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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14792, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616023

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency during critical periods of development could lead to persistent brain alterations. We aimed to assess the association between maternal vitamin D3, the major circulatory form of vitamin D, at pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood, namely: behavioural problems, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms, and social competence. This study included 2,107 mother-child pairs of a Spanish population-based birth cohort. Maternal plasma vitamin D3 was measured in pregnancy. The outcomes were measured through questionnaires at 5, 8, 14, and 18 years old. We ran multivariate regression models adjusted for potential confounding variables. We found that per each 10 ng/mL increment of maternal vitamin D3, children obtained higher social competence scores (coefficient = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19, 1.35) at 5 years old. However, we observed null associations between maternal vitamin D3 and total behavioural problems and ADHD and ASD symptoms in children from 5 to 18 years old. Further studies carried out in countries where the population is exposed to lower vitamin D levels are needed.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

3.
Environ Int ; 131: 105002, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides has been associated with altered neuronal cell development and behavioral changes in animal offspring. However, the few studies investigating the association between prenatal OP pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autistic traits in children produced mixed findings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine whether maternal urinary concentrations of OP pesticide metabolites are associated with ADHD and autistic traits in children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based birth cohort from Rotterdam, the Netherlands. METHOD: Maternal concentrations of 6 dialkylphosphates (DAPs) were measured using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in urine samples collected at <18 weeks, 18-25 weeks, and > 25 weeks of gestation in 784 mother-child pairs. DAP metabolite concentrations were expressed as molar concentrations divided by creatinine levels and log10 transformed. ADHD traits were measured at ages 3, 6, and 10 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (n = 781) and autistic traits were measured at age 6 years using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n = 622). First, regression models were fit for the averaged prenatal exposure across pregnancy. Second, we investigated associations for each collection phase separately, and applied a mutually adjusted model in which the effect of prenatal DAP concentrations from each time period on ADHD and autistic traits were jointly estimated. All associations were adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: Median DAP metabolite concentration was 309 nmol/g creatinine at <18 weeks, 316 nmol/g creatinine at 18-25 weeks, and 308 nmol/g creatinine at >25 weeks of gestation. Overall, DAP metabolite concentrations were not associated with ADHD traits. For instance, a log10 increase in averaged total DAP concentrations across gestation was not associated with a lower ADHD score (-0.03 per SD 95 CI: -0.28 to 0.23). Similarly, no associations between maternal DAP concentrations and autistic traits were detected. CONCLUSIONS: In this study of maternal urinary DAP metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, we did not observe associations with ADHD and autistic traits in children. These are important null observations because of the relatively high background DAP concentrations across pregnancy, the relatively large sample size, and the 10-year follow-up of the offspring. Given the measurement error inherent in our OP pesticide exposure biomarkers, future studies using more urine samples are needed to accurately measure OP pesticide exposure over pregnancy in relation to ADHD and autistic traits.

4.
Thyroid ; 29(9): 1316-1326, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426724

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for optimal fetal brain development. Evidence suggests that both low and high maternal thyroid hormone availability may have adverse effects on child neurodevelopmental outcomes, but the effect on behavioral problems remains unclear. We studied the association of maternal thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy with child attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A total of 7669 mother-child pairs with data on maternal thyroid function and child ADHD were selected from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; N = 1073, Spain), Generation R (N = 3812, The Netherlands), and Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 2784, United Kingdom). Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy, fertility treatment, usage of medication affecting the thyroid, and pre-existing thyroid disease. We used logistic regression models to study the association of maternal thyroid function with the primary outcome, ADHD, assessed via the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria by parents and/or teachers at a median child age of 4.5 to 7.6 years, and with the secondary outcome, an ADHD symptom score above the 90th percentile. Effect modification by gestational age and sex was tested with interaction terms and stratified analyses. Results: Overall, 233 (3%) children met the criteria for ADHD. When analyzed continuously, neither fT4 nor TSH was associated with a higher risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI 1.0-1.3], p = 0.060 and OR 0.9 [CI 0.9-1.1], p = 0.385, respectively) or with high symptom scores. When investigating effect modification by gestational age, a higher fT4 was associated with symptoms above the 90th percentile but only in the first trimester (for fT4 per 1 SD: OR 1.2 [CI 1.0-1.4], p = 0.027). However, these differential effects by gestational age were not consistent. No significant effect modification by sex was observed. Conclusions: We found no clear evidence of an association between maternal thyroid function and child ADHD.

5.
JAMA ; 322(7): 632-641, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429897

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for preterm birth. Milder thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are more prevalent, but it remains controversial if these are associated with preterm birth. Objective: To study if maternal thyroid function test abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity are risk factors for preterm birth. Data Sources and Study Selection: Studies were identified through a search of the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar databases from inception to March 18, 2018, and by publishing open invitations in relevant journals. Data sets from published and unpublished prospective cohort studies with data on thyroid function tests (thyrotropin [often referred to as thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH] and free thyroxine [FT4] concentrations) or thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody measurements and gestational age at birth were screened for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Studies in which participants received treatment based on abnormal thyroid function tests were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The primary authors provided individual participant data that were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestational age). Results: From 2526 published reports, 35 cohorts were invited to participate. After the addition of 5 unpublished data sets, a total of 19 cohorts were included. The study population included 47 045 pregnant women (mean age, 29 years; median gestational age at blood sampling, 12.9 weeks), of whom 1234 (3.1%) had subclinical hypothyroidism (increased thyrotropin concentration with normal FT4 concentration), 904 (2.2%) had isolated hypothyroxinemia (decreased FT4 concentration with normal thyrotropin concentration), and 3043 (7.5%) were TPO antibody positive; 2357 (5.0%) had a preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was higher for women with subclinical hypothyroidism than euthyroid women (6.1% vs 5.0%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.4% [95% CI, 0%-3.2%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.29 [95% CI, 1.01-1.64]). Among women with isolated hypothyroxinemia, the risk of preterm birth was 7.1% vs 5.0% in euthyroid women (absolute risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.5%]; OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.12-1.90]). In continuous analyses, each 1-SD higher maternal thyrotropin concentration was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (absolute risk difference, 0.2% [95% CI, 0%-0.4%] per 1 SD; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.00-1.09] per 1 SD). Thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women had a higher risk of preterm birth vs TPO antibody-negative women (6.6% vs 4.9%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 1.6% [95% CI, 0.7%-2.8%]; OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.15-1.56]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among pregnant women without overt thyroid disease, subclinical hypothyroidism, isolated hypothyroxinemia, and TPO antibody positivity were significantly associated with higher risk of preterm birth. These results provide insights toward optimizing clinical decision-making strategies that should consider the potential harms and benefits of screening programs and levothyroxine treatment during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(6): 945-954, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with impaired immune and respiratory health during childhood but the evidence is inconsistent and limited for lung function. We studied the association between prenatal PFASs exposure and immune and respiratory health, including lung function, up to age 7 years in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. METHODS: We assessed four PFASs in maternal plasma samples collected during the 1st trimester of pregnancy (years: 2003-2008): perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). Mothers reported the occurrence (yes/no) of lower respiratory tract infections, wheezing, asthma, and eczema in the previous 12 months at 1.5 and 4 years of the child (n = 1188) and at 7 years (n = 1071). At ages 4 (n = 503) and 7 (n = 992) years lung function was assessed using spirometry tests. RESULTS: The most abundant PFASs were PFOS and PFOA (geometric means: 5.80 and 2.31 ng/mL, respectively). The relative risk of asthma during childhood per each doubling in PFNA concentration was 0.74 (95 CI%: 0.57, 0.96). The relative risk of eczema during childhood per every doubling in PFOS concentration was 0.86 (95 CI%: 0.75, 0.98). Higher PFOA concentrations were associated with lower forced vital capacity and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s z-scores at 4 years [ß (95 CI %): -0.17 (-0.34, -0.01) and -0.13 (-0.29, 0.03), respectively], but not at 7 years. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study suggests that different PFASs may affect the developing immune and respiratory systems differently. Prenatal exposure to PFNA and PFOS may be associated with reduced risk of respiratory and immune outcomes, particularly asthma and eczema whereas exposure to PFOA may be associated with reduced lung function in young children. These mixed results need to be replicated in follow-up studies at later ages.

7.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

8.
Autism Res ; 12(11): 1693-1705, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317678

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in 2017 and the ASD diagnosis incidence between 2009 and 2017 in children living in Catalonia region in Spain, and their temporal and geographical variability. We used administrative data for all children aged 2-17 years who were insured in the public Catalan Health System between 2009 and 2017. We identified all ASD cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2017 (ICD-9 codes 299.0, 299.1, 299.8, and 299.9). We estimated the ASD prevalence in 2017 and the overall annual incidence between 2009 and 2017, then stratified by sex, age group, and healthcare area. We used Poisson regression models to assess temporal trends in the incidence and mixed-effects Poisson regression models to assess geographical variability. We observed an ASD prevalence of 1.23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-1.25) in 2017, with 1.95% (95% CI 1.92-1.99) for boys and 0.46% (95% CI 0.44-0.48) for girls, the highest prevalence being in 11- to 17-year-olds (1.80%, 95% CI 1.76-1.83). The ASD diagnosis incidence increased from 0.07% (95% CI 0.06-0.09) in 2009 to 0.23% (95% CI 0.21-0.24) in 2017, with a higher increase in girls, and in children aged 2-5 years at the time of diagnosis. We only observed geographical differences in prevalence in the 2017 data. We also detected a threefold increase in the diagnosis incidence overall, which was even more pronounced in girls and at early ages. In conclusion, the ASD prevalence observed in this study was 1.23% in 2017, with a sex ratio of 4.5 in favor of boys, which is consistent with previous studies. Autism Res2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are currently well known in our society as one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders during childhood. The results of our study showed that, in 2017 in Catalonia, slightly more than one in a 100 children had an ASD diagnosis, it was more common in boys than in girls, and also in older children. In addition, between 2009 and 2017, we observed an increase in the number of new cases diagnosed each year. The data presented in this study will assist in planning and evaluating the needs of health services in this geographical region.

9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
10.
Environ Res ; 174: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075694

RESUMO

Early-life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) may adversely impact health later in life. To date, evidence of iAs adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment comes mainly from populations highly exposed to contaminated water with conflicting results. Little is known about those effects among populations with low iAs exposure from food intake. We investigated the cross-sectional association between exposure to iAs and neurodevelopment scores among children living in Spain whose main route of exposure was diet. Arsenic species concentrations in urine from 400 children was determined, and the sum of urinary iAs, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid was used to estimate iAs exposure. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's neuropsychological development at about 4-5 years of age. The median (interquartile range) of children's sum of urinary iAs, MMA, and DMA was 4.85 (2.74-7.54) µg/L, and in adjusted linear regression analyses the natural logarithm transformed concentrations showed an inverse association with children's motor functions (ß, [95% confidence interval]; global scores (-2.29, [-3.95, -0.63])), gross scores (-1.92, [-3.52, -0.31]) and fine scores (-1.54, [-3.06, -0.03]). In stratified analyses by sex, negative associations were observed with the scores in the quantitative index (-2.59, [-5.36, 0.17]) and working memory function (-2.56, [-5.36, 0.24]) only in boys. Our study suggests that relatively low iAs exposure may impair children's neuropsychological development and that sex-related differences may be present in susceptibility to iAs related effects; however, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding.

12.
Environ Res ; 174: 114-121, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matter (<2.5 µm of diameter,PM2.5)and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been identified as a potential risk factor for neuropsychological developmental and mental health disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the associations between prenatal PM2.5 and NO2 exposure and cognitive functions in children at 4-6 years of age, including sex differences, and the modification effect of the duration predominant breastfeeding these associations. DESIGN: This study was conducted as part of the INMA project, a population-based birth cohort study in Spain (n = 1119). Each of the pregnant mothers was assigned a prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 for their whole pregnancy based on their place of residence. At the 4-6 year-old follow-up, infants' neuropsychological development was assessed using McCarthy scales: Verbal, Perceptive-Manipulative, Numeric, General Cognitive, Memory and Motor (gross and fine). Between 6 and 14 months of age, information concerning breastfeeding was gathered with a questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between exposure and outcomes, accounting for potential confounders. The analyses were stratified by child sex and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: The majority of coefficients for the different cognitive domains were negative either for PM2.5 and NO2, though none was statistically significant. After stratifying by sex, the associations become even more negative for boys, with some of the associations becoming statistically significant (memory both for PM2.5 and NO2), and global cognition and verbal for NO2. Duration of predominant breastfeeding was not found to have a modifying effect. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a sex-dependent effects on neuropsychological development at 4-6 years of age, with a greater vulnerability in boys, specifically in domains related to memory, verbal and general cognition. No modifying effect was observed for duration of predominant breastfeeding.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(7): 1270-1280, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995291

RESUMO

Results from studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from cell phones on birth outcomes have been inconsistent. Using data on 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Spain (2003-2008), and South Korea (2006-2011), we explored whether maternal cell-phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth. On the basis of self-reported number of cell-phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (referent), intermediate, or high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large size for gestational age), and birth weight variables (birth weight, low/high birth weight) and meta-analyzed cohort-specific estimates. The intermediate exposure group had a higher risk of giving birth at a lower gestational age (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P < 0.001) and preterm birth (P = 0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. Maternal cell-phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk of preterm birth, but these results should be interpreted with caution, since they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding rather than a direct effect of cell-phone exposure.

15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(12): 5957-5967, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920622

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although the consequences of severe iodine deficiency are beyond doubt, the effects of mild to moderate iodine deficiency in pregnancy on child neurodevelopment are less well established. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between maternal iodine status during pregnancy and child IQ and identify vulnerable time windows of exposure to suboptimal iodine availability. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of individual participant data from three prospective population-based birth cohorts: Generation R (Netherlands), INMA (Spain), and ALSPAC (United Kingdom); pregnant women were enrolled between 2002 and 2006, 2003 and 2008, and 1990 and 1992, respectively. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: 6180 mother-child pairs with measures of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations in pregnancy and child IQ. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancies, fertility treatment, medication affecting the thyroid, and preexisting thyroid disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Child nonverbal and verbal IQ assessed at 1.5 to 8 years of age. RESULTS: There was a positive curvilinear association of urinary iodine/creatinine ratio (UI/Creat) with mean verbal IQ only. UI/Creat <150 µg/g was not associated with lower nonverbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.7 to 0.4 points; P = 0.246) or lower verbal IQ (-0.6 point; 95% CI: -1.3 to 0.1 points; P = 0.082). Stratified analyses showed that the association of UI/Creat with verbal IQ was only present up to 14 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal brain development is vulnerable to mild to moderate iodine deficiency, particularly in the first trimester. Our results show that potential randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of iodine supplementation in women with mild to moderate iodine deficiency on child neurodevelopment should begin supplementation not later than the first trimester.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As a component of thyroid hormones, adequate iodine intake is essential during pregnancy for fetal neurodevelopment. Across Europe, iodine deficiency is common in pregnancy, but data are lacking on the predictors of iodine status at this life stage. We, therefore, aimed to explore determinants of iodine status during pregnancy in three European populations of differing iodine status. METHODS: Data were from 6566 pregnant women from three prospective population-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom (ALSPAC, n = 2852), Spain (INMA, n = 1460), and The Netherlands (Generation R, n = 2254). Urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Creat, µg/g) was measured in spot-urine samples in pregnancy (≤ 18-weeks gestation). Maternal dietary intake, categorised by food groups (g/day), was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Multivariable regression models used dietary variables (energy-adjusted) and maternal characteristics as predictors of iodine status. RESULTS: Median UI/Creat in pregnant women of ALSPAC, INMA, and Generation R was 121, 151, and 210 µg/g, respectively. Maternal age was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts (P < 0.001), while UI/Creat varied by ethnicity only in Generation R (P < 0.05). Of the dietary predictors, intake of milk and dairy products (per 100 g/day) was positively associated with UI/Creat in all cohorts [ALSPAC (B = 3.73, P < 0.0001); INMA (B = 6.92, P = 0.002); Generation R (B = 2.34, P = 0.001)]. Cohort-specific dietary determinants positively associated with UI/Creat included fish and shellfish in ALSPAC and INMA, and eggs and cereal/cereal products in Generation R. CONCLUSIONS: The cohort-specific dietary determinants probably reflect not only dietary habits but iodine-fortification policies; hence, public-health interventions to improve iodine intake in pregnancy need to be country-specific.

17.
Environ Res ; 171: 341-347, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between telecommunication and other screen devices use and subjective and objective sleep measures in adolescents at 17-18 years. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 17-18 years from a Spanish population-based birth cohort established in Menorca in 1997-1998. Information on devices use was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale was used to assess mobile phone use dependency. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep (n = 226). ActiGraph wGT3X-BT for 7 nights was used to assess objective sleep (n = 110). RESULTS: One or more cordless phone calls/week was associated with a lower sleep quality [Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.30 (95%Confidence Interval (CI) 1.04; 1.62)]. Habitual and frequent problematic mobile phone use was associated with a lower sleep quality [PR 1.55 (95%CI 1.03; 2.33) and PR 1.67 (95%CI 1.09; 2.56), respectively]. Higher tablet use was associated with decreased sleep efficiency and increased minutes of wake time after sleep onset [ß-1.15 (95%CI -1.99; -0.31) and ß 7.00 (95%CI 2.40; 11.60) per increase of 10 min/day of use, respectively]. No associations were found between other devices and sleep measures. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of cordless phone calls, mobile phone dependency, and tablet use were related to an increase of subjective and objective sleep problems in adolescents. These results seem to indicate that sleep displacement, mental arousal, and exposure to blue light screen emission might play a more important role on sleep than a high RF-EMF exposure to the brain. However, more studies are needed assessing personal RF-EMF levels to draw conclusions.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(1): 17007, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to organophosphate (OP) pesticide neurotoxicity may be greatest during the prenatal period; however, previous studies have produced mixed findings concerning in utero OP pesticide exposure and child cognition. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine whether maternal urinary concentrations of OP pesticide metabolites are inversely associated with child nonverbal IQ at 6 y of age and to examine potential effect measure modification by the PON1 gene. METHODS: Data came from 708 mother­child pairs participating in the Generation R Study. Maternal urine concentrations of six dialkylphosphates (DAPs), collected at [Formula: see text], 18­25, and [Formula: see text] of gestation, were determined. Child nonverbal IQ was measured at 6 y of age using the Mosaics and Categories subtests from the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test-Revised. PON1 was determined in cord blood for 474 infants. Multiple linear regression models were fit to estimate the DAP-IQ associations and PON1 interactions. RESULTS: Overall, associations between child nonverbal IQ and maternal DAP concentrations were small and imprecise, and these associations were inconsistent across urine sampling periods. Howover, for a 10-fold difference in total DAP concentration for the [Formula: see text] of gestation samples, adjusted child nonverbal IQ was 3.9 points lower (95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Heterogeneity in the DAP­IQ association by PON1 gene allele status was not observed ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent evidence of an association between higher maternal urinary DAP concentrations and lower child IQ scores at 6 y of age was not observed. There was some evidence for an inverse relation of child nonverbal IQ and late pregnancy urinary DAPs, but the estimated association was imprecise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3024.


Assuntos
Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organofosforados/efeitos adversos , Compostos Organofosforados/urina , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Gravidez/urina
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 357, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664637

RESUMO

Cranial growth and development is a complex process which affects the closely related traits of head circumference (HC) and intracranial volume (ICV). The underlying genetic influences shaping these traits during the transition from childhood to adulthood are little understood, but might include both age-specific genetic factors and low-frequency genetic variation. Here, we model the developmental genetic architecture of HC, showing this is genetically stable and correlated with genetic determinants of ICV. Investigating up to 46,000 children and adults of European descent, we identify association with final HC and/or final ICV + HC at 9 novel common and low-frequency loci, illustrating that genetic variation from a wide allele frequency spectrum contributes to cranial growth. The largest effects are reported for low-frequency variants within TP53, with 0.5 cm wider heads in increaser-allele carriers versus non-carriers during mid-childhood, suggesting a previously unrecognized role of TP53 transcripts in human cranial development.


Assuntos
Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Crânio/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cefalometria , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(1): 45-57, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that breastfeeding benefits children's intelligence, possibly due to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) present in breast milk. Under a nutritional adequacy hypothesis, an interaction between breastfeeding and genetic variants associated with endogenous LC-PUFAs synthesis might be expected. However, the literature on this topic is controversial. METHODS: We investigated this gene × environment interaction through a collaborative effort. The primary analysis involved >12 000 individuals and used ever breastfeeding, FADS2 polymorphisms rs174575 and rs1535 coded assuming a recessive effect of the G allele, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in Z scores. RESULTS: There was no strong evidence of interaction, with pooled covariate-adjusted interaction coefficients (i.e. difference between genetic groups of the difference in IQ Z scores comparing ever with never breastfed individuals) of 0.12[(95% confidence interval (CI): -0.19; 0.43] and 0.06 (95% CI: -0.16; 0.27) for the rs174575 and rs1535 variants, respectively. Secondary analyses corroborated these results. In studies with ≥5.85 and <5.85 months of breastfeeding duration, pooled estimates for the rs174575 variant were 0.50 (95% CI: -0.06; 1.06) and 0.14 (95% CI: -0.10; 0.38), respectively, and 0.27 (95% CI: -0.28; 0.82) and -0.01 (95% CI: -0.19; 0.16) for the rs1535 variant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not support an interaction between ever breastfeeding and FADS2 polymorphisms. However, subgroup analysis suggested that breastfeeding may supply LC-PUFAs requirements for cognitive development if breastfeeding lasts for some (currently unknown) time. Future studies in large individual-level datasets would allow properly powered subgroup analyses and further improve our understanding on the breastfeeding × FADS2 interaction.

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