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1.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Epigenetic therapies have proven to be clinically effective in several hematological malignancies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a second-generation DNA demethylation agent, zebularine, on multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: Western blot, ELISA, qRT-PCR, proliferation assays and cell transfection were used to investigate the mechanism of action of zebularine in MM. RESULTS: We found that zebularine induced apoptosis and DNA demethylation in most of the MM cell lines tested. Its cytotoxic effect was associated with a time-dependent decrease in the level of c-Myc protein. Moreover, zebularine induced H2AX phosphorylation, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, in five out of eight MM cell lines tested. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed novel effects of zebularine on MM that may have potential implications for DNA methylation-based therapies.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 189(4): 718-730, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124426

RESUMO

Recommended genetic categorization of acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) includes a favourable-risk category, but not all these patients have good prognosis. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to evaluate the mutational profile of 166 low-risk AML patients: 30 core-binding factor (CBF)-AMLs, 33 nucleophosmin (NPM1)-AMLs, 4 biCEBPα-AMLs and 101 acute promyelocytic leukaemias (APLs). Functional categories of mutated genes differed among subgroups. NPM1-AMLs showed frequent variations in DNA-methylation genes (DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2) (79%), although without prognostic impact. Within this group, splicing-gene mutations were an independent factor for relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In CBF-AML, poor independent factors for RFS and OS were mutations in RAS pathway and cohesin genes, respectively. In APL, the mutational profile differed according to the risk groups. High-risk APLs showed a high mutation rate in cell-signalling genes (P = 0·002), highlighting an increased incidence of FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) (65%, P < 0·0001). Remarkably, in low-risk APLs (n = 28), NRAS mutations were strongly correlated with a shorter five-year RFS (25% vs. 100%, P < 0·0001). Overall, a high number of mutations (≥3) was the worst prognostic factor RFS (HR = 2·6, P = 0·003). These results suggest that gene mutations may identify conventional low-risk AML patients with poor prognosis and might be useful for better risk stratification and treatment decisions.

3.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(7): 4171-4182, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141701

RESUMO

FAM46C, frequently mutated in multiple myeloma (MM), has recently been shown to encode a non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (ncPAP). However, its target mRNAs and its role in MM pathogenesis remain mostly unknown. Using CRISPR-Cas9 technology and gene expression analysis, we found that the inactivation of FAM46C in MM down-regulates immunoglobulins (Igs) and several mRNAs encoding ER-resident proteins, including some involved in unfolded protein response and others that affect glycosylation. Interestingly, we show that FAM46C expression is induced during plasma cell (PC) differentiation and that Ig mRNAs encoding heavy and light chains are substrates of the ncPAP, as revealed by poly(A) tail-length determination assays. The absence of the ncPAP results in Ig mRNA poly(A) tail-shortening, leading to a reduction in mRNA and protein abundance. On the other hand, loss of FAM46C up-regulates metastasis-associated lncRNA MALAT1 and results in a sharp increase in the migration ability. This phenotype depends mainly on the activation of PI3K/Rac1 signalling, which might have significant therapeutic implications. In conclusion, our results identify Ig mRNAs as targets of FAM46C, reveal an important function of this protein during PC maturation to increase antibody production and suggest that its role as a tumour suppressor might be related to the inhibition of myeloma cell migration.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085520

RESUMO

The biology and clinical impact of bone marrow (BM) infiltration in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unclear in the rituximab era. We retrospectively analyzed 232 patients diagnosed with DLBCL at our center between 1999 and 2014. Concordant-presence of large cells similar to those of the lymph node biopsy- and discordant-infiltration by small cells forming lymphoid aggregates, lacking cytological atypia-BM infiltration was defined by histological criteria and further characterized by flow cytometry (FCM). Cell of origin (COO) was determined using Hans' algorithm. For the clonal relationship between tumor and discordant BM, the VDJH rearrangement was analyzed. Survival analyses were restricted to 189 patients treated with rituximab and chemotherapy. Thirty-six (16%) had concordant, and 37 (16%) discordant BM infiltration. FCM described different indolent lymphomas among discordant cases, clonally related with DLBCL in 10/13 available samples. Median follow-up was 58 months. 5-year-progression-free survival (PFS) for non-infiltrated, discordant and concordant groups was 68%, 65% and 30%, respectively (p < 0.001). Combining COO and BM infiltration, patients with discordant BM and non-germinal center B-cell COO also had decreased 5-year-PFS (41.9%). In multivariate analysis, concordant BM had an independent effect on PFS (HR 2.5, p = 0.01). Five-year cumulative incidence of central nervous system (CNS) relapse was 21%, 4% and 1% in concordant, discordant and non-infiltrated groups, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, concordant BM infiltration represents a subset with poor prognosis, whereas the prognostic impact of discordant BM infiltration could be limited to non-CGB cases.

5.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(2): 14, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029700

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is a heterogeneous disease whose pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated. Although B-cell receptors play a crucial role in myeloma pathogenesis, the impact of clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain features in the outcome has not been extensively explored. Here we present the characterization of complete heavy-chain gene rearrangements in 413 myeloma patients treated in Spanish trials, including 113 patients characterized by next-generation sequencing. Compared to the normal B-cell repertoire, gene selection was biased in myeloma, with significant overrepresentation of IGHV3, IGHD2 and IGHD3, as well as IGHJ4 gene groups. Hypermutation was high in our patients (median: 8.8%). Interestingly, regarding patients who are not candidates for transplantation, a high hypermutation rate (≥7%) and the use of IGHD2 and IGHD3 groups were associated with improved prognostic features and longer survival rates in the univariate analyses. Multivariate analysis revealed prolonged progression-free survival rates for patients using IGHD2/IGHD3 groups (HR: 0.552, 95% CI: 0.361-0.845, p = 0.006), as well as prolonged overall survival rates for patients with hypermutation ≥7% (HR: 0.291, 95% CI: 0.137-0.618, p = 0.001). Our results provide new insights into the molecular characterization of multiple myeloma, highlighting the need to evaluate some of these clonal rearrangement characteristics as new potential prognostic markers.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(1): 60-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605801

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are currently genomically characterized by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), real-time quantitative PCR, and DNA sequencing. Next-generation sequencing offers the promise of detecting all genomic lesions in a single run. However, technical limitations have hampered the detection of chromosomal rearrangements, so most studies are limited to somatic mutation assessment or require the use of RNA-based strategies. To overcome these limitations, we designed a targeted-DNA capture next-generation sequencing approach associated with easy-to-perform public bioinformatic tools for one-step identification of translocations, inversions, and somatic mutations in AML. Thirty well-characterized newly diagnosed myeloid leukemia patients (27 AML and 3 chronic myeloid leukemia) were tested with the panel. Twenty-three of 24 known rearrangements, as well as one novel fusion gene that could not be detected by karyotype/fluorescence in situ hybridization/real-time quantitative PCR, were detected. This strategy also identified all chromosomal breakpoints as potential targets for future high-sensitive minimal residual disease studies. In addition, mutation analysis revealed the presence of missense protein-coding alterations in at least 1 of the 32 genes evaluated in 21 of 30 patients (70%). This strategy may represent a time- and cost-effective diagnostic method for molecular characterization in AML.

10.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(12): 90, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748515

RESUMO

Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a highly aggressive plasma cell dyscrasia characterised by short remissions and very poor survival. Although the 17p deletion is associated with poor outcome and extramedullary disease in MM, its presence does not confer the degree of aggressiveness observed in pPCL. The comprehensive exploration of isoform expression and RNA splicing events may provide novel information about biological differences between the two diseases. Transcriptomic studies were carried out in nine newly diagnosed pPCL and ten MM samples, all of which harbored the 17p deletion. Unsupervised cluster analysis clearly distinguished pPCL from MM samples. In total 3584 genes and 20033 isoforms were found to be deregulated between pPCL and MM. There were 2727 significantly deregulated isoforms of non-differentially expressed genes. Strangely enough, significant differences were observed in the expression of spliceosomal machinery components between pPCL and MM, in respect of the gene, isoform and the alternative splicing events expression. In summary, transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of isoforms between pPCL and MM, even when they both had the 17p deletion. The mRNA processing pathway including RNA splicing machinery emerged as one of the most remarkable mechanisms underlying the biological differences between the two entities.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901231, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Assessing measurable residual disease (MRD) has become standard with many tumors, but the clinical meaning of MRD in multiple myeloma (MM) remains uncertain, particularly when assessed by next-generation flow (NGF) cytometry. Thus, we aimed to determine the applicability and sensitivity of the flow MRD-negative criterion defined by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the PETHEMA/GEM2012MENOS65 trial, 458 patients with newly diagnosed MM had longitudinal assessment of MRD after six induction cycles with bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (VRD), autologous transplantation, and two consolidation courses with VRD. MRD was assessed in 1,100 bone marrow samples from 397 patients; the 61 patients without MRD data discontinued treatment during induction and were considered MRD positive for intent-to-treat analysis. The median limit of detection achieved by NGF was 2.9 × 10-6. Patients received maintenance (lenalidomide ± ixazomib) according to the companion PETHEMA/GEM2014MAIN trial. RESULTS: Overall, 205 (45%) of 458 patients had undetectable MRD after consolidation, and only 14 of them (7%) have experienced progression thus far; seven of these 14 displayed extraosseous plasmacytomas at diagnosis and/or relapse. Using time-dependent analysis, patients with undetectable MRD had an 82% reduction in the risk of progression or death (hazard ratio, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.30; P < .001) and an 88% reduction in the risk of death (hazard ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.29; P < .001). Timing of undetectable MRD (after induction v intensification) had no impact on patient survival. Attaining undetectable MRD overcame poor prognostic features at diagnosis, including high-risk cytogenetics. By contrast, patients with Revised International Staging System III status and positive MRD had dismal progression-free and overall survivals (median, 14 and 17 months, respectively). Maintenance increased the rate of undetectable MRD by 17%. CONCLUSION: The IMWG flow MRD-negative response criterion is highly applicable and sensitive to evaluate treatment efficacy in MM.

12.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(4): 36, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886139

RESUMO

Disease control at 5 years would be a desirable endpoint for elderly multiple myeloma (MM) patients, but biomarkers predicting this are not defined. Therefore, to gain further insights in this endpoint, a population of 498 newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible patients enrolled in two Spanish trials (GEM2005MAS65 and GEM2010MAS65), has been analyzed. Among the 435 patients included in this post-hoc study, 18.6% remained alive and progression free after 5 years of treatment initiation. In these patients, overall survival (OS) rate at 10 years was 60.8% as compared with 11.8% for those progressing within the first 5 years. Hemoglobin (Hb) ≥ 12 g/dl (OR 2.74, p = 0.001) and MGUS-like profile (OR 4.18, p = 0.005) were the two baseline variables associated with long-term disease-free survival. Upon including depth of response (and MRD), Hb ≥ 12 g/dl (OR 2.27) and MGUS-like signature (OR 7.48) retained their predictive value along with MRD negativity (OR 5.18). This study shows that despite the use of novel agents, the probability of disease control at 5 years is still restricted to a small fraction (18.6%) of elderly MM patients. Since this endpoint is associated with higher rates of OS, this study provides important information about diagnostic and post-treatment biomarkers helpful in predicting the likelihood of disease control at 5 years.


Assuntos
Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/terapia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia
14.
Noncoding RNA ; 5(1)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654527

RESUMO

Intensive research has been undertaken during the last decade to identify the implication of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). The expression profiling of miRNAs in MM has provided relevant information, demonstrating different patterns of miRNA expression depending on the genetic abnormalities of MM and a key role of some miRNAs regulating critical genes associated with MM pathogenesis. However, the underlying causes of abnormal expression of miRNAs in myeloma cells remain mainly elusive. The final expression of the mature miRNAs is subject to multiple regulation mechanisms, such as copy number alterations, CpG methylation or transcription factors, together with impairment in miRNA biogenesis and differences in availability of the mRNA target sequence. In this review, we summarize the available knowledge about the factors involved in the regulation of miRNA expression and functionality in MM.

15.
Blood ; 133(11): 1217-1221, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692124

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 17p (del17p) that span the TP53 gene are associated with poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM), but the prognostic value of del17p cancer clonal fraction (CCF) remains unclear. We applied uniform cytogenetic assessments in a large cohort of newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients carrying varying levels of del17p. Incremental CCF change was associated with shorter survival, and a robust CCF threshold of 0.55 was established in discovery and replication data sets. After stratification on the 0.55-CCF threshold, high-risk patients had statistically significantly poorer outcomes compared with low-risk patients (median progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS], 14 and 32 vs 23.1 and 76.2 months, respectively). Analyses of a third data set comprising whole-exome sequencing data from NDMM patients identified presence of TP53 deletions/mutations as a necessary requirement for high-risk stratification in addition to exceeding the del17p CCF threshold. Meta-analysis conducted across 3 data sets confirmed the robustness of the CCF threshold for PFS and OS. Our analyses demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence in situ hybridization- and sequencing-based methods to identify TP53 deletions, estimate CCF, and establish that both CCF threshold of 0.55 and presence of TP53 deletion are necessary to identify del17p-carrying NDMM patients with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Evolução Clonal , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203392, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192814

RESUMO

We investigated the prognostic impact and clinical utility of serum free light chains (sFLC) and serum heavy-light chains (sHLC) in patients with multiple myeloma treated according to the GEM2005MENOS65, GEM2005MAS65, and GEM2010MAS65 PETHEMA/GEM phase III clinical trials. Serum samples collected at diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed for sFLC (n = 623) and sHLC (n = 183). After induction or autologous transplantation, 309 and 89 samples respectively were available for sFLC and sHLC assays. At diagnosis, a highly abnormal (HA) sFLC ratio (sFLCr) (<0.03 or >32) was not associated with higher risk of progression. After therapy, persistence of involved-sFLC levels >100 mg/L implied worse survival (overall survival [OS], P = 0.03; progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.007). Among patients that achieved a complete response, sFLCr normalization did not necessarily indicate a higher quality response. We conducted sHLC investigations for IgG and IgA MM. Absolute sHLC values were correlated with monoclonal protein levels measured with serum protein electrophoresis. At diagnosis, HA-sHLCrs (<0.29 or >73) showed a higher risk of progression (P = 0.006). Additionally, involved-sHLC levels >5 g/L after treatment were associated with shorter survival (OS, P = 0.001; PFS, P = 0.018). The HA-sHLCr could have prognostic value at diagnosis; absolute values of involved-sFLC >100 mg/L and involved-sHLC >5 g/L could have prognostic value after treatment.


Assuntos
Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Transplante Autólogo
17.
Haematologica ; 103(5): 880-889, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545347

RESUMO

Protein analysis in bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma has been limited by the low concentration of proteins obtained after CD138+ cell selection. A novel approach based on capillary nano-immunoassay could make it possible to quantify dozens of proteins from each myeloma sample in an automated manner. Here we present a method for the accurate and robust quantification of the expression of multiple proteins extracted from CD138-purified multiple myeloma samples frozen in RLT Plus buffer, which is commonly used for nucleic acid preservation and isolation. Additionally, the biological and clinical value of this analysis for a panel of 12 proteins essential to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma was evaluated in 63 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The analysis of the prognostic impact of CRBN/Cereblon and IKZF1/Ikaros mRNA/protein showed that only the protein levels were able to predict progression-free survival of patients; mRNA levels were not associated with prognosis. Interestingly, high levels of Cereblon and Ikaros proteins were associated with longer progression-free survival only in patients who received immunomodulatory drugs and not in those treated with other drugs. In conclusion, the capillary nano-immunoassay platform provides a novel opportunity for automated quantification of the expression of more than 20 proteins in CD138+ primary multiple myeloma samples.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Imunoensaio/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sindecana-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Leukemia ; 32(11): 2427-2434, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29515235

RESUMO

Although survival of elderly myeloma patients has significantly improved there is still a subset of patients who, despite being fit and achieving optimal responses, will die within 2 years of diagnosis due to myeloma progression. The objective of this study was to define a scoring prognostic index to identify this group of patients. We have evaluated the outcome of 490 newly diagnosed elderly myeloma patients included in two Spanish trials (GEM2005-GEM2010). Sixty-eight patients (13.8%) died within 2 years of diagnosis (early deaths) due to myeloma progression. Our study shows that the use of simple scoring model based on 4 widely available markers (elevated LDH, ISS 3, high risk CA or >75 years) can contribute to identify up-front these patients. Moreover, unsustained response (<6 months duration) emerged as one important predictor of early myeloma-related mortality associated with a significant increase in the risk of death related to myeloma progression. The identification of these patients at high risk of early death is relevant for innovative trials aiming to maintain the depth of first response, since many of them will not receive subsequent lines of therapy.

19.
Ann Hematol ; 97(3): 475-484, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353304

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathies show considerable variability, involving three different stages of presentation: IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS), asymptomatic Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (AWM), and symptomatic WM (SWM). Despite recent findings about the genomic and transcriptomic characteristics of such disorders, we know little about the causes of this clinical heterogeneity or the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent to symptomatic forms. To clarify these matters, we have performed a gene expression and mutational study in a well-characterized cohort of 69 patients, distinguishing between the three disease presentations in an attempt to establish the relationship with the clinical and biological features of the patients. Results showed that the frequency of genetic alterations progressively increased from IgM-MGUS to AWM and SWM. This means that, in contrast to MYD88 p.L265P and CXCR4 WHIM mutations, present from the beginning of the pathogenesis, most of them would be acquired during the course of the disease. Moreover, the expression study revealed a higher level of expression of genes belonging to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in symptomatic versus indolent forms, which was also reflected in the disease presentation and prognosis. In conclusion, our findings showed that IgM monoclonal gammopathies present higher mutational burden as the disease progresses, in parallel to the upregulation of relevant pathogenic pathways. This study provides a translational view of the genomic basis of WM pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/genética , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/patologia , Prognóstico , Macroglobulinemia de Waldenstrom/patologia
20.
Haematologica ; 102(12): 2113-2124, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860344

RESUMO

Kinesin spindle protein inhibition is known to be an effective therapeutic approach in several malignancies. Filanesib (ARRY-520), an inhibitor of this protein, has demonstrated activity in heavily pre-treated multiple myeloma patients. The aim of the work herein was to investigate the activity of filanesib in combination with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone backbone, and the mechanisms underlying the potential synergistic effect. The ability of filanesib to enhance the activity of pomalidomide plus dexamethasone was studied in several in vitro and in vivo models. Mechanisms of this synergistic combination were dissected by gene expression profiling, immunostaining, cell cycle and short interfering ribonucleic acid studies. Filanesib showed in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo synergy with pomalidomide plus dexamethasone treatment. Importantly, the in vivo synergy observed in this combination was more evident in large, highly proliferative tumors, and was shown to be mediated by the impairment of mitosis transcriptional control, an increase in monopolar spindles, cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis in cells in proliferative phases. In addition, the triple combination increased the activation of the proapoptotic protein BAX, which has previously been associated with sensitivity to filanesib, and could potentially be used as a predictive biomarker of response to this combination. Our results provide preclinical evidence for the potential benefit of the combination of filanesib with pomalidomide and dexamethasone, and supported the initiation of a recently activated trial being conducted by the Spanish Myeloma group which is investigating this combination in relapsed myeloma patients.


Assuntos
Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Cinesina/antagonistas & inibidores , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Tiadiazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Camundongos , Talidomida/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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