
Allergy ; 75(2): 370-380, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the clinical or pathophysiologic significance of the "treatable trait" high blood eosinophil count in COPD is the same as for asthma remains controversial. We sought to determine the relationship between the blood eosinophil count, clinical characteristics and gene expression from bronchial brushings in COPD and asthma. METHODS: Subjects were recruited into a COPD (emphysema versus airway disease [EvA]) or asthma cohort (Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes, U-BIOPRED). We determined gene expression using RNAseq in EvA (n = 283) and Affymetrix microarrays in U-BIOPRED (n = 85). We ran linear regression analysis of the bronchial brushings transcriptional signal versus blood eosinophil counts as well as differential expression using a blood eosinophil > 200 cells/µL as a cut-off. The false discovery rate was controlled at 1% (with continuous values) and 5% (with dichotomized values). RESULTS: There were no differences in age, gender, lung function, exercise capacity and quantitative computed tomography between eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic COPD cases. Total serum IgE was increased in eosinophilic asthma and COPD. In EvA, there were 12 genes with a statistically significant positive association with the linear blood eosinophil count, whereas in U-BIOPRED, 1197 genes showed significant associations (266 positive and 931 negative). The transcriptome showed little overlap between genes and pathways associated with blood eosinophil counts in asthma versus COPD. Only CST1 was common to eosinophilic asthma and COPD and was replicated in independent cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite shared "treatable traits" between asthma and COPD, the molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical entities are predominately different.

10.
Thorax ; 75(1): 8-16, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat. We hypothesised that the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airway is a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) that associate with microbiome-specific COPD subgroups. OBJECTIVE: To determine the resistance gene profiles in respiratory samples from COPD patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Quantitative PCR targeting 279 specific ARGs was used to profile the resistomes in sputum from subjects with COPD at stable, exacerbation and recovery visits (n=55; COPD-BEAT study), healthy controls with (n=7) or without (n=22) exposure to antibiotics in the preceding 12 months (EXCEED study) and in bronchial brush samples from COPD (n=8) and healthy controls (n=7) (EvA study). RESULTS: ARG mean (SEM) prevalence was greater in stable COPD samples (35.2 (1.6)) than in healthy controls (27.6 (1.7); p=0.004) and correlated with total bacterial abundance (r2=0.23; p<0.001). Prevalence of ARG positive signals in individuals was not related to COPD symptoms, lung function or their changes at exacerbation. In the COPD subgroups designated High γProteobacteria and High Firmicutes, ARG prevalence was not different at stable state but significantly declined from stable through exacerbation to recovery in the former (p=0.011) without changes in total bacterial abundance. The ARG patterns were similar in COPD versus health, COPD microbiome-subgroups and between sputum and bronchoscopic samples independent of antibiotic exposure in the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: ARGs are highly prevalent in sputum, broadly in proportion to bacterial abundance in both healthy and COPD subjects. Thus, COPD appears to be an ARG reservoir due to high levels of bacterial colonisation.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Idoso , Carga Bacteriana , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20158, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882973

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is induced by cigarette smoking and characterized by inflammation of airway tissue. Since smokers with COPD have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than those without, we hypothesized that they carry more mutations in affected tissue. We called somatic mutations in airway brush samples from medium-coverage whole genome sequencing data from healthy never and ex-smokers (n = 8), as well as from ex-smokers with variable degrees of COPD (n = 4). Owing to the limited concordance of resulting calls between the applied tools we built a consensus, a strategy that was validated with high accuracy for cancer data. However, consensus calls showed little promise of representing true positives due to low mappability of corresponding sequence reads and high overlap with positions harbouring known genetic polymorphisms. A targeted re-sequencing approach suggested that only few mutations would survive stringent verification testing and that our data did not allow the inference of any difference in the mutational load of bronchial brush samples between former smoking COPD cases and controls. High polyclonality in airway brush samples renders medium-depth sequencing insufficient to provide the resolution to detect somatic mutations. Deep sequencing data of airway biopsies are needed to tackle the question.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Mutação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Biologia Computacional , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007496, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765368

RESUMO

The sheer size of the human genome makes it improbable that identical somatic mutations at the exact same position are observed in multiple tumours solely by chance. The scarcity of cancer driver mutations also precludes positive selection as the sole explanation. Therefore, recurrent mutations may be highly informative of characteristics of mutational processes. To explore the potential, we use recurrence as a starting point to cluster >2,500 whole genomes of a pan-cancer cohort. We describe each genome with 13 recurrence-based and 29 general mutational features. Using principal component analysis we reduce the dimensionality and create independent features. We apply hierarchical clustering to the first 18 principal components followed by k-means clustering. We show that the resulting 16 clusters capture clinically relevant cancer phenotypes. High levels of recurrent substitutions separate the clusters that we link to UV-light exposure and deregulated activity of POLE from the one representing defective mismatch repair, which shows high levels of recurrent insertions/deletions. Recurrence of both mutation types characterizes cancer genomes with somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes and the cluster of genomes exposed to gastric acid. Low levels of recurrence are observed for the cluster where tobacco-smoke exposure induces mutagenesis and the one linked to increased activity of cytidine deaminases. Notably, the majority of substitutions are recurrent in a single tumour type, while recurrent insertions/deletions point to shared processes between tumour types. Recurrence also reveals susceptible sequence motifs, including TT[C>A]TTT and AAC[T>G]T for the POLE and 'gastric-acid exposure' clusters, respectively. Moreover, we refine knowledge of mutagenesis, including increased C/G deletion levels in general for lung tumours and specifically in midsize homopolymer sequence contexts for microsatellite instable tumours. Our findings are an important step towards the development of a generic cancer diagnostic test for clinical practice based on whole-genome sequencing that could replace multiple diagnostics currently in use.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Mutagênese/genética , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Deleção de Sequência/genética
13.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(12): 3943-3952, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645421

RESUMO

The Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax) has been extensively used in research of chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer because its infection with the woodchuck hepatitis virus closely resembles a human hepatitis B virus infection. Development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches requires genetic information on immune pathway genes in this animal model. The woodchuck genome was assembled with a combination of high-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Illumina paired-end, mate-pair libraries and fosmid pool sequencing. The result is a 2.63 Gigabase (Gb) assembly with a contig N50 of 74.5 kilobases (kb), scaffold N50 of 892 kb, and genome completeness of 99.2%. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from seven different tissues aided in the annotation of 30,873 protein-coding genes, which in turn encode 41,826 unique protein products. More than 90% of the genes have been functionally annotated, with 82% of them containing open reading frames. This genome sequence and its annotation will enable further research in chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the understanding of immunological responses in the woodchuck.


Assuntos
Genoma , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Marmota/genética , Marmota/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Análise por Conglomerados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Marmota/imunologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12367, 2019 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451731

RESUMO

Patient-derived 3D cell culture systems are currently advancing cancer research since they potentiate the molecular analysis of tissue-like properties and drug response under well-defined conditions. However, our understanding of the relationship between the heterogeneity of morphological phenotypes and the underlying transcriptome is still limited. To address this issue, we here introduce "pheno-seq" to directly link visual features of 3D cell culture systems with profiling their transcriptome. As prototypic applications breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) spheroids were analyzed by pheno-seq. We identified characteristic gene expression signatures of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that are associated with invasive growth behavior of clonal breast cancer spheroids. Furthermore, we linked long-term proliferative capacity in a patient-derived model of CRC to a lowly abundant PROX1-positive cancer stem cell subtype. We anticipate that the ability to integrate transcriptome analysis and morphological patho-phenotypes of cancer cells will provide novel insight on the molecular origins of intratumor heterogeneity.

16.
Nat Rev Genet ; 20(11): 693-701, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455890

RESUMO

Human genomics is undergoing a step change from being a predominantly research-driven activity to one driven through health care as many countries in Europe now have nascent precision medicine programmes. To maximize the value of the genomic data generated, these data will need to be shared between institutions and across countries. In recognition of this challenge, 21 European countries recently signed a declaration to transnationally share data on at least 1 million human genomes by 2022. In this Roadmap, we identify the challenges of data sharing across borders and demonstrate that European research infrastructures are well-positioned to support the rapid implementation of widespread genomic data access.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Genoma Humano , Projeto Genoma Humano , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1749, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988298

RESUMO

Global loss of DNA methylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation are key epigenomic aberrations in cancer. Global loss manifests itself in partially methylated domains (PMDs) which extend up to megabases. However, the distribution of PMDs within and between tumor types, and their effects on key functional genomic elements including CGIs are poorly defined. We comprehensively show that loss of methylation in PMDs occurs in a large fraction of the genome and represents the prime source of DNA methylation variation. PMDs are hypervariable in methylation level, size and distribution, and display elevated mutation rates. They impose intermediate DNA methylation levels incognizant of functional genomic elements including CGIs, underpinning a CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP). Repression effects on tumor suppressor genes are negligible as they are generally excluded from PMDs. The genomic distribution of PMDs reports tissue-of-origin and may represent tissue-specific silent regions which tolerate instability at the epigenetic, transcriptomic and genetic level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3656, 2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842494

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. To disentangle etiological relationships between these conditions and identify genetically-determined metabolites involved in NAFLD processes, we mapped 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic and disease-related phenotypes in a mouse F2 cross derived from strains showing resistance (BALB/c) and increased susceptibility (129S6) to these diseases. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes identified diet responsive QTLs in F2 mice fed control or high fat diet (HFD). In HFD fed F2 mice we mapped on chromosome 18 a QTL regulating liver micro- and macrovesicular steatosis and inflammation, independently from glucose intolerance and adiposity, which was linked to chromosome 4. Linkage analysis of liver metabolomic profiling data identified a QTL for octopamine, which co-localised with the QTL for liver histopathology in the cross. Functional relationship between these two QTLs was validated in vivo in mice chronically treated with octopamine, which exhibited reduction in liver histopathology and metabolic benefits, underlining its role as a mechanistic biomarker of fatty liver with potential therapeutic applications.

19.
Elife ; 82019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860479

RESUMO

Forced transcription factor expression can transdifferentiate somatic cells into other specialised cell types or reprogram them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with variable efficiency. To better understand the heterogeneity of these processes, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to follow the transdifferentation of murine pre-B cells into macrophages as well as their reprogramming into iPSCs. Even in these highly efficient systems, there was substantial variation in the speed and path of fate conversion. We predicted and validated that these differences are inversely coupled and arise in the starting cell population, with Mychigh large pre-BII cells transdifferentiating slowly but reprogramming efficiently and Myclow small pre-BII cells transdifferentiating rapidly but failing to reprogram. Strikingly, differences in Myc activity predict the efficiency of reprogramming across a wide range of somatic cell types. These results illustrate how single cell expression and computational analyses can identify the origins of heterogeneity in cell fate conversion processes.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células Precursoras de Linfócitos B/citologia , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(6): 2778-2792, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799488

RESUMO

The concept of tissue-specific gene expression posits that lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) determine the open chromatin profile of a cell via collaborative binding, providing molecular beacons to signal-dependent transcription factors (SDTFs). However, the guiding principles of LDTF binding, chromatin accessibility and enhancer activity have not yet been systematically evaluated. We sought to study these features of the macrophage genome by the combination of experimental (ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq and GRO-seq) and computational approaches. We show that Random Forest and Support Vector Regression machine learning methods can accurately predict chromatin accessibility using the binding patterns of the LDTF PU.1 and four other key TFs of macrophages (IRF8, JUNB, CEBPA and RUNX1). Any of these TFs alone were not sufficient to predict open chromatin, indicating that TF binding is widespread at closed or weakly opened chromatin regions. Analysis of the PU.1 cistrome revealed that two-thirds of PU.1 binding occurs at low accessible chromatin. We termed these sites labelled regulatory elements (LREs), which may represent a dormant state of a future enhancer and contribute to macrophage cellular plasticity. Collectively, our work demonstrates the existence of LREs occupied by various key TFs, regulating specific gene expression programs triggered by divergent macrophage polarizing stimuli.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma , Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Ativação Transcricional/fisiologia
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