Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 172
Filtrar
2.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(3): 275-294, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130773

RESUMO

Actinic keratoses (AK) are common lesions in light-skinned individuals that can potentially progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Both conditions may be associated with significant morbidity and constitute a major disease burden, especially among the elderly. To establish an evidence-based framework for clinical decision making, the guideline "actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma" was developed using the highest level of methodology (S3) according to regulations issued by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The guideline is aimed at dermatologists, general practitioners, ENT specialists, surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and radiation oncologists in hospitals and office-based settings as well as other medical specialties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AK and cSCC. The guideline is also aimed at affected patients, their relatives, policy makers and insurance funds. In the first part, we will address aspects relating to diagnosis, interventions for AK, care structures and quality-of-care indicators.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab combined with ipilimumab have shown activity in melanoma brain metastasis (MBM). However, in most of the clinical trials investigating immunotherapy in this subgroup, patients with symptomatic MBM and/or prior local brain radiotherapy were excluded. We studied the efficacy of nivolumab plus ipilimumab alone or in combination with local therapies regardless of treatment line in patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic MBM. METHODS: Patients with MBM treated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab in 23 German Skin Cancer Centers between April 2015 and October 2018 were investigated. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier estimator and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with OS. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty patients were included in this study and 31% had symptomatic MBM (60/193 with data available) at the time of start nivolumab plus ipilimumab. The median follow-up was 18 months and the 2 years and 3 years OS rates were 41% and 30%, respectively. We identified the following independently significant prognostic factors for OS: elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and protein S100B levels, number of MBM and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. In these patients treated with checkpoint inhibition first-line or later, in the subgroup of patients with BRAFV600-mutated melanoma we found no differences in terms of OS when receiving first-line either BRAF and MEK inhibitors or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (p=0.085). In BRAF wild-type patients treated with nivolumab plus ipilimumab in first-line or later there was also no difference in OS (p=0.996). Local therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery led to an improvement in OS compared with not receiving local therapy (p=0.009), regardless of the timepoint of the local therapy. Receiving combined immunotherapy for MBM in first-line or at a later time point made no difference in terms of OS in this study population (p=0.119). CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy with nivolumab plus ipilimumab, particularly in combination with stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery improves OS in asymptomatic and symptomatic MBM.

4.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895407

RESUMO

Importance: Whether immune-related adverse events (irAEs) indicate drug activity in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors remains unknown. Objective: To investigate the association between irAEs and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the double-blind EORTC 1325/KEYNOTE-054 clinical trial comparing pembrolizumab therapy and placebo for the treatment of patients with high-risk stage III melanoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 1019 adults with stage III melanoma were randomly assigned on a 1:1 ratio to receive treatment with pembrolizumab therapy or placebo. Eligible patients were adults 18 years and older with complete resection of cutaneous melanoma metastatic to lymph nodes, classified with stage IIIA (at least 1 micrometastasis measuring >1 mm in greatest diameter), IIIB, or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis) cancer. Patients were randomized from August 26, 2015, to November 14, 2016. The clinical cutoff for the data set was October 2, 2017. Analyses were then performed on the database, which was locked on November 28, 2017. Interventions: Participants were scheduled to receive 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for a total of 18 doses for approximately 1 year or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxic effects, major protocol violation, or withdrawal of consent. Main Outcomes and Measures: The association between irAEs and RFS was estimated using a Cox model adjusted for sex, age, and AJCC-7 stage, with a time-varying covariate that had a value of 0 before irAE onset and 1 after irAE onset. Results: Of 1011 patients who began treatment with pembrolizumab therapy or placebo, 622 (61.5%) were men and 389 (38.5%) were women; 386 patients (38.2%) were aged 50 to 64 years, 377 (37.3%) were younger than 50 years, and 248 (24.5%) were 65 years and older. Consistent with the reported main analysis in the intent-to-treat population, RFS was longer in the pembrolizumab arm compared with the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.56; 98.4% CI, 0.43-0.74) among patients who started treatment. The incidence of irAEs was 190 (37.4%) in the pembrolizumab arm (n = 509) and 45 (9.0%) in the placebo arm (n = 502); in each treatment group, the incidence was similar for men and women. The occurrence of an irAE was associated with a longer RFS in the pembrolizumab arm (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95; P = .03) in both men and women. However, in the placebo arm, this association was not significant. Compared with the placebo arm, the reduction in the hazard of recurrence or death in the pembrolizumab arm was greater after the onset of an irAE than without or before an irAE (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24-0.57 vs HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.49-0.77, respectively; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the occurrence of an irAE was associated with a longer RFS in the pembrolizumab arm. Trial Registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02362594; EudraCT identifier: 2014-004944-37.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 126: 33-44, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRAF/MEK inhibitor combinations are established treatments for BRAF V600-mutant melanoma based on demonstrated benefits on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Here, we report an updated analysis of the COLUMBUS (COmbined LGX818 [encorafenib] Used with MEK162 [binimetinib] in BRAF mutant Unresectable Skin cancer) trial with long-term follow-up. METHODS: In part 1 of the COLUMBUS trial, 577 patients with advanced/metastatic BRAF V600-mutant melanoma, untreated or progressed after first-line immunotherapy, were randomised 1:1:1 to 450 mg of encorafenib QD + 45 mg of binimetinib BID (COMBO450) vs 960 mg of vemurafenib BID (VEM) or 300 mg of encorafenib ENCO QD (ENCO300). An updated analysis was conducted that included PFS, OS, objective response rate, safety and tolerability and analyses of results by prognostic subgroups. RESULTS: At data cutoff, there were 116, 113 and 138 deaths in the COMBO450, ENCO300 and VEM treatment arms, respectively. The median OS was 33.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-39.2) for COMBO450, 23.5 months (95% CI, 19.6-33.6) for ENCO300 and 16.9 months (95% CI, 14.0-24.5) for VEM. Compared with VEM, COMBO450 decreased the risk of death by 39% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.48-0.79). The updated median PFS for COMBO450 was 14.9 months (95% CI, 11.0-20.2), ENCO300 was 9.6 months (95% CI, 7.4-14.8) and VEM was 7.3 months (95% CI, 5.6-7.9). PFS was longer for COMBO450 vs VEM (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.39-0.67). Landmark OS and PFS results show consistent results for each year analysed. Subgroups all favoured COMBO450 vs VEM. CONCLUSIONS: Updated PFS and OS results for COMBO450 from the COLUMBUS trial demonstrate a long-term benefit in patients with advanced BRAF V600-mutated melanoma.

6.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(3): 600-613, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human monocyte-derived M1 macrophages develop in relation to growth factors, bacterial products, and cytokines in a local micro-environment. M1 macrophages produce pro-inflammatory mediators, in particular, oncostatin M (OSM), which is secreted from the cells in response to the active complement component C5a. As C5a also releases histamine from human mast cells and shows immune modulatory functions similar to histamine in regulating expression of the IL-12 cytokine family, we investigated the effects of histamine on OSM expression in human M1 macrophages. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cytokine expression was analysed by real-time quantitative PCR and elisa techniques. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes were stimulated with supernatants from activated M1 macrophages, and phosphorylation of STAT3 was assessed by flow cytometry. KEY RESULTS: OSM mRNA expression was highly up-regulated by histamine and agonists targeting the histamine H1 H2 , and H4 receptors in human M1 macrophages and by C5a, which was used as control stimulus. Protein levels of OSM and IL-6 were up-regulated by histamine. Supernatants from histamine-stimulated, fully differentiated M1 macrophages were able to phosphorylate STAT3 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The up-regulation of OSM expression in response to histamine and C5a shown in this study provides further evidence that histamine and C5a, acting through their GPCRs, have almost equal functional effects in cells of the monocyte lineage. Both mediators OSM and IL-6 have the capability to activate human keratinocytes. This effect may have an influence on the course of inflammatory skin diseases. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on New Uses for 21st Century. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.3/issuetoc.

7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(3): 614-622, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Th9 cells represent a recently defined subset of CD4+ T-helper cells, characterized by a high production of IL-9. They are found at increased frequency in lesions of atopic dermatitis, where IL-9 is also elevated. As histamine is up-regulated in lesions of inflammatory skin diseases, we investigated the expression profile of histamine receptors and their functional role on Th9 cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Naïve CD4+ T-cells were purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using magnetic beads and further differentiated into Th9 cells. During differentiation, cells were additionally stimulated with histamine receptor agonists or left untreated. Histamine receptor expression as well as IL-9 production was measured. KEY RESULTS: As proof of a successful differentiation, IL-9 production was measured at mRNA and protein level. Expression of mRNA for histamine H1 , H2 and H4 receptors were up-regulated in differentiated Th9 cells compared to Th0 cells, while no mRNA for the H3 receptor was detectable. Stimulation of Th9 cells with histamine significantly up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein for IL-9 . Experiments with specific histamine receptor agonists and antagonists revealed that this up-regulation was mediated by H4 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In summary, our study demonstrates a functional role for histamine H4 receptors on Th9 cells, which might amplify the pro-inflammatory potency of these cells. Together with earlier studies on Th2 and Th17 cells, this study underlines the promising approach for the use of H4 receptor antagonists in inflammatory and allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on New Uses for 21st Century. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.3/issuetoc.

8.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(3): 490-502, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460986

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are common skin diseases with a high negative impact on patients' quality of life. Both diseases are mediated by a pro-inflammatory infiltrate consisting of several cell types, such as T-cells, antigen-presenting cells and granulocytes and display disturbed keratinocyte differentiation. Given the fact that histamine levels are also highly elevated in inflamed skin, it is likely that histamine plays a relevant role in disease pathology. However, antagonists blocking histamine H1 receptor or H2 receptors are largely ineffective in reducing chronic symptoms in AD and psoriasis. Over the last years, much research has been undertaken to shed light into the mode of action of the most recently discovered histamine H4 receptor. This research has shown that H4 receptor antagonists display antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effects not only in mouse models but also in first human clinical trials, and therefore, H4 receptors might present a novel therapeutic target. In this review, we summarize the effects of the H4 receptors on different cell types, mouse models and clinical studies in regard to AD and psoriasis respectively. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on New Uses for 21st Century. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v177.3/issuetoc.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 125: 114-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of BREAK-2 and BREAK-3 showed that durable outcomes lasting ≥3 years are achievable with dabrafenib in some patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma (MM); however, additional follow-up is needed to fully characterise the long-term impact of dabrafenib in these patients. METHODS: BREAK-2 was a single-arm phase 2 study evaluating dabrafenib in treatment-naive or previously treated BRAF V600E/K-mutant MM. BREAK-3, a randomised (3:1) phase 3 study, assessed dabrafenib versus dacarbazine in previously untreated unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma. Five-year analyses were performed. RESULTS: All BREAK-2 patients (N = 92 [V600E, n = 76; V600K, n = 16]) discontinued treatment by the data cutoff. Median follow-up was 13.0 months. In BRAF V600E patients, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 11% and 20%, respectively. Subsequent immunotherapy was received by 22% of patients. In BREAK-3, median follow-up was 17.0 and 12.0 months in the dabrafenib (n = 187) and dacarbazine (n = 63) arms, respectively. Thirty-seven patients (59%) receiving dacarbazine crossed over to dabrafenib following disease progression as per protocol. Five-year PFS was 12% in the dabrafenib arm; all dacarbazine-arm patients progressed or were censored by 5 years. Dabrafenib improved PFS versus dacarbazine, regardless of baseline lactate dehydrogenase levels. Five-year OS rates were 24% and 22% in the dabrafenib and dacarbazine arms, respectively. Subsequent therapy in each arm included anti-CTLA-4 (dabrafenib [24%] and dacarbazine [24%]) and/or anti-PD-1 (8% and 2%) treatment. No new safety signals were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These data, representing extended follow-up for dabrafenib monotherapy, demonstrate that durable benefit lasting ≥5 years is achievable in a subset of patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (BREAK-2, NCT01153763; BREAK-3, NCT01227889).

10.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1916-1927, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792460

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) has demonstrated efficacy in many tumor types, but predictors of responsiveness to anti-PD1 ICB are incompletely characterized. In this study, we analyzed a clinically annotated cohort of patients with melanoma (n = 144) treated with anti-PD1 ICB, with whole-exome and whole-transcriptome sequencing of pre-treatment tumors. We found that tumor mutational burden as a predictor of response was confounded by melanoma subtype, whereas multiple novel genomic and transcriptomic features predicted selective response, including features associated with MHC-I and MHC-II antigen presentation. Furthermore, previous anti-CTLA4 ICB exposure was associated with different predictors of response compared to tumors that were naive to ICB, suggesting selective immune effects of previous exposure to anti-CTLA4 ICB. Finally, we developed parsimonious models integrating clinical, genomic and transcriptomic features to predict intrinsic resistance to anti-PD1 ICB in individual tumors, with validation in smaller independent cohorts limited by the availability of comprehensive data. Broadly, we present a framework to discover predictive features and build models of ICB therapeutic response.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Apresentação do Antígeno/genética , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Mutação/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Eur J Cancer ; 123: 83-91, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor burden within the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is not included in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) melanoma classification. Therefore, we analysed the prognostic relevance of the SLN tumor burden in the stage III subgroups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 736 patients with melanoma with positive SLN and long-term follow-up (mean, 64.4 months; median, 59.0 months) were assessed. SLN tumor burden was evaluated by the maximum diameter of the largest deposit in all patients. RESULTS: By univariate Kaplan-Meier analyses, melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of patients in stage IIIA, IIIB and IIIC and lower sentinel tumor burden (cut-offs ≤0.5 mm and ≤1 mm) was significantly better than that in patients with higher sentinel tumor load (>0.5 mm and >1 mm). By multivariate analysis using the Cox model, the maximum diameter of the largest deposit (cut-off ≤0.5 mm versus >0.5 mm and cut-off ≤1 mm as continuous variables) represented an independent prognostic parameter for MSS in stage III patients. Cut-off of 0.5 mm showed a slightly higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.617) when than the cut-off of 1 mm (AUC = 0.599). CONCLUSION: The prognosis of patients with stage III melanoma can be determined more precisely if the SLN tumor burden is considered, also within the existing AJCC subgroups. Thus, this parameter should be included in future classifications, and our study provides benchmarks in estimating prognosis and counselling patients with melanoma with positive sentinel nodes beyond the 8th AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. The optimal cut-off remains for SLN tumor burden remains to be determined, but our results suggest that a cut-off lower than 1 mm is preferable.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(33): 3142-3151, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580757

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAF/MEK inhibition is a standard of care for patients with BRAF V600E/K-mutated metastatic melanoma. For patients with less frequent BRAF mutations, however, efficacy data are limited. METHODS: In the current study, 103 patients with metastatic melanoma with rare, activating non-V600E/K BRAF mutations that were treated with either a BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi), MEK inhibitor (MEKi), or the combination were included. BRAF mutation, patient and disease characteristics, response, and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patient tumors (56%) harbored a non-E/K V600 mutation, 38 (37%) a non-V600 mutation, and seven had both V600E and a rare BRAF mutation (7%). The most frequent mutations were V600R (43%; 44 of 103), L597P/Q/R/S (15%; 15 of 103), and K601E (11%; 11 of 103). Most patients had stage IV disease and 42% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase at BRAFi/MEKi initiation. Most patients received combined BRAFi/MEKi (58%) or BRAFi monotherapy (37%). Of the 58 patients with V600 mutations, overall response rate to BRAFi monotherapy and combination BRAFi/MEKi was 27% (six of 22) and 56% (20 of 36), respectively, whereas median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.7 months and 8.0 months, respectively (P = .002). Of the 38 patients with non-V600 mutations, overall response rate was 0% (zero of 15) to BRAFi, 40% (two of five) to MEKi, and 28% (five of 18) to combination treatment, with a median PFS of 1.8 months versus 3.7 months versus 3.3 months, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed superior survival (PFS and overall survival) with combination over monotherapy in rare V600 and non-V600 mutated melanoma. CONCLUSION: Patients with rare BRAF mutations can respond to targeted therapy, however, efficacy seems to be lower compared with V600E mutated melanoma. Combination BRAFi/MEKi seems to be the best regimen for both V600 and non-V600 mutations. Yet interpretation should be done with care because of the heterogeneity of patients with small sample sizes for some of the reported mutations.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 121: 144-153, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on nivolumab in challenging subgroups with advanced melanoma. We report outcomes of nivolumab after prior ipilimumab in patients who are typically excluded from clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II, single-arm, open-label, multicentre study (CheckMate 172), patients with advanced melanoma who progressed on or after ipilimumab received nivolumab 3 mg/kg, every 2 weeks for up to 2 years. The primary objective was incidence of grade ≥3, treatment-related select adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: At a minimum follow-up of 18 months, grade ≥3 treatment-related select AEs with the most variation across subgroups were diarrhoea and colitis (1.1% [n = 11] and 0.3% [n = 3] for the total population [n = 1008]; 0.6% [n = 1] and 0.6% [n = 1] for patients with an asymptomatic central nervous system [CNS] metastasis [n = 165; 16.4%]; 4.5% [n = 3] and 3.0% [n = 2] for patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [ECOG PS] of 2 [n = 66; 6.5%]; 2.4% [n = 2] and 0% for those who experienced a grade 3/4 immune-related AE [irAE] with prior ipilimumab [n = 84; 8.3%]; and 0% and 0% for autoimmune disease [n = 25; 2.5%], respectively). Median overall survival was 21.4 months in the total population and was 11.6, 2.4, 21.5, and 18.6 months in patients with a CNS metastasis, ECOG PS 2, a grade 3/4 irAE with prior ipilimumab, and autoimmune disease, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, phase II clinical trial of patients with advanced melanoma who progressed on or after ipilimumab, nivolumab demonstrated a safety profile consistent with that of prior clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02156804.

14.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 17(10): 1097-1098, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631551
15.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653079

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has revolutionized the management of various cancers with previously poor prognosis. Despite its great efficacy, the therapy is associated with a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAE) including neurological symptoms which can affect all parts of the central and peripheral nervous system. Even though these events are rare, they are of high relevance as the rate of residual symptoms or even fatal outcomes is remarkable. To provide a detailed overview of neurological adverse events associated with immune checkpoint-inhibitor therapy we conducted a literature search. While focusing on ipilimumab, nivolumab, and pembrolizumab therapy, all available case reports as well as larger case series and clinical trials have been considered. Eighty-two case reports about checkpoint-inhibitor therapy induced symptoms of the peripheral nervous system have been published, while only 43 case reports addressed central nervous system abnormalities. The frequency of immune checkpoint-inhibitor therapy inducing neurological adverse events is about 1% in larger studies. Especially neuromuscular adverse events exhibit distinct clinical and diagnostic characteristics. Additionally, several affected patients presented with overlap-syndromes, which means that symptoms and diagnostic findings indicating myositis, myasthenia gravis, and neuropathy were present in one individual patient at the same time. Thus, neurological and particularly neuromuscular adverse events of immune checkpoint-inhibitor therapy may constitute a new disease entity.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 168-178, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab has been widely studied in non-acral cutaneous melanoma; however, limited data are available in other melanoma subtypes. We report outcomes by melanoma subtype in patients who received nivolumab after progression on prior ipilimumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CheckMate 172 was a phase II, single-arm, open-label, multicentre study that evaluated nivolumab in patients with advanced melanoma who progressed on or after ipilimumab. Patients received 3 mg/kg of nivolumab, every 2 weeks for up to 2 years. The primary end-point was incidence of grade ≥3, treatment-related select adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Among 1008 treated patients, we report data on patients with non-acral cutaneous melanoma (n = 723 [71.7%]), ocular melanoma (n = 103 [10.2%]), mucosal melanoma (n = 63 [6.3%]), acral cutaneous melanoma (n = 55 [5.5%]) and other melanoma subtypes (n = 64 [6.3%]). There were no meaningful differences in the incidence of grade ≥3, treatment-related select AEs among melanoma subtypes or compared with the total population. No new safety signals emerged. At a minimum follow-up of 18 months, median overall survival was 25.3 months for non-acral cutaneous melanoma and 25.8 months for acral cutaneous melanoma, with 18-month overall survival rates of 57.5% and 59.0%, respectively. Median overall survival was 12.6 months for ocular melanoma and 11.5 months for mucosal melanoma, with 18-month overall survival rates of 34.8% and 31.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of nivolumab after ipilimumab is similar across melanoma subtypes. Compared with non-acral cutaneous melanoma, patients with acral cutaneous melanoma had similar survival outcomes, whereas those with ocular and mucosal melanoma had lower median overall survival. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV ID: NCT02156804.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 97-106, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway with BRAF/MEK inhibitor (BRAFi/MEKi) therapy is a standard treatment for BRAFV600-mutant metastatic melanoma and has historically been associated with grade III pyrexia or photosensitivity depending on the combination used. The objective of this study was to fully describe adverse events from the COLUMBUS study evaluating the most recent BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination encorafenib+binimetinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic BRAFV600-mutant melanoma were randomised to receive encorafenib 450 mg once daily plus binimetinib 45 mg twice daily, encorafenib 300 mg once daily or vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily. Adverse events that represent known effects of available BRAFi and/or MEKi were evaluated. RESULTS: The safety population included a total of 570 patients (encorafenib+binimetinib = 192; encorafenib = 192; vemurafenib = 186). Median duration of exposure was longer with encorafenib+binimetinib (51 weeks) than with encorafenib (31 weeks) or vemurafenib (27 weeks). Common BRAFi/MEKi toxicities with encorafenib+binimetinib were generally manageable, reversible and infrequently associated with discontinuation. Pyrexia was less frequent with encorafenib+binimetinib (18%) and encorafenib (16%) than with vemurafenib (30%) and occurred later in the course of therapy with encorafenib+binimetinib (median time to first onset: 85 days versus 2.5 days and 19 days, respectively). The incidence of photosensitivity was lower with encorafenib+binimetinib (5%) and encorafenib (4%) than with vemurafenib (30%). The incidence of serous retinopathy was higher with encorafenib+binimetinib (20%) than with encorafenib (2%) or vemurafenib (2%), but no patients discontinued encorafenib+binimetinib because of this event. CONCLUSION: Encorafenib+binimetinib is generally well tolerated and has a low discontinuation rate in patients with BRAFV600-mutant melanoma, with a distinct safety profile as compared with other anti-BRAF/MEK targeted therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01909453) and with EudraCT (number 2013-001176-38).

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 18-29, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th staging system introduced several revisions. To assess the impact of the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8) staging system on subgrouping and survival, patients with melanoma from two tertiary skin cancer centres were classified according to both the 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC7) and AJCC8. METHODS: A total of 1948 patients aged ≥18 years with cutaneous melanoma stage II-IV were included. The impact of sex and age on reclassification was assessed by log binomial models. The inverse probability of censoring weighting method was used to compute ROC curves from time-to-event data to assess the discriminatory ability of AJCC7 and AJCC8. Melanoma-specific survival (MSS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated, and age- and sex-adjusted MSS hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of all, 23.5% of patients were assigned a different subgroup when classified according to AJCC8. Owing to upshifting to stage IIIC (AJCC7 24.8% vs. AJCC8 50.8%), patient numbers of stages IIIA and IIIB decreased from 28.7% to 16.2% and 46.5% to 28.3%. The prediction accuracy for AJCC7 and AJCC8 was comparable (integrated time-dependent area under the curve [AUC] of 0.75 and 0.74, respectively). Five-year MSS of IIB and IIC AJCC8 was poor and lower than that of IIIA AJCC8 (80%, 67% and 89%, respectively). Compared to results of the International Melanoma Database and Discovery Platform, 5-year MSS was 10-15% points lower for stages IIC, IIIB and IIIC. CONCLUSIONS: Upshifting affects primarily stage III subgroups, while effects in stage II are minor. Stage IIB/C (AJCC8) patients have 67-80% MSS and should be considered for adjuvant treatment, while in stage IIIA, the indication of adjuvant treatment is questionable.

19.
ESMO Open ; 4(3): e000491, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231568

RESUMO

The inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinases signalling pathway through combined use of BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi+MEKi) represents an established therapeutic option in patients with BRAF-mutated, advanced melanoma. These efficient therapies are well tolerated with mostly moderate and reversible side effects and a discontinuation rate due to adverse events of 11.5%-15.7%. Median duration of therapy ranges between 8.8 and 11.7 months. Based on data from confirmatory trials, safety profiles of three BRAFi+MEKi combinations were reviewed, that is, dabrafenib plus trametinib, vemurafenib plus cobimetinib and encorafenib plus binimetinib. Many adverse events are class effects, such as cutaneous, gastrointestinal, ocular, cardiac and musculoskeletal events; some adverse events are substance associated. Fever (dabrafenib) and photosensitivity (vemurafenib) are the most common and clinically prominent examples. Other adverse events are less frequent and the association to one substance is less strong such as anaemia, facial paresis (encorafenib), neutropenia (dabrafenib), skin rash, QTc prolongation and increased liver function tests (vemurafenib). This narrative review provides recommendations for monitoring, adverse event evaluation and management focusing on the clinically relevant side effects of the three regimens.

20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(7): 1187-1194, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PD-1 inhibition (PD-1i) is the standard of care in melanoma and other malignancies. In patients with bone metastases of solid tumors, the monoclonal antibody denosumab directed against RANKL is approved for the prevention of skeletal-related events. However, RANKL is not only relevant in osteoclastogenesis, but also has immunological effects. Hence, we aimed at investigating, whether the combination of PD-1i and denosumab produces synergistic effects in metastatic melanoma treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively collected and analyzed clinical data of metastatic melanoma patients with bone metastases, who received PD-1i and denosumab therapy. RESULTS: 29 patients were identified with a median age of 60.7 years: 20 were male and 9 were female. 20 patients (69%) were in stage IV M1c and 9 (31%) in stage IV M1d; 52% had an increased serum LDH. 24 patients (83%) received PD-1i as first-line therapy and five patients (17%) as second- or third-line therapy. 13 patients received the triple combination nivolumab, ipilimumab and denosumab (N + I+D), 16 patients received PD-1i and denosumab (PD-1i + D). Within a median follow-up time of 19.8 months, 17 patients progressed with a median time to progression of 6 months. The objective response rate was 54% in the N + I + D group and 50% in the PD-1i + D group. Recalcification of bone metastases was radiologically observed in 18 (62%) patients. No unexpected treatment-related adverse events emerged. CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of metastatic melanoma with PD-1i and denosumab was feasible without unexpected safety issues and showed a promising efficacy signal. Further investigation in prospective studies is needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Denosumab/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligante RANK/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA