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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6707, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795247

RESUMO

Bioelectronic interfaces have been extensively investigated in recent years and advances in technology derived from these tools, such as soft and ultrathin sensors, now offer the opportunity to interface with parts of the body that were largely unexplored due to the lack of suitable tools. The musculoskeletal system is an understudied area where these new technologies can result in advanced capabilities. Bones as a sensor and stimulation location offer tremendous advantages for chronic biointerfaces because devices can be permanently bonded and provide stable optical, electromagnetic, and mechanical impedance over the course of years. Here we introduce a new class of wireless battery-free devices, named osseosurface electronics, which feature soft mechanics, ultra-thin form factor and miniaturized multimodal biointerfaces comprised of sensors and optoelectronics directly adhered to the surface of the bone. Potential of this fully implanted device class is demonstrated via real-time recording of bone strain, millikelvin resolution thermography and delivery of optical stimulation in freely-moving small animal models. Battery-free device architecture, direct growth to the bone via surface engineered calcium phosphate ceramic particles, demonstration of operation in deep tissue in large animal models and readout with a smartphone highlight suitable characteristics for exploratory research and utility as a diagnostic and therapeutic platform.

3.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567774

RESUMO

Implantable deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems are utilized for clinical treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. However, long-term efficacy of DBS is limited, and chronic neuroplastic changes and associated therapeutic mechanisms are not well understood. Fundamental and mechanistic investigation, typically accomplished in small animal models, is difficult because of the need for chronic stimulators that currently require either frequent handling of test subjects to charge battery-powered systems or specialized setups to manage tethers that restrict experimental paradigms and compromise insight. To overcome these challenges, we demonstrate a fully implantable, wireless, battery-free platform that allows for chronic DBS in rodents with the capability to control stimulation parameters digitally in real time. The devices are able to provide stimulation over a wide range of frequencies with biphasic pulses and constant voltage control via low-impedance, surface-engineered platinum electrodes. The devices utilize off-the-shelf components and feature the ability to customize electrodes to enable broad utility and rapid dissemination. Efficacy of the system is demonstrated with a readout of stimulation-evoked neural activity in vivo and chronic stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle in freely moving rats to evoke characteristic head motion for over 36 days.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301889

RESUMO

Wireless, battery-free, and fully subdermally implantable optogenetic tools are poised to transform neurobiological research in freely moving animals. Current-generation wireless devices are sufficiently small, thin, and light for subdermal implantation, offering some advantages over tethered methods for naturalistic behavior. Yet current devices using wireless power delivery require invasive stimulus delivery, penetrating the skull and disrupting the blood-brain barrier. This can cause tissue displacement, neuronal damage, and scarring. Power delivery constraints also sharply curtail operational arena size. Here, we implement highly miniaturized, capacitive power storage on the platform of wireless subdermal implants. With approaches to digitally manage power delivery to optoelectronic components, we enable two classes of applications: transcranial optogenetic activation millimeters into the brain (validated using motor cortex stimulation to induce turning behaviors) and wireless optogenetics in arenas of more than 1 m2 in size. This methodology allows for previously impossible behavioral experiments leveraging the modern optogenetic toolkit.

5.
Pain ; 162(12): 2865-2880, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160168

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests hippocampal impairment under the chronic pain phenotype. However, it is unknown whether neuropathic behaviors are related to dysfunction of the hippocampal circuitry. Here, we enhanced hippocampal activity by pharmacological, optogenetic, and chemogenetic techniques to determine hippocampal influence on neuropathic pain behaviors. We found that excitation of the dorsal (DH), but not the ventral (VH) hippocampus induces analgesia in 2 rodent models of neuropathic pain (SNI and SNL) and in rats and mice. Optogenetic and pharmacological manipulations of DH neurons demonstrated that DH-induced analgesia was mediated by N-Methyl-D-aspartate and µ-opioid receptors. In addition to analgesia, optogenetic stimulation of the DH in SNI mice also resulted in enhanced real-time conditioned place preference for the chamber where the DH was activated, a finding consistent with pain relief. Similar manipulations in the VH were ineffective. Using chemo-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), where awake resting-state fMRI was combined with viral vector-mediated chemogenetic activation (PSAM/PSEM89s) of DH neurons, we demonstrated changes of functional connectivity between the DH and thalamus and somatosensory regions that tracked the extent of relief from tactile allodynia. Moreover, we examined hippocampal functional connectivity in humans and observe differential reorganization of its anterior and posterior subdivisions between subacute and chronic back pain. Altogether, these results imply that downregulation of the DH circuitry during chronic neuropathic pain aggravates pain-related behaviors. Conversely, activation of the DH reverses pain-related behaviors through local excitatory and opioidergic mechanisms affecting DH functional connectivity. Thus, this study exhibits a novel causal role for the DH but not the VH in controlling neuropathic pain-related behaviors.

6.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686282

RESUMO

Tethered and battery-powered devices that interface with neural tissues can restrict natural motions and prevent social interactions in animal models, thereby limiting the utility of these devices in behavioural neuroscience research. In this Review Article, we discuss recent progress in the development of miniaturized and ultralightweight devices as neuroengineering platforms that are wireless, battery-free and fully implantable, with capabilities that match or exceed those of wired or battery-powered alternatives. Such classes of advanced neural interfaces with optical, electrical or fluidic functionality can also combine recording and stimulation modalities for closed-loop applications in basic studies or in the practical treatment of abnormal physiological processes.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1968, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785751

RESUMO

Wireless battery free and fully implantable tools for the interrogation of the central and peripheral nervous system have quantitatively expanded the capabilities to study mechanistic and circuit level behavior in freely moving rodents. The light weight and small footprint of such devices enables full subdermal implantation that results in the capability to perform studies with minimal impact on subject behavior and yields broad application in a range of experimental paradigms. While these advantages have been successfully proven in rodents that move predominantly in 2D, the full potential of a wireless and battery free device can be harnessed with flying species, where interrogation with tethered devices is very difficult or impossible. Here we report on a wireless, battery free and multimodal platform that enables optogenetic stimulation and physiological temperature recording in a highly miniaturized form factor for use in songbirds. The systems are enabled by behavior guided primary antenna design and advanced energy management to ensure stable optogenetic stimulation and thermography throughout 3D experimental arenas. Collectively, these design approaches quantitatively expand the use of wireless subdermally implantable neuromodulation and sensing tools to species previously excluded from in vivo real time experiments.


Assuntos
Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Optogenética/instrumentação , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Telemetria/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Optogenética/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Telemetria/métodos
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113007, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556807

RESUMO

Recent progress in biosensors have quantitively expanded current capabilities in exploratory research tools, diagnostics and therapeutics. This rapid pace in sensor development has been accentuated by vast improvements in data analysis methods in the form of machine learning and artificial intelligence that, together, promise fantastic opportunities in chronic sensing of biosignals to enable preventative screening, automated diagnosis, and tools for personalized treatment strategies. At the same time, the importance of widely accessible personal monitoring has become evident by recent events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Progress in fully integrated and chronic sensing solutions is therefore increasingly important. Chronic operation, however, is not truly possible with tethered approaches or bulky, battery-powered systems that require frequent user interaction. A solution for this integration challenge is offered by wireless and battery-free platforms that enable continuous collection of biosignals. This review summarizes current approaches to realize such device architectures and discusses their building blocks. Specifically, power supplies, wireless communication methods and compatible sensing modalities in the context of most prevalent implementations in target organ systems. Additionally, we highlight examples of current embodiments that quantitively expand sensing capabilities because of their use of wireless and battery-free architectures.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Inteligência Artificial , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Técnicas Biossensoriais/tendências , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemetria/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tecnologia sem Fio/tendências
9.
J Neural Eng ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607646

RESUMO

Progress in understanding neuronal interaction and circuit behavior of the central and peripheral nervous system strongly relies on the advancement of tools that record and stimulate with high fidelity and specificity. Currently, devices used in exploratory research predominantly utilize cables or tethers to provide pathways for power supply, data communication, stimulus delivery and recording, which constrains the scope and use of such devices. In particular, the tethered connection, mechanical mismatch to surrounding soft tissues and bones frustrate the interface leading to irritation and limitation of motion of the subject, which in the case of fundamental and preclinical studies, impacts naturalistic behaviors of animals and precludes the use in experiments involving social interaction and ethologically relevant three-dimensional environments, limiting the use of current tools to mostly rodents and exclude species such as birds and fish. This review explores the current state-of-the-art in wireless, subdermally implantable tools that quantitively expand capabilities in analysis and perturbation of the central and peripheral nervous system by removing tethers and externalized features of implantable neuromodulation and recording tools. Specifically, the review explores power harvesting strategies, wireless communication schemes, and soft materials and mechanics that enable the creation of such devices and discuss their capabilities in the context of freely-behaving subjects. Highlights of this class of devices includes wireless battery-free and fully implantable operation with capabilities in cell specific recording, multimodal neural stimulation and electrical, optogenetic and pharmacological neuromodulation capabilities. We conclude with discussion on translation of such technologies which promises routes towards broad dissemination.

10.
Lab Chip ; 20(23): 4391-4403, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089837

RESUMO

Important insights into human health can be obtained through the non-invasive collection and detailed analysis of sweat, a biofluid that contains a wide range of essential biomarkers. Skin-interfaced microfluidic platforms, characterized by soft materials and thin geometries, offer a collection of capabilities for in situ capture, storage, and analysis of sweat and its constituents. In ambulatory uses cases, the ability to provide real-time feedback on sweat loss, rate and content, without visual inspection of the device, can be important. This paper introduces a low-profile skin-interfaced system that couples disposable microfluidic sampling devices with reusable 'stick-on' electrodes and wireless readout electronics that remain isolated from the sweat. An ultra-thin capping layer on the microfluidic platform permits high-sensitivity, contactless capacitive measurements of both sweat loss and sweat conductivity. This architecture avoids the potential for corrosion of the sensing components and eliminates the need for cleaning/sterilizing the electronics, thereby resulting in a cost-effective platform that is simple to use. Optimized electrode designs follow from a combination of extensive benchtop testing, analytical calculations and FEA simulations for two sensing configurations: (1) sweat rate and loss, and (2) sweat conductivity, which contains information about electrolyte content. Both configurations couple to a flexible, wireless electronics platform that digitizes and transmits information to Bluetooth-enabled devices. On-body field testing during physical exercise validates the performance of the system in scenarios of practical relevance to human health and performance.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Suor , Eletrônica , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica , Pele
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1466, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193428

RESUMO

The positive or negative value (valence) of past experiences is normally integrated into neuronal circuits that encode episodic memories and plays an important role in guiding behavior. Here, we show, using mouse behavioral models, that glutamatergic afferents from the ventral tegmental area to the dorsal hippocampus (VTA→DH) signal negative valence to memory circuits, leading to the formation of fear-inducing context memories and to context-specific reinstatement of fear. To a lesser extent, these projections also contributed to opioid-induced place preference, suggesting a role in signaling positive valence as well, and thus a lack of dedicated polarity. Manipulations of VTA terminal activity were more effective in females and paralleled by sex differences in glutamatergic signaling. By prioritizing retrieval of negative and positive over neutral memories, the VTA→DH circuit can facilitate the selection of adaptive behaviors when current and past experiences are valence congruent.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfina/farmacologia , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Vesicular 2 de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 2835-2845, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974306

RESUMO

Recording cell-specific neuronal activity while monitoring behaviors of freely moving subjects can provide some of the most significant insights into brain function. Current means for monitoring calcium dynamics in genetically targeted populations of neurons rely on delivery of light and recording of fluorescent signals through optical fibers that can reduce subject mobility, induce motion artifacts, and limit experimental paradigms to isolated subjects in open, two-dimensional (2D) spaces. Wireless alternatives eliminate constraints associated with optical fibers, but their use of head stages with batteries adds bulk and weight that can affect behaviors, with limited operational lifetimes. The systems introduced here avoid drawbacks of both types of technologies, by combining highly miniaturized electronics and energy harvesters with injectable photometric modules in a class of fully wireless, battery-free photometer that is fully implantable subdermally to allow for the interrogation of neural dynamics in freely behaving subjects, without limitations set by fiber optic tethers or operational lifetimes constrained by traditional power supplies. The unique capabilities of these systems, their compatibility with magnetic resonant imaging and computed tomography and the ability to manufacture them with techniques in widespread use for consumer electronics, suggest a potential for broad adoption in neuroscience research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fotometria/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Desenho de Equipamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fotometria/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5742, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848334

RESUMO

Small animals support a wide range of pathological phenotypes and genotypes as versatile, affordable models for pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and for exploration of strategies in electrotherapy, gene therapy, and optogenetics. Pacing tools in such contexts are currently limited to tethered embodiments that constrain animal behaviors and experimental designs. Here, we introduce a highly miniaturized wireless energy-harvesting and digital communication electronics for thin, miniaturized pacing platforms weighing 110 mg with capabilities for subdermal implantation and tolerance to over 200,000 multiaxial cycles of strain without degradation in electrical or optical performance. Multimodal and multisite pacing in ex vivo and in vivo studies over many days demonstrate chronic stability and excellent biocompatibility. Optogenetic stimulation of cardiac cycles with in-animal control and induction of heart failure through chronic pacing serve as examples of modes of operation relevant to fundamental and applied cardiovascular research and biomedical technology.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Miniaturização , Optogenética/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Tecnologia sem Fio
14.
Nature ; 575(7783): 473-479, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748722

RESUMO

Traditional technologies for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) create human experiences through visual and auditory stimuli that replicate sensations associated with the physical world. The most widespread VR and AR systems use head-mounted displays, accelerometers and loudspeakers as the basis for three-dimensional, computer-generated environments that can exist in isolation or as overlays on actual scenery. In comparison to the eyes and the ears, the skin is a relatively underexplored sensory interface for VR and AR technology that could, nevertheless, greatly enhance experiences at a qualitative level, with direct relevance in areas such as communications, entertainment and medicine1,2. Here we present a wireless, battery-free platform of electronic systems and haptic (that is, touch-based) interfaces capable of softly laminating onto the curved surfaces of the skin to communicate information via spatio-temporally programmable patterns of localized mechanical vibrations. We describe the materials, device structures, power delivery strategies and communication schemes that serve as the foundations for such platforms. The resulting technology creates many opportunities for use where the skin provides an electronically programmable communication and sensory input channel to the body, as demonstrated through applications in social media and personal engagement, prosthetic control and feedback, and gaming and entertainment.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Desenho de Equipamento , Pele , Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador , Realidade Virtual , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Comunicação , Epiderme , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes , Robótica , Mídias Sociais , Vibração , Jogos de Vídeo
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21427-21437, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601737

RESUMO

Pharmacology and optogenetics are widely used in neuroscience research to study the central and peripheral nervous systems. While both approaches allow for sophisticated studies of neural circuitry, continued advances are, in part, hampered by technology limitations associated with requirements for physical tethers that connect external equipment to rigid probes inserted into delicate regions of the brain. The results can lead to tissue damage and alterations in behavioral tasks and natural movements, with additional difficulties in use for studies that involve social interactions and/or motions in complex 3-dimensional environments. These disadvantages are particularly pronounced in research that demands combined optogenetic and pharmacological functions in a single experiment. Here, we present a lightweight, wireless, battery-free injectable microsystem that combines soft microfluidic and microscale inorganic light-emitting diode probes for programmable pharmacology and optogenetics, designed to offer the features of drug refillability and adjustable flow rates, together with programmable control over the temporal profiles. The technology has potential for large-scale manufacturing and broad distribution to the neuroscience community, with capabilities in targeting specific neuronal populations in freely moving animals. In addition, the same platform can easily be adapted for a wide range of other types of passive or active electronic functions, including electrical stimulation.


Assuntos
Optogenética/métodos , Farmacologia/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Química Encefálica , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Optogenética/instrumentação , Farmacologia/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
16.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw5296, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281895

RESUMO

Studies of the peripheral nervous system rely on controlled manipulation of neuronal function with pharmacologic and/or optogenetic techniques. Traditional hardware for these purposes can cause notable damage to fragile nerve tissues, create irritation at the biotic/abiotic interface, and alter the natural behaviors of animals. Here, we present a wireless, battery-free device that integrates a microscale inorganic light-emitting diode and an ultralow-power microfluidic system with an electrochemical pumping mechanism in a soft platform that can be mounted onto target peripheral nerves for programmed delivery of light and/or pharmacological agents in freely moving animals. Biocompliant designs lead to minimal effects on overall nerve health and function, even with chronic use in vivo. The small size and light weight construction allow for deployment as fully implantable devices in mice. These features create opportunities for studies of the peripheral nervous system outside of the scope of those possible with existing technologies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Optogenética/métodos , Nervos Periféricos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Próteses e Implantes
17.
Adv Mater ; 31(32): e1902109, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206791

RESUMO

Comprehensive analysis of sweat chemistry provides noninvasive health monitoring capabilities that complement established biophysical measurements such as heart rate, blood oxygenation, and body temperature. Recent developments in skin-integrated soft microfluidic systems address many challenges associated with standard technologies in sweat collection and analysis. However, recording of time-dependent variations in sweat composition requires bulky electronic systems and power sources, thereby constraining form factor, cost, and modes of use. Here, presented are unconventional design concepts, materials, and device operation principles that address this challenge. Flexible galvanic cells embedded within skin-interfaced microfluidics with passive valves serve as sweat-activated "stopwatches" that record temporal information associated with collection of discrete microliter volumes of sweat. The result allows for precise measurements of dynamic sweat composition fluctuations using in situ or ex situ analytical techniques. Integrated electronics based on near-field communication (NFC) protocols or docking stations equipped with standard electronic measurement tools provide means for extracting digital timing results from the stopwatches. Human subject studies of time-stamped sweat samples by in situ colorimetric methods and ex situ techniques based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and chlorodimetry illustrate the ability to quantitatively capture time-dynamic sweat chemistry in scenarios compatible with field use.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Pele/química , Suor/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Colorimetria , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Smartphone , Fatores de Tempo , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
18.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaaw0873, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873435

RESUMO

Monitoring regional tissue oxygenation in animal models and potentially in human subjects can yield insights into the underlying mechanisms of local O2-mediated physiological processes and provide diagnostic and therapeutic guidance for relevant disease states. Existing technologies for tissue oxygenation assessments involve some combination of disadvantages in requirements for physical tethers, anesthetics, and special apparatus, often with confounding effects on the natural behaviors of test subjects. This work introduces an entirely wireless and fully implantable platform incorporating (i) microscale optoelectronics for continuous sensing of local hemoglobin dynamics and (ii) advanced designs in continuous, wireless power delivery and data output for tether-free operation. These features support in vivo, highly localized tissue oximetry at sites of interest, including deep brain regions of mice, on untethered, awake animal models. The results create many opportunities for studying various O2-mediated processes in naturally behaving subjects, with implications in biomedical research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Oximetria/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Substitutos Sanguíneos/análise , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/cirurgia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Oxigênio/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Materiais Inteligentes
19.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaau6356, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746456

RESUMO

Noninvasive, in situ biochemical monitoring of physiological status, via the use of sweat, could enable new forms of health care diagnostics and personalized hydration strategies. Recent advances in sweat collection and sensing technologies offer powerful capabilities, but they are not effective for use in extreme situations such as aquatic or arid environments, because of unique challenges in eliminating interference/contamination from surrounding water, maintaining robust adhesion in the presence of viscous drag forces and/or vigorous motion, and preventing evaporation of collected sweat. This paper introduces materials and designs for waterproof, epidermal, microfluidic and electronic systems that adhere to the skin to enable capture, storage, and analysis of sweat, even while fully underwater. Field trials demonstrate the ability of these devices to collect quantitative in situ measurements of local sweat chloride concentration, local sweat loss (and sweat rate), and skin temperature during vigorous physical activity in controlled, indoor conditions and in open-ocean swimming.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Epiderme/metabolismo , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Água do Mar , Suor/química , Termografia/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Biomarcadores/análise , Cloretos/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pele/metabolismo , Natação/fisiologia , Temperatura
20.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaav3294, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746477

RESUMO

Wearable sweat sensors rely either on electronics for electrochemical detection or on colorimetry for visual readout. Non-ideal form factors represent disadvantages of the former, while semiquantitative operation and narrow scope of measurable biomarkers characterize the latter. Here, we introduce a battery-free, wireless electronic sensing platform inspired by biofuel cells that integrates chronometric microfluidic platforms with embedded colorimetric assays. The resulting sensors combine advantages of electronic and microfluidic functionality in a platform that is significantly lighter, cheaper, and smaller than alternatives. A demonstration device simultaneously monitors sweat rate/loss, pH, lactate, glucose, and chloride. Systematic studies of the electronics, microfluidics, and integration schemes establish the key design considerations and performance attributes. Two-day human trials that compare concentrations of glucose and lactate in sweat and blood suggest a potential basis for noninvasive, semi-quantitative tracking of physiological status.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Colorimetria/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Cloretos/análise , Glucose/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/análise , Masculino
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