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1.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review obstetric personnel absences at a hospital during the initial peak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection risk in New York City from March 25 to April 21, 2020. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study evaluated absences at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital. Clinical absences for (1) Columbia University ultrasonographers, (2) inpatient nurses, (3) labor and delivery operating room (OR) technicians, (4) inpatient obstetric nurse assistants, and (5) attending physicians providing inpatient obstetric services were analyzed. Causes of absences were analyzed and classified as illness, vacation and holidays, leave, and other causes. Categorical variables were compared with the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: For nurses, absences accounted for 1,052 nursing workdays in 2020 (17.2% of all workdays) compared with 670 (11.1%) workdays in 2019 (p < 0.01). Significant differentials in days absent in 2020 compared with 2019 were present for (1) postpartum nurses (21.9% compared with 12.9%, p < 0.01), (2) labor and delivery nurses (14.8% compared with 10.6%, p < 0.01), and (3) antepartum nurses (10.2% compared with 7.4%, p = 0.03). Evaluating nursing assistants, 24.3% of workdays were missed in 2020 compared with 17.4% in 2019 (p < 0.01). For ultrasonographers, there were 146 absences (25.2% of workdays) in 2020 compared with 96 absences (16.0% of workdays) in 2019 (p < 0.01). The proportion of workdays missed by OR technicians was 22.6% in 2020 and 18.3% in 2019 (p = 0.25). Evaluating attending physician absences, a total of 78 workdays were missed due to documented COVID-19 infection. Evaluating the causes of absences, illness increased significantly between 2019 and 2020 for nursing assistants (42.6 vs. 57.4%, p = 0.02), OR technicians (17.1 vs. 55.9%, p < 0.01), and nurses (15.5 vs. 33.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 outbreak surge planning represents a major operational issue for medical specialties such as critical care due to increased clinical volume. Findings from this analysis suggest it is prudent to devise backup staffing plans. KEY POINTS: · 1) COVID-19 outbreak surge planning represents a major operational issue for obstetrics.. · 2) Inpatient obstetric volume cannot be reduced.. · 3) Staffing contingencies plans for nurses, sonographers, and physicians may be required..

2.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize risk for postpartum complications based on specific hypertensive diagnosis at delivery. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study used the 2010 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database to identify 60-day postpartum readmissions. Delivery hospitalizations were categorized based on hypertensive diagnoses as follows: (1) preeclampsia with severe features, (2) superimposed preeclampsia, (3) chronic hypertension, (4) preeclampsia without severe features, (5) gestational hypertension, or (6) no hypertensive diagnosis. Risks for 60-day readmission was determined based on hypertensive diagnosis at delivery. The following adverse outcomes during readmissions were analyzed: (1) stroke, (2) pulmonary edema and heart failure, (3) eclampsia, and (4) severe maternal morbidity (SMM). We fit multivariable log-linear regression models to assess the magnitude of association between hypertensive diagnoses at delivery and risks for readmission and associated complications with adjusted risk ratios (aRR) as measures of effect. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2014, 15.7 million estimated delivery hospitalizations were included in the analysis. Overall risk for 60-day postpartum readmission was the highest among women with superimposed preeclampsia (6.6%), followed by preeclampsia with severe features (5.2%), chronic hypertension (4.0%), preeclampsia without severe features (3.9%), gestational hypertension (2.9%), and women without a hypertensive diagnosis (1.5%). In adjusted analyses for pulmonary edema and heart failure as the outcome, risks were the highest for preeclampsia with severe features (aRR = 7.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.03, 10.14), superimposed preeclampsia (aRR = 8.21, 95% CI: 5.79, 11.63), and preeclampsia without severe features (aRR = 8.87, 95% CI: 7.06, 11.15). In the adjusted model for stroke, risks were similarly highest for these three hypertensive diagnoses. Evaluating risks for SMM during postpartum readmission, chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia were associated with the highest risks. CONCLUSION: Chronic hypertension was associated with increased risk for a broad range of adverse postpartum outcomes. Risk estimates associated with chronic hypertension with and without superimposed preeclampsia were similar to preeclampsia with severe features for several outcomes. KEY POINTS: · Chronic hypertension was associated with increased risk for a broad range of adverse outcomes.. · Close postpartum follow-up is required if hypertension is present at delivery.. · The majority of readmissions occurred within 10 days after delivery hospitalization discharge..

3.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION: Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..

4.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; : 100522, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ART is associated with a higher risk of preterm deliveries in twin gestations compared with non-exposure to ART. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of weekly progesterone to prevent preterm delivery in twin gestations. For our analysis, all subjects with twin gestations and known gestational age at delivery were included. Women were excluded if they had intrauterine insemination or congenital fetal anomalies. Our primary exposure was ART, defined as IVF and ICSI. Subjects non-exposed to ART either had spontaneous conceptions or were conceived with ovarian stimulation. Our primary outcome was preterm delivery, defined as delivery prior to 35 weeks gestation. Secondary outcomes included spontaneous or indicated preterm delivery less than 35 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 1261 subjects, 309 (24.5%) had ART, and 952 (75.5%) were not exposed to ART. Women exposed to ART were more likely to be white, older, and have dichorionic twins, and they were less likely to be smokers. The groups had similar rates of prior preterm births. The rates of overall PTB (40.8% v. 39.3%, p=0.642) and spontaneous PTB (20.8% v. 24.1%, p=0.221) were similar. After adjusting for confounders, ART exposure was not related to any preterm birth category, and the strongest predictors for spontaneous preterm birth was a prior preterm birth (aOR: 3.38, 95% CI: 2.04-5.59, p=<0.0001) and Black race (aOR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-2.45, p=0.026). CONCLUSION: In our cohort of twin pregnancies, ART was not an independent risk factor for preterm birth.

5.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(1): 100503, 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the knowledge that bed rest does not reduce the risk of preterm birth (PTB), it continues to be recommended by many providers worldwide. This is because there are no quantitative data assessing the relationship between PTB and physical activity in pregnancy.1-3 We designed a prospective cohort study using a Fitbit activity tracker to quantitatively explore the association between baseline physical activity in pregnancy in steps/day and the risk of PTB (<37 weeks). STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study assessing the association between the risk of PTB and physical activity in healthy nulliparous women from 10 to 24 weeks to delivery. The physical activity (San Francisco, California) was measured from the time of entry into the study until the day before admission for delivery using the Fitbit Flex 2. The participants wore the faceless device 24/7 without modifying their activity. The primary exposure was steps/day in low- (<5000 steps/d) and high-level (≥5000 steps/d) activity groups. The primary outcome was the rate of PTB (<37 weeks). An additional unplanned secondary analysis was performed using a 3500 steps/d cutoff. The secondary outcomes included peripartum complications and median steps/day in term vs preterm groups. Adjusted analyses were performed to account for possible confounders. RESULTS: A total of 134 women were enrolled, of which 25 (19%) and 109 (81%) were in the low- and high-level activity groups, respectively. Overall, 11 (8.2%) women delivered preterm. The high-level activity group was older, partnered, employed, and had a higher education level. The PTB did not differ between the groups (adjusted risk ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-1.00) (Table). There was no difference in the median steps/d between preterm and term deliveries (7767 interquartile range, [5188-10,387] vs 6986 [5412-8528]); percentile difference, -442; (95% CI, -2233 to 1507) steps. Using a 3500 steps/d cutoff, there was a 75% reduction in the PTB risk (29% vs 7%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05-2.35) (Table). CONCLUSION: This prospective study of nulliparous women showed no difference in the risk of PTB between low- vs high-activity groups using a cutoff of 5000 steps/d. The gestational age at delivery was similar between the groups. No significant difference in the number of steps/d was observed between women who delivered preterm compared with term. The women who were prescribed activity restriction (AR) had a marked reduction in their median number of steps/d after AR was prescribed. However, their median number of steps per day (>5000) reflected that they remained active despite this instruction. An additional analysis using 3500 steps/d as a cutoff for exposure groups showed a significantly increased risk of PTB in the <3500 steps/d group than the ≥3500 steps/d group. It is therefore plausible that activity levels <3500 steps/d are associated with an increased risk of PTB.

6.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 266: 23-30, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine if US obstetrician-gynecologists (OBGYNs) practice outside of evidenced-based guidelines and use a combination of interventions to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). STUDY DESIGN: An electronic survey was distributed to members of the Pregnancy-Related Care Research Network (PRCRN), and also to members of the Society of Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). The survey consisted of questions regarding physician demographics, and the use of interventions to prevent sPTB in women with 1) a prior sPTB, 2) an incidental short cervix (no prior sPTB), and 3) a history of cervical insufficiency. RESULTS: The PRCRN response rate was 58.6% (283/483) with an additional 143 responses from SMFM members. Among PRCRN responders, 82.7% were general OBGYNs and 17.3% were Maternal-Fetal Medicine subspecialists. Respondents were from all geographic regions of the country; most practiced in a group private practice (42.6%) or academic institution (31.4%). In women with prior sPTB, 45.2% of respondents would consider combination therapy, most commonly weekly intramuscular progesterone (IM-P) and serial cervical length (CL) measurements. If the patient then develops a short cervix, 33.7% would consider adding an ultrasound-indicated cerclage. In women with an incidental short cervix, 66.8% of respondents were likely to recommend single therapy with daily vaginal progesterone (VP). If a patient developed an incidentally dilated cervix, 40.8% of PRCRN respondents would recommend dual therapy, most commonly cerclage + VP, whereas 64.3% of SMFM respondents were likely to continue with VP only. In women with a history of cervical insufficiency, 47% of PRCRN respondents indicated they would consider a combination of IM-P, history-indicated cerclage and serial CL measurements. CONCLUSION: Although not currently supported by evidence-based medicine, combination therapy is commonly being used by U.S. OBGYNs to prevent sPTB in women with risk factors such as prior sPTB, short or dilated cervix or more than one of these risks.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical , Nascimento Prematuro , Administração Intravaginal , Medida do Comprimento Cervical , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Progesterona
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data about the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant individuals are needed to inform infection prevention guidance and counseling for this population. METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of pregnant individuals during August 2020-March 2021 at three U.S. sites. The three primary outcomes were incidence rates of any SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic infection, and asymptomatic infection, during pregnancy during periods of SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Participants self-collected weekly mid-turbinate nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, completed weekly illness symptom questionnaires, and submitted additional swabs with COVID-19-like symptoms. An overall SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence rate weighted by population counts of women of reproductive age in each state was calculated. RESULTS: Among 1098 pregnant individuals followed for a mean of 10 weeks, nine percent (99/1098) had SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study. Population weighted incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 10.0 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7-14.3) person-weeks for any infection, 5.7 per 1,000 (95% CI 1.7-9.7) for symptomatic infections, and 3.5 per 1,000 (95% CI 0-7.1) for asymptomatic infections. Among 96 participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptom data, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (72%), cough (64%), headache (59%), and change in taste or smell (54%); 28% had measured or subjective fever. The median symptom duration was 10 days (IQR6-16 days). CONCLUSION: Pregnant individuals had a 1% risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection per week. Study findings provide information about SARS-CoV-2 infection risk during pregnancy to inform counseling for pregnant individuals about infection prevention practices, including COVID-19 vaccination.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is characterized by increased appetitive drive beginning early in gestation, yet the central mechanisms underlying this adaptation are poorly understood in humans. To elucidate central mechanisms underlying appetite regulation in early pregnancy, we examine plasma and CSF leptin and AgRP as well as CSF POMC as surrogates for brain melanocortin activity. METHODS: Plasma leptin, Ob-Re, AgRP, and CSF leptin, POMC, and AgRP were collected from pregnant women prior to cerclage placement (16.6±1.1wks; N=24), scheduled cesarean section (39.2±0.2wks; N=24), and from non-pregnant controls (N=24), matched for age and BMI. RESULTS: Plasma leptin was 1.5 times higher in pregnancy vs. controls (P=0.01), but CSF leptin did not differ. CSF/plasma leptin percentage was lower in early pregnancy vs. controls (0.8±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.2; P<0.0001) and remained unchanged at term (0.9 ±0.1), supporting a decrease in leptin transport into CSF in pregnancy. Plasma AgRP, a peripheral biomarker of the orexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, was higher in early pregnancy vs. controls (95.0±7.8 vs. 67.5±5.3; P = 0.005). In early gestation, CSF AgRP did not differ from controls, but CSF POMC was 25% lower (P=0.006). In contrast, at term, CSF AgRP was 42% higher vs. controls (P=0.0001), but CSF POMC no longer differed. Overall, the CSF AgRP/POMC ratio was 1.5-fold higher in early pregnancy vs. controls, reflecting a decrease in melanocortin tone favoring appetitive drive. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy-specific adaptions in the central regulation of energy balance occur early in human gestation and are consistent with decreased leptin transport into brain and resistance to the effects of leptin on target melanocortin neuropeptides.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 436-444, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy carries a risk of congenital infection and possible severe sequelae. There is no established intervention for preventing congenital CMV infection. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind trial, pregnant women with primary CMV infection diagnosed before 24 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to receive a monthly infusion of CMV hyperimmune globulin (at a dose of 100 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo until delivery. The primary outcome was a composite of congenital CMV infection or fetal or neonatal death if CMV testing of the fetus or neonate was not performed. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2018, a total of 206,082 pregnant women were screened for primary CMV infection before 23 weeks of gestation; of the 712 participants (0.35%) who tested positive, 399 (56%) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped early for futility. Data on the primary outcome were available for 394 participants; a primary outcome event occurred in the fetus or neonate of 46 of 203 women (22.7%) in the group that received hyperimmune globulin and of 37 of 191 women (19.4%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80 to 1.72; P = 0.42). Death occurred in 4.9% of fetuses or neonates in the hyperimmune globulin group and in 2.6% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 5.41), preterm birth occurred in 12.2% and 8.3%, respectively (relative risk, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.81 to 2.67), and birth weight below the 5th percentile occurred in 10.3% and 5.4% (relative risk, 1.92; 95% CI, 0.92 to 3.99). One participant in the hyperimmune globulin group had a severe allergic reaction to the first infusion. Participants who received hyperimmune globulin had a higher incidence of headaches and shaking chills while receiving infusions than participants who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Among pregnant women, administration of CMV hyperimmune globulin starting before 24 weeks' gestation did not result in a lower incidence of a composite of congenital CMV infection or perinatal death than placebo. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01376778.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Morte Fetal/etiologia , Morte Fetal/prevenção & controle , Doenças Fetais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Infusões Intravenosas , Gravidez , Falha de Tratamento
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14390, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257394

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected people at all ages. Whereas pregnant women seemed to have a worse course of disease than age-matched non-pregnant women, the risk of feto-placental infection is low. Using a cohort of 66 COVID-19-positive women in late pregnancy, we correlated clinical parameters with disease severity, placental histopathology, and the expression of viral entry and Interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) antiviral transcripts. All newborns were negative for SARS-CoV-2. None of the demographic parameters or placental histopathological characteristics were associated with disease severity. The fetal-maternal transfer ratio for IgG against the N or S viral proteins was commonly less than one, as recently reported. We found that the expression level of placental ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 or Furin, was higher in women with severe COVID-19. Placental expression of IFITM1 and IFITM3, which have been implicated in antiviral response, was higher in participants with severe disease. We also showed that IFITM3 protein expression, which localized to early and late endosomes, was enhanced in severe COVID-19. Our data suggest an association between disease severity and placental SARS-CoV-2 processing and antiviral pathways, implying a role for these proteins in placental response to SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Adulto , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Masculino , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(5): 100426, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although administration of antenatal corticosteroids has been shown to decrease neonatal respiratory morbidity when given to women at risk for late preterm birth, the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration to delivery that is associated with the greatest neonatal benefit remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether the time interval from administration of late preterm antenatal corticosteroids to delivery is associated with a change in the likelihood of transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, and hypoglycemia. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton neonates who were exposed to 1 or 2 doses of antenatal corticosteroids in the late preterm period (34+0 to 36+6 weeks' gestation) within a large healthcare system between November 2017 and March 2020. Neonates exposed to antenatal corticosteroids before 34 weeks' gestation and those with major fetal structural malformations and chromosomal disorders were excluded. Cases were stratified into the following groups based on the time interval from the first dose of antenatal corticosteroid administration to delivery: <2 days, 2 to 7 days, and >7 days. The primary outcome of transient tachypnea of the newborn was compared among the 3 groups. Secondary outcomes included respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycemia. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between the time interval and neonatal outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. For each outcome, delivery within 2 to 7 days from the first dose of betamethasone administration was defined as the reference group. Data were presented as adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and statistical significance was defined as P < .05. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 1248 neonates. Of those, 649 (52%) were exposed to 1 dose of antenatal corticosteroids. There were statistically significant differences in the maternal characteristics such as nulliparity, pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders and fetal growth restriction, gestational age at antenatal corticosteroid administration, gestational age at delivery, and mode of delivery among the 3 groups. There was a significantly increased risk for transient tachypnea of the newborn (adjusted odds ratio, 4.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-12.92) and respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 9.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-84.24) associated with delivery <2 days of antenatal corticosteroid administration. The risk for hypoglycemia was highest in the delivery <2 days group (adjusted odds ratio, 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 2.10-5.63) and decreased as the time interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration to delivery increased (adjusted odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.51 for delivery >7 days). CONCLUSION: Adverse neonatal outcomes such as transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, and hypoglycemia are more common when late preterm birth occurs <2 days after antenatal corticosteroid administration when compared with birth 2 to 7 days after administration. In addition, delivery >7 days after antenatal corticosteroid administration is associated with a decreased risk for hypoglycemia. Understanding the impact of antenatal corticosteroid timing on neonatal outcomes is essential in caring for patients at risk for late preterm birth.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prior research demonstrated large increased risk for maternal mortality among women with epilepsy. The objective of this study was to estimate risk for adverse maternal outcomes during delivery hospitalizations among women with epilepsy. METHODS: Truven Health MarketScan databases were used to compare risk for adverse maternal outcomes during delivery hospitalizations based upon whether there was diagnosis of epilepsy and receipt of anti-epileptic drugs prior to delivery. Outcomes included: (i) death during delivery hospitalization, (ii) severe maternal morbidity, (iii) cesarean delivery, (iv) postpartum hemorrhage, (v) placental abruption, (vi) preeclampsia, (vii) preterm delivery, (viii) premature rupture of membranes, and (ix) stillbirth. Adjusted models including hospital and demographic factors were performed with adjusted risk ratios (aRR) with 95% CIs as measures of effect. RESULTS: Women with epilepsy prior to delivery who received antiepileptic drugs (n = 6019) during pregnancy were not at increased risk for mortality with no deaths occurring in this group (p = .27). Risk for severe maternal morbidity in this group was approximately double (aRR 2.16, 95% CI 1.86-2.51) with risks for other outcomes including placental abruption (aRR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60), cesarean delivery (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.18), and preterm delivery (aRR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.35) slightly increased compared to women without seizures. CONCLUSION: No significant difference in mortality risk was found for women with epilepsy. Increased risk for other adverse maternal outcomes for women with epilepsy on antiepileptics was modest.

14.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(10): 999-1009, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether race and ethnicity contribute to risks associated with peripartum hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cross-sectional study utilized the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample to analyze risk of peripartum hysterectomy and associated severe maternal morbidity, mortality, surgical injury, reoperation, surgical-site complications, and mortality by maternal race and ethnicity. Race and ethnicity were categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, other, and unknown. Multivariable log-linear regression models including patient, clinical, and hospital risk factors were performed with adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Of 59,854,731 delivery hospitalizations, there were 45,369 peripartum hysterectomies (7.6 per thousand). Of these, 37.8% occurred among non-Hispanic white, 13.9% among non-Hispanic black, and 22.8% among Hispanic women. In adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic black (aRR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17-1.29) and Hispanic women (aRR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.22-1.29) were at increased risk of hysterectomy compared with non-Hispanic white women. Risk for severe morbidity was increased for non-Hispanic black (aRR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.19-1.33), but not for Hispanic (aRR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.97-1.07) women. Between these three groups, risk for intraoperative complications was highest among non-Hispanic white women, risk for reoperation was highest among Hispanic women, and risk for surgical-site complications was highest among non-Hispanic black women. Evaluating maternal mortality, non-Hispanic black women (RR: 3.83, 95% CI: 2.65-5.53) and Hispanic women (RR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.74-3.59) were at higher risk than non-Hispanic white women. CONCLUSION: Peripartum hysterectomy and related complications other than death differed modestly by race. In comparison, mortality differentials were large supporting that differential risk for death in the setting of this high-risk scenario may be an important cause of disparities. KEY POINTS: · Peripartum hysterectomy and related complications differed modestly by race.. · Mortality differentials in the setting of peripartum hysterectomy were large.. · Failure to rescue may be an important cause of peripartum hysterectomy disparities..

15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(5): 100403, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mass vaccination against COVID-19 may prove to be the most efficacious end to this deadly pandemic, there remain concern and indecision among the public toward vaccination. Because pregnant and reproductive-aged women account for a large proportion of the population with particular concerns regarding vaccination against COVID-19, this survey aimed at investigating their current attitudes and beliefs within our own institution. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to understand vaccine acceptability among pregnant, nonpregnant, and breastfeeding respondents and elucidate factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. STUDY DESIGN: We administered an anonymous online survey to all women (including patients, providers, and staff) at our institution assessing rates of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Respondents were contacted in 1 of 3 ways: by email, advertisement flyers, and distribution of quick response codes at virtual town halls regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. Based on their responses, respondents were divided into 3 mutually exclusive groups: (1) nonpregnant respondents, (2) pregnant respondents, and (3) breastfeeding respondents. The primary outcome was acceptance of vaccination. Prevalence ratios were calculated to ascertain the independent effects of multiple patient-level factors on vaccine acceptability. RESULTS: The survey was administered from January 7, 2021, to January 29, 2021, with 1012 respondents of whom 466 (46.9%) identified as non-Hispanic White, 108 (10.9%) as non-Hispanic Black, 286 (28.8%) as Hispanic, and 82 (8.2%) as non-Hispanic Asian. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range, 25-47 years). Of all the respondents, 656 respondents (64.8%) were nonpregnant, 216 (21.3%) were pregnant, and 122 (12.1%) were breastfeeding. There was no difference in chronic comorbidities when evaluated as a composite variable (Table 1). A total of 390 respondents (39.2%) reported working in healthcare. Nonpregnant respondents were most likely to accept vaccination (457 respondents, 76.2%; P<.001) with breastfeeding respondents the second most likely (55.2%). Pregnant respondents had the lowest rate of vaccine acceptance (44.3%; P<.001). Prevalence ratios revealed all non-White races except for non-Hispanic Asian respondents, and Spanish-speaking respondents were less likely to accept vaccination (Table 3). Working in healthcare was not found to be associated with vaccine acceptance among our cohort. CONCLUSION: In this survey study of only women at a single institution, pregnant respondents of non-White or non-Asian races were more likely to decline vaccination than nonpregnant and breastfeeding respondents. Working in healthcare was not associated with vaccine acceptance.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigators have attempted to derive tools that could provide clinicians with an easily obtainable estimate of the chance of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery for those who undertake trial of labor after cesarean delivery. One tool that has been validated externally was derived from data from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Cesarean Registry. However, concern has been raised that this tool includes the socially constructed variables of race and ethnicity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an accurate tool to predict vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, using data easily obtainable early in pregnancy, without the inclusion of race and ethnicity. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of the Cesarean Registry of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. The approach to the current analysis is similar to that of the analysis in which the previous vaginal birth after cesarean delivery prediction tool was derived. Specifically, individuals were included in this analysis if they were delivered on or after 37 0/7 weeks' gestation with a live singleton cephalic fetus at the time of labor and delivery admission, had a trial of labor after cesarean delivery, and had a history of 1 previous low-transverse cesarean delivery. Information was only considered for inclusion in the model if it was ascertainable at an initial prenatal visit. Model selection and internal validation were performed using a cross-validation procedure, with the dataset randomly and equally divided into a training set and a test set. The training set was used to identify factors associated with vaginal birth after cesarean delivery and build the logistic regression predictive model using stepwise backward elimination. A final model was generated that included all variables found to be significant (P<.05). The accuracy of the model to predict vaginal birth after cesarean delivery was assessed using the concordance index. The independent test set was used to estimate classification errors and validate the model that had been developed from the training set, and calibration was assessed. The final model was then applied to the overall analytical population. RESULTS: Of the 11,687 individuals who met the inclusion criteria for this secondary analysis, 8636 (74%) experienced vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. The backward elimination variable selection yielded a model from the training set that included maternal age, prepregnancy weight, height, indication for previous cesarean delivery, obstetrical history, and chronic hypertension. Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery was significantly more likely for women who were taller and had a previous vaginal birth, particularly if that vaginal birth had occurred after a previous cesarean delivery. Conversely, vaginal birth after cesarean delivery was significantly less likely for women whose age was older, whose weight was heavier, whose indication for previous cesarean delivery was arrest of dilation or descent, and who had a history of medication-treated chronic hypertension. The model had excellent calibration between predicted and empirical probabilities and, when applied to the overall analytical population, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.77), which is similar to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the previous model (0.75) that included race and ethnicity. CONCLUSION: We successfully derived an accurate model (available at https://mfmunetwork.bsc.gwu.edu/web/mfmunetwork/vaginal-birth-after-cesarean-calculator), which did not include race or ethnicity, for the estimation of the probability of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(5): 100408, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prematurity is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Some studies suggest that respiratory disease may differ by race in early preterm infants. However, the role of race in late preterm neonatal morbidity is not yet established. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine whether neonatal respiratory morbidity differs by race in neonates born late preterm. STUDY DESIGN: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of women at high risk for late preterm delivery (Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids). Our study was limited to women with nonanomalous, singleton gestations, delivering between 34+0 to 36+6 weeks. Women were categorized into 4 groups by race: Black, White, Asian, or other/mixed. The primary outcome was a neonatal composite of treatment in the first 72 hours (continuous positive airway pressure or high-flow nasal cannula >2 hours, oxygen >4 hours, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or mechanical ventilation) or stillbirth or neonatal death before 72 hours. The secondary outcomes included severe respiratory morbidity (the primary outcome extending continuous positive airway pressure or high-flow nasal cannula to >12 continuous hours and oxygen to at least 24 continuous hours), respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, apnea, neonatal intensive care unit admission, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and surfactant administration. The primary and secondary outcomes were assessed in the active (steroid) and placebo groups separately. We fit a logistic regression model to adjust for confounders related to respiratory morbidity. RESULTS: Of a total of 2331 included women, 26.9% (n=627) were Black/African American, 57.1% (n=1333) White, 3.56% (n=83) Asian, and 12.36% (n=288) were other/mixed. In the placebo group, the rate of the primary outcome was significantly higher in Whites (18.6%) and Asians (22.8%) compared with the African American/Black group (12.3%) (P=.03). Adjusting for confounders, the primary outcome was not significant between the groups. The primary predictor for respiratory morbidity was a prior pregnancy with neonatal respiratory morbidity. Findings were similar in the steroid group, but severe respiratory morbidity was less common in Black infants compared with White infants (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.83). However, a prior pregnancy with neonatal respiratory complications was no longer associated with respiratory morbidity after receipt of betamethasone. CONCLUSION: Late preterm respiratory morbidity was similar between racial groups. Although a history of pregnancy with previous neonatal respiratory disease is the strongest risk factor for recurrence, this risk factor is mitigated by the receipt of steroids.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Betametasona , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Morbidade , Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia
18.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037764

RESUMO

We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with acute respiratory illness during delivery hospitalizations in influenza season to describe clinical testing for respiratory viruses and infection prevention practices. Women had nasal swabs tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses. Among 91 enrolled women, 22 (24%) had clinical testing for influenza. Based on clinical and study testing combined, 41/91 (45%) women had samples positive for respiratory viruses. The most common virus was influenza (17/91, 19%); 53% (9/17) of influenza virus infections were identified through study testing alone. Only 16% of women were on droplet precautions. Peripartum respiratory infections may be underrecognized.

19.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the antenatal late preterm steroids (ALPS) trial betamethasone significantly decreased short-term neonatal respiratory morbidity but increased the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia, diagnosed only categorically (<40 mg/dL). We sought to better characterize the nature, duration, and treatment for hypoglycemia. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of infants from ALPS, a multicenter trial randomizing women at risk for late preterm delivery to betamethasone or placebo. This study was a reabstraction of all available charts from the parent trial, all of which were requested. Unreviewed charts included those lost to follow-up or from sites not participating in the reabstraction. Duration of hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL), lowest value and treatment, if any, were assessed by group. Measures of association and regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 2,831 randomized, 2,609 (92.2%) were included. There were 387 (29.3%) and 223 (17.3%) with hypoglycemia in the betamethasone and placebo groups, respectively (relative risk [RR]: 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-1.96). Hypoglycemia generally occurred in the first 24 hours in both groups: 374/385 (97.1%) in the betamethasone group and 214/222 (96.4%) in the placebo group (p = 0.63). Of 387 neonates with hypoglycemia in the betamethasone group, 132 (34.1%) received treatment, while 73/223 (32.7%) received treatment in placebo group (p = 0.73). The lowest recorded blood sugar was similar between groups. Most hypoglycemia resolved by 24 hours in both (93.0 vs. 89.3% in the betamethasone and placebo groups, respectively, p = 0.18). Among infants with hypoglycemia in the first 24 hours, the time to resolution was shorter in the betamethasone group (2.80 [interquartile range: 2.03-7.03) vs. 3.74 (interquartile range: 2.15-15.08) hours; p = 0.002]. Persistence for >72 hours was rare and similar in both groups, nine (2.4%, betamethasone) and four (1.9%, placebo, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, hypoglycemia was transient and most received no treatment, with a quicker resolution in the betamethasone group. Prolonged hypoglycemia was uncommon irrespective of steroid exposure. KEY POINTS: · Hypoglycemia was transient and approximately two-thirds received no treatment.. · Neonates in the ALPS trial who received betamethasone had a shorter time to resolution than those with hypoglycemia in the placebo group.. · Prolonged hypoglycemia occurred in approximately 2 out of 100 late preterm newborns, irrespective of antenatal steroid exposure..

20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-2, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17 P) is a progestin commonly used during pregnancy to reduce risk of recurrent preterm birth. History of thromboembolism is a contraindication to 17 P and the package insert for 17 P recommends discontinuation in the setting of an acute VTE event. The objective of this study was to determine whether 17 P is associated with increased risk of VTE. STUDY DESIGN: The MarketScan claims database was used to perform a retrospective cohort of women who underwent delivery from 4/2008 to 1/2015. We identified women who received 17 P during pregnancy based on pharmacy benefits. Risk for VTE including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both was stratified based on the presence or absence of 17 P pharmacy receipt. Both antenatal and delivery hospitalization VTE events were asceratined and these periods were analyzed individually. Relative risk (RR) was determined based on 17 P receipt. RESULTS: Among 4,775,667 delivery hospitalizations, 18,745 women received 17 P. Among women who did not receive 17 P, 0.52% of women (n = 24,529) had a VTE diagnosis compared to 0.61% (n = 114) receiving 17 P (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.98-1.42). Comparing VTE events (i) during the antenatal period and (ii) during delivery hospitalizations, risks did not differ significantly for patients receiving 17 P. When risk was restricted to the cohort of patients without a diagnosis of a prior VTE event, 0.30% of women (n = 56) receiving 17 P were diagnosed with an event versus 0.28% of women (n = 13,427) not receiving 17 P (RR 1.07, 95% 0.82-1.39). DISCUSSION: No significant increased risk for VTE was noted with 17 P receipt. While new research has led to reconsideration of clinical use of 17 P for preterm birth prevention based on efficacy, findings from this analysis do not support major risk for thrombosis.

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