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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 20158, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882973

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is induced by cigarette smoking and characterized by inflammation of airway tissue. Since smokers with COPD have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than those without, we hypothesized that they carry more mutations in affected tissue. We called somatic mutations in airway brush samples from medium-coverage whole genome sequencing data from healthy never and ex-smokers (n = 8), as well as from ex-smokers with variable degrees of COPD (n = 4). Owing to the limited concordance of resulting calls between the applied tools we built a consensus, a strategy that was validated with high accuracy for cancer data. However, consensus calls showed little promise of representing true positives due to low mappability of corresponding sequence reads and high overlap with positions harbouring known genetic polymorphisms. A targeted re-sequencing approach suggested that only few mutations would survive stringent verification testing and that our data did not allow the inference of any difference in the mutational load of bronchial brush samples between former smoking COPD cases and controls. High polyclonality in airway brush samples renders medium-depth sequencing insufficient to provide the resolution to detect somatic mutations. Deep sequencing data of airway biopsies are needed to tackle the question.

2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702774

RESUMO

Aphids (Aphidoidea) are a diverse group of hemipteran insects that feed on plant phloem-sap. A common finding in studies of aphid genomes is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. However, when these duplications occurred remains unclear, partly due to the high relatedness of sequenced species. To better understand the origin of aphid duplications we sequenced and assembled the genome of Cinara cedri, an early branching lineage (Lachninae) of the Aphididae family. We performed a phylogenomic comparison of this genome with twenty other sequenced genomes, including the available genomes of five other aphids, along with the transcriptomes of two species belonging to Adelgidae (a closely related clade to the aphids) and Coccoidea. We found that gene duplication has been pervasive throughout the evolution of aphids, including many parallel waves of recent, species-specific duplications. Most notably, we identified a consistent set of very ancestral duplications, originating from a large-scale gene duplication predating the diversification of Aphidomorpha (comprising aphids, phylloxerids, and adelgids). Genes duplicated in this ancestral wave are enriched in functions related to traits shared by Aphidomorpha, such as association with endosymbionts, and adaptation to plant defenses and phloem-sap based diet. The ancestral nature of this duplication wave (106-227 Mya) and the lack of sufficiently conserved synteny makes it difficult to conclude whether it originated from a whole genome duplication event or, alternatively, from a burst of large-scale segmental duplications. Genome sequencing of other aphid species belonging to different Aphidomorpha and related lineages may clarify these findings.

3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1786): 20190088, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587642

RESUMO

Understanding the origins of animal multicellularity is a fundamental biological question. Recent genome data have unravelled the role that co-option of pre-existing genes played in the origin of animals. However, there were also some important genetic novelties at the onset of Metazoa. To have a clear understanding of the specific genetic innovations and how they appeared, we need the broadest taxon sampling possible, especially among early-branching animals and their unicellular relatives. Here, we take advantage of single-cell genomics to expand our understanding of the genomic diversity of choanoflagellates, the sister-group to animals. With these genomes, we have performed an updated and taxon-rich reconstruction of protein evolution from the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) to animals. Our novel data re-defines the origin of some genes previously thought to be metazoan-specific, like the POU transcription factor, which we show appeared earlier in evolution. Moreover, our data indicate that the acquisition of new genes at the stem of Metazoa was mainly driven by duplications and protein domain rearrangement processes at the stem of Metazoa. Furthermore, our analysis allowed us to reveal protein domains that are essential to the maintenance of animal multicellularity. Our analyses also demonstrate the utility of single-cell genomics from uncultured taxa to address evolutionary questions. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Single cell ecology'.

4.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(12): 3943-3952, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645421

RESUMO

The Eastern woodchuck (Marmota monax) has been extensively used in research of chronic hepatitis B and liver cancer because its infection with the woodchuck hepatitis virus closely resembles a human hepatitis B virus infection. Development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches requires genetic information on immune pathway genes in this animal model. The woodchuck genome was assembled with a combination of high-coverage whole-genome shotgun sequencing of Illumina paired-end, mate-pair libraries and fosmid pool sequencing. The result is a 2.63 Gigabase (Gb) assembly with a contig N50 of 74.5 kilobases (kb), scaffold N50 of 892 kb, and genome completeness of 99.2%. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from seven different tissues aided in the annotation of 30,873 protein-coding genes, which in turn encode 41,826 unique protein products. More than 90% of the genes have been functionally annotated, with 82% of them containing open reading frames. This genome sequence and its annotation will enable further research in chronic hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the understanding of immunological responses in the woodchuck.

5.
Plant J ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529539

RESUMO

We sequenced the genome of the highly heterozygous almond Prunus dulcis cv. Texas combining short- and long-read sequencing. We obtained a genome assembly totaling 227.6 Mb of the estimated almond genome size of 238 Mb, of which 91% is anchored to eight pseudomolecules corresponding to its haploid chromosome complement, and annotated 27 969 protein-coding genes and 6747 non-coding transcripts. By phylogenomic comparison with the genomes of 16 additional close and distant species we estimated that almond and peach (Prunus persica) diverged around 5.88 million years ago. These two genomes are highly syntenic and show a high degree of sequence conservation (20 nucleotide substitutions per kb). However, they also exhibit a high number of presence/absence variants, many attributable to the movement of transposable elements (TEs). Transposable elements have generated an important number of presence/absence variants between almond and peach, and we show that the recent history of TE movement seems markedly different between them. Transposable elements may also be at the origin of important phenotypic differences between both species, and in particular for the sweet kernel phenotype, a key agronomic and domestication character for almond. Here we show that in sweet almond cultivars, highly methylated TE insertions surround a gene involved in the biosynthesis of amygdalin, whose reduced expression has been correlated with the sweet almond phenotype. Altogether, our results suggest a key role of TEs in the recent history and diversification of almond and its close relative peach.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12367, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451731

RESUMO

Patient-derived 3D cell culture systems are currently advancing cancer research since they potentiate the molecular analysis of tissue-like properties and drug response under well-defined conditions. However, our understanding of the relationship between the heterogeneity of morphological phenotypes and the underlying transcriptome is still limited. To address this issue, we here introduce "pheno-seq" to directly link visual features of 3D cell culture systems with profiling their transcriptome. As prototypic applications breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) spheroids were analyzed by pheno-seq. We identified characteristic gene expression signatures of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that are associated with invasive growth behavior of clonal breast cancer spheroids. Furthermore, we linked long-term proliferative capacity in a patient-derived model of CRC to a lowly abundant PROX1-positive cancer stem cell subtype. We anticipate that the ability to integrate transcriptome analysis and morphological patho-phenotypes of cancer cells will provide novel insight on the molecular origins of intratumor heterogeneity.

7.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(8): 2647-2655, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217263

RESUMO

Amphibians are highly vulnerable and diverse vertebrates for which we still have modest genomic resources. Amphibian larvae are key components of continental wetlands, where they have strong influences on energy fluxes, nutrient cycling, and community structure. Amphibian larvae are highly sensitive to environmental conditions and can often alter their physiology, behavior and even morphology in response to the local conditions experienced, although we still know relatively little about the transcriptomic changes that enable such plasticity. Here we contribute the larval transcriptomes of two spadefoot toad species with divergent developmental rates and degree of developmental plasticity in response to pond drying.

8.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(7): 2039-2049, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217262

RESUMO

Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) is a keystone conifer of European montane forest ecosystems that has experienced large fluctuations in population size during during the Quaternary and, more recently, due to land-use change. To forecast the species' future distribution and survival, it is important to investigate the genetic basis of adaptation to environmental change, notably to extreme events. For this purpose, we here provide a first draft genome assembly and annotation of the silver fir genome, established through a community-based initiative. DNA obtained from haploid megagametophyte and diploid needle tissue was used to construct and sequence Illumina paired-end and mate-pair libraries, respectively, to high depth. The assembled A. alba genome sequence accounted for over 37 million scaffolds corresponding to 18.16 Gb, with a scaffold N50 of 14,051 bp. Despite the fragmented nature of the assembly, a total of 50,757 full-length genes were functionally annotated in the nuclear genome. The chloroplast genome was also assembled into a single scaffold (120,908 bp) that shows a high collinearity with both the A. koreana and A. sibirica complete chloroplast genomes. This first genome assembly of silver fir is an important genomic resource that is now publicly available in support of a new generation of research. By genome-enabling this important conifer, this resource will open the gate for new research and more precise genetic monitoring of European silver fir forests.

9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 151, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Binding of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor to its ligands (PD-L1/2) transduces inhibitory signals that promote exhaustion of activated T cells. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway is widely used for cancer treatment, yet the inhibitory signals transduced by PD-1 in T cells remain elusive. METHODS: Expression profiles of human CD8+ T cells in resting, activated (CD3 + CD28) and PD-1-stimulated cells (CD3 + CD28 + PD-L1-Fc) conditions were evaluated by RNA-seq. Bioinformatic analyses were used to identify signaling pathways differentially regulated in PD-1-stimulated cells. Metabolic analyses were performed with SeaHorse technology, and mitochondrial ultrastructure was determined by transmission electron microscopy. PD-1-regulated mitochondrial genes were silenced using short-hairpin RNA in primary cells. Blue native gel electrophoresis was used to determine respiratory supercomplex assembly. RESULTS: PD-1 engagement in human CD8+ T cells triggers a specific, progressive genetic program different from that found in resting cells. Gene ontology identified metabolic processes, including glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), as the main pathways targeted by PD-1. We observed severe functional and structural alterations in the mitochondria of PD-1-stimulated cells, including a reduction in the number and length of mitochondrial cristae. These cristae alterations were associated with reduced expression of CHCHD3 and CHCHD10, two proteins that form part of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS). Although PD-1-stimulated cells showed severe cristae alterations, assembly of respiratory supercomplexes was unexpectedly greater in these cells than in activated T cells. CHCHD3 silencing in primary CD8+ T cells recapitulated some effects induced by PD-1 stimulation, including reduced mitochondrial polarization and interferon-γ production following T cell activation with anti-CD3 and -CD28 activating antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that mitochondria are the main targets of PD-1 inhibitory activity. PD-1 reprograms CD8+ T cell metabolism for efficient use of fatty acid oxidation; this mitochondrial phenotype might explain the long-lived phenotype of PD-1-engaged T cells.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1749, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988298

RESUMO

Global loss of DNA methylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation are key epigenomic aberrations in cancer. Global loss manifests itself in partially methylated domains (PMDs) which extend up to megabases. However, the distribution of PMDs within and between tumor types, and their effects on key functional genomic elements including CGIs are poorly defined. We comprehensively show that loss of methylation in PMDs occurs in a large fraction of the genome and represents the prime source of DNA methylation variation. PMDs are hypervariable in methylation level, size and distribution, and display elevated mutation rates. They impose intermediate DNA methylation levels incognizant of functional genomic elements including CGIs, underpinning a CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP). Repression effects on tumor suppressor genes are negligible as they are generally excluded from PMDs. The genomic distribution of PMDs reports tissue-of-origin and may represent tissue-specific silent regions which tolerate instability at the epigenetic, transcriptomic and genetic level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
11.
Elife ; 82019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860479

RESUMO

Forced transcription factor expression can transdifferentiate somatic cells into other specialised cell types or reprogram them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with variable efficiency. To better understand the heterogeneity of these processes, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to follow the transdifferentation of murine pre-B cells into macrophages as well as their reprogramming into iPSCs. Even in these highly efficient systems, there was substantial variation in the speed and path of fate conversion. We predicted and validated that these differences are inversely coupled and arise in the starting cell population, with Mychigh large pre-BII cells transdifferentiating slowly but reprogramming efficiently and Myclow small pre-BII cells transdifferentiating rapidly but failing to reprogram. Strikingly, differences in Myc activity predict the efficiency of reprogramming across a wide range of somatic cell types. These results illustrate how single cell expression and computational analyses can identify the origins of heterogeneity in cell fate conversion processes.

12.
Haematologica ; 104(6): 1176-1188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679323

RESUMO

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the commonest childhood cancer. In infants, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains fatal, especially in patients with t(4;11), present in ~80% of cases. The pathogenesis of t(4;11)/KMT2A-AFF1+ (MLL-AF4+) infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia remains difficult to model, and the pathogenic contribution in cancer of the reciprocal fusions resulting from derivative translocated-chromosomes remains obscure. Here, "multi-layered" genome-wide analyses and validation were performed on a total of 124 de novo cases of infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia uniformly diagnosed and treated according to the Interfant 99/06 protocol. These patients showed the most silent mutational landscape reported so far for any sequenced pediatric cancer. Recurrent mutations were exclusively found in K-RAS and N-RAS, were subclonal and were frequently lost at relapse, despite a larger number of non-recurrent/non-silent mutations. Unlike non-MLL-rearranged B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, B-cell receptor repertoire analysis revealed minor, non-expanded B-cell clones in t(4;11)+ infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and RNA-sequencing showed transcriptomic similarities between t(4;11)+ infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and the most immature human fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, confirming a "pre-VDJ" fetal cellular origin for both t(4;11) and RAS mut The reciprocal fusion AF4-MLL was expressed in only 45% (19/43) of the t(4;11)+ patients, and HOXA cluster genes are exclusively expressed in AF4-MLL-expressing patients. Importantly, AF4-MLL/HOXA-expressing patients had a significantly better 4-year event-free survival (62.4% vs 11.7%, P=0.001), and overall survival (73.7 vs 25.2%, P=0.016). AF4-MLL expression retained its prognostic significance when analyzed in a Cox model adjusting for risk stratification according to the Interfant-06 protocol based on age at diagnosis, white blood cell count and response to prednisone. This study has clinical implications for disease outcome and diagnostic risk-stratification of t(4;11)+ infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4, 2019 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602775

RESUMO

Mammalian Y chromosomes are often neglected from genomic analysis. Due to their inherent assembly difficulties, high repeat content, and large ampliconic regions, only a handful of species have their Y chromosome properly characterized. To date, just a single human reference quality Y chromosome, of European ancestry, is available due to a lack of accessible methodology. To facilitate the assembly of such complicated genomic territory, we developed a novel strategy to sequence native, unamplified flow sorted DNA on a MinION nanopore sequencing device. Our approach yields a highly continuous assembly of the first human Y chromosome of African origin. It constitutes a significant improvement over comparable previous methods, increasing continuity by more than 800%. Sequencing native DNA also allows to take advantage of the nanopore signal data to detect epigenetic modifications in situ. This approach is in theory generalizable to any species simplifying the assembly of extremely large and repetitive genomes.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Stem Cell Reports ; 12(2): 213-229, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639209

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the degeneration of ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons (vmDAns) and the accumulation of toxic α-synuclein. A non-cell-autonomous contribution, in particular of astrocytes, during PD pathogenesis has been suggested by observational studies, but remains to be experimentally tested. Here, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes and neurons from familial mutant LRRK2 G2019S PD patients and healthy individuals. Upon co-culture on top of PD astrocytes, control vmDAns displayed morphological signs of neurodegeneration and abnormal, astrocyte-derived α-synuclein accumulation. Conversely, control astrocytes partially prevented the appearance of disease-related phenotypes in PD vmDAns. We additionally identified dysfunctional chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), impaired macroautophagy, and progressive α-synuclein accumulation in PD astrocytes. Finally, chemical enhancement of CMA protected PD astrocytes and vmDAns via the clearance of α-synuclein accumulation. Our findings unveil a crucial non-cell-autonomous contribution of astrocytes during PD pathogenesis, and open the path to exploring novel therapeutic strategies aimed at blocking the pathogenic cross talk between neurons and glial cells.

15.
Eur Urol ; 75(1): 11-15, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245085

RESUMO

Causes of high mortality of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry living in the French West Indies are still debated, between suspicions of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. We report an integrated genomic study of 25 tumour tissues from radical prostatectomy of aggressive (defined by International Society of Urological Pathology ≥3) prostate cancer patients (10 African Caribbean and 15 French Caucasian) using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. The results show that African Caribbean tumours are characterised by a more frequent deletion at 1q41-43 encompassing the DNA repair gene PARP1, and a higher proportion of intrachromosomal rearrangements including duplications associated with CDK12 truncating mutations. Transcriptome analyses show an overexpression of genes related to androgen receptor activity in African Caribbean tumours, and of PVT1, a long non-coding RNA located at 8q24 that confirms the strong involvement of this region in prostate tumours from men of African ancestry. Patient summary: Mortality of prostate cancer is higher in African Caribbean men than in French Caucasian men. Specificities of the former could be explained by genomic events linked with key genes such as DNA damage pathway genes PARP1, CDK12, and the oncogenic long non-coding RNA gene PVT1 at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Br J Haematol ; 184(3): 373-383, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565652

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) comprise a family of non-coding transcripts that are emerging as relevant gene expression regulators of different processes, including tumour development. To determine the possible contribution of lncRNA to the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma (FL) we performed RNA-sequencing at high depth sequencing in primary FL samples ranging from grade 1-3A to aggressive grade 3B variants using unpurified (n = 16) and purified (n = 12) tumour cell suspensions from nodal samples. FL grade 3B had a significantly higher number of differentially expressed lncRNAs (dif-lncRNAs) with potential target coding genes related to cell cycle regulation. Nine out of the 18 selected dif-lncRNAs were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in an independent series (n = 43) of FL. RP4-694A7.2 was identified as the top deregulated lncRNA potentially involved in cell proliferation. RP4-694A7.2 silencing in the WSU-FSCCL FL cell line reduced cell proliferation due to a block in the G1/S phase. The relationship between RP4-694A7.2 and proliferation was confirmed in primary samples as its expression levels positively related to the Ki-67 proliferation index. In summary, lncRNAs are differentially expressed across the clinico-biological spectrum of FL and a subset of them, related to cell cycle, may participate in cell proliferation regulation in these tumours.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Folicular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Pontos de Checagem da Fase S do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
18.
Cell Stem Cell ; 23(5): 727-741.e9, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220521

RESUMO

Here, we report DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation dynamics at nucleotide resolution using C/EBPα-enhanced reprogramming of B cells into induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs). We observed successive waves of hydroxymethylation at enhancers, concomitant with a decrease in DNA methylation, suggesting active demethylation. Consistent with this finding, ablation of the DNA demethylase Tet2 almost completely abolishes reprogramming. C/EBPα, Klf4, and Tfcp2l1 each interact with Tet2 and recruit the enzyme to specific DNA sites. During reprogramming, some of these sites maintain high levels of 5hmC, and enhancers and promoters of key pluripotency factors become demethylated as early as 1 day after Yamanaka factor induction. Surprisingly, methylation changes precede chromatin opening in distinct chromatin regions, including Klf4 bound sites, revealing a pioneer factor activity associated with alternation in DNA methylation. Rapid changes in hydroxymethylation similar to those in B cells were also observed during compound-accelerated reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPSCs, highlighting the generality of our observations.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
19.
Cell Rep ; 24(10): 2784-2794, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184510

RESUMO

Neutrophils are short-lived blood cells that play a critical role in host defense against infections. To better comprehend neutrophil functions and their regulation, we provide a complete epigenetic overview, assessing important functional features of their differentiation stages from bone marrow-residing progenitors to mature circulating cells. Integration of chromatin modifications, methylation, and transcriptome dynamics reveals an enforced regulation of differentiation, for cellular functions such as release of proteases, respiratory burst, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. We observe an early establishment of the cytotoxic capability, while the signaling components that activate these antimicrobial mechanisms are transcribed at later stages, outside the bone marrow, thus preventing toxic effects in the bone marrow niche. Altogether, these data reveal how the developmental dynamics of the chromatin landscape orchestrate the daily production of a large number of neutrophils required for innate host defense and provide a comprehensive overview of differentiating human neutrophils.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(10): 771-781, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1) treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has improved the survival of patients. However, a substantial percentage of patients do not respond to this treatment. We examined the use of DNA methylation profiles to determine the efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment in patients recruited with current stage IV NSCLC. METHODS: In this multicentre study, we recruited adult patients from 15 hospitals in France, Spain, and Italy who had histologically proven stage IV NSCLC and had been exposed to PD-1 blockade during the course of the disease. The study structure comprised a discovery cohort to assess the correlation between epigenetic features and clinical benefit with PD-1 blockade and two validation cohorts to assess the validity of our assumptions. We first established an epigenomic profile based on a microarray DNA methylation signature (EPIMMUNE) in a discovery set of tumour samples from patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. The EPIMMUNE signature was validated in an independent set of patients. A derived DNA methylation marker was validated by a single-methylation assay in a validation cohort of patients. The main study outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate progression-free and overall survival, and calculated the differences between the groups with the log-rank test. We constructed a multivariate Cox model to identify the variables independently associated with progression-free and overall survival. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2014, and May 18, 2017, we obtained samples from 142 patients: 34 in the discovery cohort, 47 in the EPIMMUNE validation cohort, and 61 in the derived methylation marker cohort (the T-cell differentiation factor forkhead box P1 [FOXP1]). The EPIMMUNE signature in patients with stage IV NSCLC treated with anti-PD-1 agents was associated with improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·010, 95% CI 3·29 × 10-4-0·0282; p=0·0067) and overall survival (0·080, 0·017-0·373; p=0·0012). The EPIMMUNE-positive signature was not associated with PD-L1 expression, the presence of CD8+ cells, or mutational load. EPIMMUNE-negative tumours were enriched in tumour-associated macrophages and neutrophils, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and senescent endothelial cells. The EPIMMUNE-positive signature was associated with improved progression-free survival in the EPIMMUNE validation cohort (0·330, 0·149-0·727; p=0·0064). The unmethylated status of FOXP1 was associated with improved progression-free survival (0·415, 0·209-0·802; p=0·0063) and overall survival (0·409, 0·220-0·780; p=0·0094) in the FOXP1 validation cohort. The EPIMMUNE signature and unmethylated FOXP1 were not associated with clinical benefit in lung tumours that did not receive immunotherapy. INTERPRETATION: Our study shows that the epigenetic milieu of NSCLC tumours indicates which patients are most likely to benefit from nivolumab or pembrolizumab treatments. The methylation status of FOXP1 could be associated with validated predictive biomarkers such as PD-L1 staining and mutational load to better select patients who will experience clinical benefit with PD-1 blockade, and its predictive value should be evaluated in prospective studies. FUNDING: "Obra Social" La Caixa, Cellex Foundation, and the Health and Science Departments of the Generalitat de Catalunya.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Epigenômica , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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