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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
2.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 71, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche has been associated with various health outcomes. We aimed to identify potential causal effects of age at menarche on health-related traits in a hypothesis-free manner. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization phenome-wide association study (MR-pheWAS) of age at menarche with 17,893 health-related traits in UK Biobank (n = 181,318) using PHESANT. The exposure of interest was the genetic risk score for age at menarche. We conducted a second MR-pheWAS after excluding SNPs associated with BMI from the genetic risk score, to examine whether results might be due to the genetic overlap between age at menarche and BMI. We followed up a subset of health-related traits to investigate MR assumptions and seek replication in independent study populations. RESULTS: Of the 17,893 tests performed in our MR-pheWAS, we identified 619 associations with the genetic risk score for age at menarche at a 5% false discovery rate threshold, of which 295 were below a Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold. These included potential effects of younger age at menarche on lower lung function, higher heel bone-mineral density, greater burden of psychosocial/mental health problems, younger age at first birth, higher risk of childhood sexual abuse, poorer cardiometabolic health, and lower physical activity. After exclusion of variants associated with BMI, the genetic risk score for age at menarche was related to 37 traits at a 5% false discovery rate, of which 29 were below a Bonferroni-corrected P value threshold. We attempted to replicate findings for bone-mineral density, lung function, neuroticism, and childhood sexual abuse using 5 independent cohorts/consortia. While estimates for lung function, higher bone-mineral density, neuroticism, and childhood sexual abuse in replication cohorts were consistent with UK Biobank estimates, confidence intervals were wide and often included the null. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic risk score for age at menarche was related to a broad range of health-related traits. Follow-up analyses indicated imprecise evidence of an effect of younger age at menarche on greater bone-mineral density, lower lung function, higher neuroticism score, and greater risk of childhood sexual abuse in the smaller replication samples available; hence, these findings need further exploration when larger independent samples become available.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Menarca/fisiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 315-326, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084330

RESUMO

Whether smoking-associated DNA methylation has a causal effect on lung function has not been thoroughly evaluated. We first investigated the causal effects of 474 smoking-associated CpGs on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in UK Biobank (n = 321,047) by using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and then replicated this investigation in the SpiroMeta Consortium (n = 79,055). Second, we used two-step MR to investigate whether DNA methylation mediates the effect of smoking on FEV1. Lastly, we evaluated the presence of horizontal pleiotropy and assessed whether there is any evidence for shared causal genetic variants between lung function, DNA methylation, and gene expression by using a multiple-trait colocalization ("moloc") framework. We found evidence of a possible causal effect for DNA methylation on FEV1 at 18 CpGs (p < 1.2 × 10-4). Replication analysis supported a causal effect at three CpGs (cg21201401 [LIME1 and ZGPAT], cg19758448 [PGAP3], and cg12616487 [EML3 and AHNAK] [p < 0.0028]). DNA methylation did not clearly mediate the effect of smoking on FEV1, although DNA methylation at some sites might influence lung function via effects on smoking. By using "moloc", we found evidence of shared causal variants between lung function, gene expression, and DNA methylation. These findings highlight potential therapeutic targets for improving lung function and possibly smoking cessation, although larger, tissue-specific datasets are required to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Pulmão/fisiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fumar , Ilhas de CpG , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos
5.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 6, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) exhibits interindividual and intercellular variation, but few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of directly assayed mtDNA CN exist. We undertook a GWAS of qPCR-assayed mtDNA CN in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the UK Blood Service (UKBS) cohort. After validating and harmonising data, 5461 ALSPAC mothers (16-43 years at mtDNA CN assay) and 1338 UKBS females (17-69 years) were included in a meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses restricted to females with white cell-extracted DNA and adjusted for estimated or assayed cell proportions. Associations were also explored in ALSPAC children and UKBS males. RESULTS: A neutrophil-associated locus approached genome-wide significance (rs709591 [MED24], ß (change in SD units of mtDNA CN per allele) [SE] - 0.084 [0.016], p = 1.54e-07) in the main meta-analysis of adult females. This association was concordant in magnitude and direction in UKBS males and ALSPAC neonates. SNPs in and around ABHD8 were associated with mtDNA CN in ALSPAC neonates (rs10424198, ß [SE] 0.262 [0.034], p = 1.40e-14), but not other study groups. In a meta-analysis of unrelated individuals (N = 11,253), we replicated a published association in TFAM (ß [SE] 0.046 [0.017], p = 0.006), with an effect size much smaller than that observed in the replication analysis of a previous in silico GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: In a hypothesis-generating GWAS, we confirm an association between TFAM and mtDNA CN and present putative loci requiring replication in much larger samples. We discuss the limitations of our work, in terms of measurement error and cellular heterogeneity, and highlight the need for larger studies to better understand nuclear genomic control of mtDNA copy number.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
8.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(5): 489-502, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687944

RESUMO

Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with psychiatric conditions in clinical populations. The relationship between rare CNV burden and neuropsychiatric traits in young, general populations is underexplored. A total of 6,807 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were studied. CNVs were inferred from single nucleotide polymorphism-array data using PennCNV. After excluding children with known candidate CNVs for schizophrenia (SCZ), rare (<1%) CNV burden (total number of genes affected by CNVs, total length of CNVs, and largest CNV carried) was analyzed in relation to: psychotic experiences (PEs) and anxiety/depression in adolescence; autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ASD and ADHD traits, and cognitive measures during childhood. Outcomes were also assessed in relation to known SCZ CNVs. The number of genes affected by rare CNVs was associated with a continuous measure of ASD: the standardized mean difference [SMD] per gene affected was increased by 0.018 [95%CI 0.011,0.025], p = 3e-07 for duplications and by 0.021 [95%CI 0.010, 0.032], p = 1e-04 for deletions. In line with our published results on educational attainment in ALSPAC, intelligence quotient (IQ) was associated with CNV burden: the SMD per gene affected was -0.017 [95%CI -0.025, -0.008] p = 1e-04 for duplications and -0.023 [95%CI -0.037, -0.009], p = .002 for deletions. Associations were also observed for measures of coherence, attention, memory, and social cognition. SCZ-associated deletions were associated with IQ (SMD: -0.617 [95%CI -0.936, -0.298], p = 2e-04), but not with PEs or other traits. We found that rare CNV burden and known SCZ candidate CNVs are associated with neuropsychiatric phenotypes in a nonclinically ascertained sample of young people.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
9.
Mitochondrion ; 39: 9-19, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818596

RESUMO

The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69.4 (5.5) years (N=2872). Mitochondrial DNA copy number was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations were adjusted for smoking, sociodemographic status, laboratory factors and white cell traits. Out of a total of 12 outcomes assessed in both cohorts, mitochondrial DNA copy number showed little or no association with the majority (point estimates were close to zero and nearly all p-values were >0.01). The strongest evidence was for an inverse association in the older cohort with insulin (standardised beta [95%CI]: -0.06, [-0.098, -0.022], p=0.002), but this association did not replicate in the younger cohort. Our findings do not provide support for variation in mitochondrial DNA copy number having an important impact on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European origin women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 2: 118, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542661

RESUMO

Background: The relationship between adiposity at birth and in childhood, and telomere length is yet to be determined. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the results of studies assessing associations between neonatal and childhood adiposity, and telomere length. Methods: We searched Medline, EMBASE and PubMed for studies reporting associations between adiposity measured in the neonatal period or childhood, and leucocyte telomere length, measured at any age via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, or terminal restriction fragment analysis, either cross-sectionally, or longitudinally. Papers published before April 2017 were included. Results: Out of 230 abstracts assessed, 23 papers (32 estimates) were retained, from which 19 estimates were meta-analysed (15 cross-sectional, four longitudinal). Of the 15 cross-sectional estimates, seven reported on neonates: four used binary exposures of small-for-gestational-age vs. appropriate-for-gestational age (or appropriate- and large-for-gestational age), and three studied birth weight continuously. Eight estimates reported on childhood measures; five estimates were from studies of binary exposures (overweight/obese vs. non-obese children), and three studies used continuous measures of body mass index. All four longitudinal estimates were of neonatal adiposity, with two estimates for small-for-gestational-age vs. appropriate-for-gestational age neonates, and two estimates of birth weight studied continuously, in relation to adult telomere (49-61 years). There was no strong evidence of an association between neonatal or childhood adiposity, and telomere length. However, between study heterogeneity was high, and there were few combinable studies. Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found no strong evidence of an association between neonatal or childhood adiposity and telomere length.

11.
JAMA ; 313(20): 2044-54, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010633

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The association of copy number variations (CNVs), differing numbers of copies of genetic sequence at locations in the genome, with phenotypes such as intellectual disability has been almost exclusively evaluated using clinically ascertained cohorts. The contribution of these genetic variants to cognitive phenotypes in the general population remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features conferred by CNVs associated with known syndromes in adult carriers without clinical preselection and to assess the genome-wide consequences of rare CNVs (frequency ≤0.05%; size ≥250 kilobase pairs [kb]) on carriers' educational attainment and intellectual disability prevalence in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The population biobank of Estonia contains 52,000 participants enrolled from 2002 through 2010. General practitioners examined participants and filled out a questionnaire of health- and lifestyle-related questions, as well as reported diagnoses. Copy number variant analysis was conducted on a random sample of 7877 individuals and genotype-phenotype associations with education and disease traits were evaluated. Our results were replicated on a high-functioning group of 993 Estonians and 3 geographically distinct populations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Phenotypes of genomic disorders in the general population, prevalence of autosomal CNVs, and association of these variants with educational attainment (from less than primary school through scientific degree) and prevalence of intellectual disability. RESULTS: Of the 7877 in the Estonian cohort, we identified 56 carriers of CNVs associated with known syndromes. Their phenotypes, including cognitive and psychiatric problems, epilepsy, neuropathies, obesity, and congenital malformations are similar to those described for carriers of identical rearrangements ascertained in clinical cohorts. A genome-wide evaluation of rare autosomal CNVs (frequency, ≤0.05%; ≥250 kb) identified 831 carriers (10.5%) of the screened general population. Eleven of 216 (5.1%) carriers of a deletion of at least 250 kb (odds ratio [OR], 3.16; 95% CI, 1.51-5.98; P = 1.5e-03) and 6 of 102 (5.9%) carriers of a duplication of at least 1 Mb (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.29-8.54; P = .008) had an intellectual disability compared with 114 of 6819 (1.7%) in the Estonian cohort. The mean education attainment was 3.81 (P = 1.06e-04) among 248 (≥250 kb) deletion carriers and 3.69 (P = 5.024e-05) among 115 duplication carriers (≥1 Mb). Of the deletion carriers, 33.5% did not graduate from high school (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.95; P = .005) and 39.1% of duplication carriers did not graduate high school (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.27-2.8; P = 1.6e-03). Evidence for an association between rare CNVs and lower educational attainment was supported by analyses of cohorts of adults from Italy and the United States and adolescents from the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Known pathogenic CNVs in unselected, but assumed to be healthy, adult populations may be associated with unrecognized clinical sequelae. Additionally, individually rare but collectively common intermediate-size CNVs may be negatively associated with educational attainment. Replication of these findings in additional population groups is warranted given the potential implications of this observation for genomics research, clinical care, and public health.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Escolaridade , Epilepsia/genética , Estônia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
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