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1.
Nature ; 577(7792): 695-700, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969708

RESUMO

Increased cardiac contractility during the fight-or-flight response is caused by ß-adrenergic augmentation of CaV1.2 voltage-gated calcium channels1-4. However, this augmentation persists in transgenic murine hearts expressing mutant CaV1.2 α1C and ß subunits that can no longer be phosphorylated by protein kinase A-an essential downstream mediator of ß-adrenergic signalling-suggesting that non-channel factors are also required. Here we identify the mechanism by which ß-adrenergic agonists stimulate voltage-gated calcium channels. We express α1C or ß2B subunits conjugated to ascorbate peroxidase5 in mouse hearts, and use multiplexed quantitative proteomics6,7 to track hundreds of proteins in the proximity of CaV1.2. We observe that the calcium-channel inhibitor Rad8,9, a monomeric G protein, is enriched in the CaV1.2 microenvironment but is depleted during ß-adrenergic stimulation. Phosphorylation by protein kinase A of specific serine residues on Rad decreases its affinity for ß subunits and relieves constitutive inhibition of CaV1.2, observed as an increase in channel open probability. Expression of Rad or its homologue Rem in HEK293T cells also imparts stimulation of CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 by protein kinase A, revealing an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that confers adrenergic modulation upon voltage-gated calcium channels.

2.
J Proteome Res ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990573

RESUMO

Gas-phase fractionation enables better quantitative accuracy, improves signal-to-noise, and increases sensitivity in proteomic analyses. However, traditional gas-phase enrichment, which relies upon a large continuous bin, results in sub-optimal enrichment as most chromatographic separations are not 100% orthogonal relative to the first MS dimension (MS1 m/z). As such, ions with similar m/z values tend to elute at the same retention time, which prevents the partitioning of narrow precursor m/z distributions into a few large continuous gas-phase enrichment bins. To overcome this issue, we developed and tested the use of notched isolation waveforms, which simultaneously isolate multiple discreet m/z windows in parallel (e.g. 650-700 m/z and 800-850 m/z). By comparison to a canonical gas-phase fractionation method, notched waveforms do not require bin optimization via in silico digestion or wasteful sample injections to isolate multiple precursor windows. Importantly, collecting all m/z bins simultaneously using the isolation waveform does not suffer from the sensitivity and duty cycle pitfalls inherent to sequential collection of multiple m/z bins. Applying a notched injection waveform provided consistent enrichment of precursor ions, which resulted in improved proteome depth with greater coverage of low abundance proteins. Finally, using a reductive dimethyl labeling approach, we show that notched isolation waveforms increases the number of quantified peptides with improved accuracy and precision across a wider dynamic range.

3.
Cell ; 180(2): 387-402.e16, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978347

RESUMO

Proteins are essential agents of biological processes. To date, large-scale profiling of cell line collections including the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) has focused primarily on genetic information whereas deep interrogation of the proteome has remained out of reach. Here, we expand the CCLE through quantitative profiling of thousands of proteins by mass spectrometry across 375 cell lines from diverse lineages to reveal information undiscovered by DNA and RNA methods. We observe unexpected correlations within and between pathways that are largely absent from RNA. An analysis of microsatellite instable (MSI) cell lines reveals the dysregulation of specific protein complexes associated with surveillance of mutation and translation. These and other protein complexes were associated with sensitivity to knockdown of several different genes. These data in conjunction with the wider CCLE are a broad resource to explore cellular behavior and facilitate cancer research.

4.
Mol Cell ; 77(1): 51-66.e8, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784357

RESUMO

Spatially and functionally distinct domains of heterochromatin and euchromatin play important roles in the maintenance of chromosome stability and regulation of gene expression, but a comprehensive knowledge of their composition is lacking. Here, we develop a strategy for the isolation of native Schizosaccharomyces pombe heterochromatin and euchromatin fragments and analyze their composition by using quantitative mass spectrometry. The shared and euchromatin-specific proteomes contain proteins involved in DNA and chromatin metabolism and in transcription, respectively. The heterochromatin-specific proteome includes all proteins with known roles in heterochromatin formation and, in addition, is enriched for subsets of nucleoporins and inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins, which associate with different chromatin domains. While the INM proteins are required for the integrity of the nucleolus, containing ribosomal DNA repeats, the nucleoporins are required for aggregation of heterochromatic foci and epigenetic inheritance. The results provide a comprehensive picture of heterochromatin-associated proteins and suggest a role for specific nucleoporins in heterochromatin function.

5.
J Proteome Res ; 19(1): 554-560, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799850

RESUMO

Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification with a vital role in cellular signaling. Isobaric labeling-based strategies, such as tandem mass tags (TMT), can measure the relative phosphorylation states of peptides in a multiplexed format. However, the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation constrains the depth of phosphopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry. As such, robust and sensitive workflows are required. Here we evaluate and optimize high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers for the analysis of TMT-labeled phosphopeptides. We determined that using FAIMS-MS3 with three compensation voltages (CV) in a single method (e.g., CV = -40/-60/-80 V) maximizes phosphopeptide coverage while minimizing inter-CV overlap. Furthermore, consecutive analyses using MSA-CID (multistage activation collision-induced dissociation) and HCD (higher-energy collisional dissociation) fragmentation at the MS2 stage increases the depth of phosphorylation analysis. The methodology and results outlined herein provide a template for tailoring optimized FAIMS-based methods.

6.
J Proteome Res ; 19(2): 708-718, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884793

RESUMO

The efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs), such as reovirus, is dictated by host immune responses, including those mediated by the pro- versus anti-inflammatory macrophages. As such, a detailed understanding of the interaction between reovirus and different macrophage types is critical for therapeutic efficacy. To explore reovirus-macrophage interactions, we performed tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative temporal proteomics on mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) generated with two cytokines, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and granulocytic-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), representing anti- and proinflammatory macrophages, respectively. We quantified 6863 proteins across five time points in duplicate, comparing M-CSF (M-BMM) and GM-CSF (GM-BMM) in response to OV. We find that GM-BMMs have lower expression of key intrinsic proteins that facilitate an antiviral immune response, express higher levels of reovirus receptor protein JAM-A, and are more susceptible to oncolytic reovirus infection compared to M-BMMs. Interestingly, although M-BMMs are less susceptible to reovirus infection and subsequent cell death, they initiate an antireovirus adaptive T cell immune response comparable to that of GM-BMMs. Taken together, these data describe distinct proteome differences between these two macrophage populations in terms of their ability to mount antiviral immune responses.

7.
J Proteomics ; 210: 103531, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626996

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are the most commonly studied yeast model systems, yet comparisons of global proteome remodeling between these yeast species are scarce. Here, we profile the proteomes of S. cerevisiae and S. pombe cultured with either glucose or pyruvate as the sole carbon source to define common and distinctive alterations in the protein landscape across species. In addition, we develop an updated streamlined-tandem mass tag (SL-TMT) strategy that substitutes chemical-based precipitation with more versatile bead-based protein aggregation method (SP3) prior to enzymatic digestion and TMT labeling. Our new workflow, SL-SP3-TMT, allow for near-complete proteome profiles in a single experiment for each species. The data reveal expected alterations in protein abundance and differences between species, highlighted complete canonical biochemical pathways, and provided insight into previously uncharacterized proteins. The techniques used herein, namely SL-SP3-TMT, can be applied to virtually any experiment aiming to study remodeling of the proteome using a high-throughput, comprehensive, yet streamlined mass spectrometry-based strategy. SIGNIFICANCE: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are single-celled eukaryotes that diverged from a common ancestor over a period of 100 million years, such that evolution has driven fundamental differences between the two species. Cellular metabolism and the regulation thereof are vital for living organisms. Here, we hypothesize that large scale proteomic alterations are prevalent upon the substitution of glucose with another carbon source, in this case pyruvate. To efficiently process our samples, we developed an updated streamlined-tandem mass tag (SL-TMT) strategy with more versatile bead-based protein aggregation. The data revealed expected alterations in protein abundance and illustrated differences between species. We highlighted complete canonical biochemical pathways and provided insight into previously uncharacterized proteins.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 93-102, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848235

RESUMO

Detailed mechanistic understanding of protein complex function is greatly enhanced by insights from its 3-dimensional structure. Traditional methods of protein structure elucidation remain expensive and labor-intensive and require highly purified starting material. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry offers an alternative that has seen increased use, especially in combination with other experimental approaches like cryo-electron microscopy. Here we report advances in method development, combining several orthogonal cross-linking chemistries as well as improvements in search algorithms, statistical analysis, and computational cost to achieve coverage of 1 unique cross-linked position pair for every 7 amino acids at a 1% false discovery rate. This is accomplished without any peptide-level fractionation or enrichment. We apply our methods to model the complex between a carbonic anhydrase (CA) and its protein inhibitor, showing that the cross-links are self-consistent and define the interaction interface at high resolution. The resulting model suggests a scaffold for development of a class of protein-based inhibitors of the CA family of enzymes. We next cross-link the yeast proteasome, identifying 3,893 unique cross-linked peptides in 3 mass spectrometry runs. The dataset includes 1,704 unique cross-linked position pairs for the proteasome subunits, more than half of them intersubunit. Using multiple recently solved cryo-EM structures, we show that observed cross-links reflect the conformational dynamics and disorder of some proteasome subunits. We further demonstrate that this level of cross-linking density is sufficient to model the architecture of the 19-subunit regulatory particle de novo.

9.
Stem Cells ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828876

RESUMO

A comprehensive characterization of the molecular processes controlling cell fate decisions is essential to derive stable progenitors and terminally differentiated cells that are functional from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, we report the use of quantitative proteomics to describe early proteome adaptations during hPSC differentiation toward pancreatic progenitors. We report that the use of unbiased quantitative proteomics allows the simultaneous profiling of numerous proteins at multiple time points, and is a valuable tool to guide the discovery of signaling events and molecular signatures underlying cellular differentiation. We also monitored the activity level of pathways whose roles are pivotal in the early pancreas differentiation, including the Hippo signaling pathway. The quantitative proteomics data set provides insights into the dynamics of the global proteome during the transition of hPSCs from a pluripotent state toward pancreatic differentiation.

10.
Sci Signal ; 12(609)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772124

RESUMO

The yeast stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 is best known for its role in mediating the response to osmotic stress, but it is also activated by various mechanistically distinct environmental stressors, including heat shock, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and arsenic. In the osmotic stress response, the signal is sensed upstream and relayed to Hog1 through a kinase cascade. Here, we identified a mode of Hog1 function whereby Hog1 senses arsenic through a direct physical interaction that requires three conserved cysteine residues located adjacent to the catalytic loop. These residues were essential for Hog1-mediated protection against arsenic, were dispensable for the response to osmotic stress, and promoted the nuclear localization of Hog1 upon exposure of cells to arsenic. Hog1 promoted arsenic detoxification by stimulating phosphorylation of the transcription factor Yap8, promoting Yap8 nuclear localization, and stimulating the transcription of the only known Yap8 targets, ARR2 and ARR3, both of which encode proteins that promote arsenic efflux. The related human kinases ERK1 and ERK2 also bound to arsenic in vitro, suggesting that this may be a conserved feature of some members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. These data provide a mechanistic basis for understanding how stress-activated kinases can sense distinct threats and perform highly specific adaptive responses.

11.
Cell Rep ; 29(7): 2092-2104.e4, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722220

RESUMO

Governance of protein phosphorylation by kinases and phosphatases constitutes an essential regulatory network in eukaryotic cells. Network dysregulation leads to severe consequences and is often a key factor in disease pathogenesis. Previous studies revealed multiple roles for protein phosphorylation and pathway structures in cellular functions from different perspectives. We seek to understand the roles of kinases and phosphatases from a protein homeostasis point of view. Using a streamlined tandem mass tag (SL-TMT) strategy, we systematically measure proteomic and phosphoproteomic responses to perturbations of phosphorylation signaling networks in yeast deletion strains. Our results emphasize the requirement for protein normalization for more complete interpretation of phosphorylation data. Functional relationships between kinases and phosphatases were characterized at both proteome and phosphoproteome levels in three ways: (1) Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, (2) Δgene-Δgene correlation networks, and (3) molecule covariance networks. This resource illuminates kinase and phosphatase functions and pathway organizations.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 1059, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649498

RESUMO

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a tauopathy that affects individuals with a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury, such as American football players. Initial neuropathologic changes in CTE include perivascular deposition of phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (p-tau) neurofibrillary tangles and other aggregates in neurons, astrocytes and cell processes in an irregular pattern often at the depths of the cortical sulci. In later stages, the p-tau depositions become widespread and is associated with neurodegeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to carry neuropathogenic molecules, most notably p-tau. We therefore examined the protein composition of EVs isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of former National Football League (NFL) players with cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and an age-matched control group (CTRL) with no history of contact sports or traumatic brain injury. EVs were isolated from the CSF samples using an affinity purification kit. Total tau (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated on threonine181 (p-tau181) in CSF-derived EVs from former NFL players and CTRL participants were measured by ultrasensitive immunoassay. The t-tau and p-tau181 levels of CSF-derived EV were positively correlated with the t-tau and p-tau181 levels of total CSF in former NFL players, respectively, but not in the CTRL group. 429 unique proteins were identified from CSF-derived EVs and quantified by TMT-10 plex method. The identified protein molecules were significantly enriched for the extracellular exosome molecules, Alzheimer's disease pathway and Age/Telomere Length ontology as determined by DAVID Gene Ontology analysis. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the differentially expressed EV proteins revealed enrichment of canonical liver/retinoid X receptor activation pathway. Upstream effect analysis predicted MAPT (tau) as an upstream regulator in former NFL players. These data will be useful for understanding the EV-mediated disease spread and development of novel EV biomarkers for CTE and related disorders.

13.
Nat Chem ; 11(12): 1113-1123, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659311

RESUMO

A fundamental challenge in chemical biology and medicine is to understand and expand the fraction of the human proteome that can be targeted by small molecules. We recently described a strategy that integrates fragment-based ligand discovery with chemical proteomics to furnish global portraits of reversible small-molecule/protein interactions in human cells. Excavating clear structure-activity relationships from these 'ligandability' maps, however, was confounded by the distinct physicochemical properties and corresponding overall protein-binding potential of individual fragments. Here, we describe a compelling solution to this problem by introducing a next-generation set of fully functionalized fragments differing only in absolute stereochemistry. Using these enantiomeric probe pairs, or 'enantioprobes', we identify numerous stereoselective protein-fragment interactions in cells and show that these interactions occur at functional sites on proteins from diverse classes. Our findings thus indicate that incorporating chirality into fully functionalized fragment libraries provides a robust and streamlined method to discover ligandable proteins in cells.

14.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(5): 622-638.e13, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588046

RESUMO

Post-transcriptional mechanisms have the potential to influence complex changes in gene expression, yet their role in cell fate transitions remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that suppression of the RNA helicase DDX6 endows human and mouse primed embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with a differentiation-resistant, "hyper-pluripotent" state, which readily reprograms to a naive state resembling the preimplantation embryo. We further demonstrate that DDX6 plays a key role in adult progenitors where it controls the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in a context-dependent manner. Mechanistically, DDX6 mediates the translational suppression of target mRNAs in P-bodies. Upon loss of DDX6 activity, P-bodies dissolve and release mRNAs encoding fate-instructive transcription and chromatin factors that re-enter the ribosome pool. Increased translation of these targets impacts cell fate by rewiring the enhancer, heterochromatin, and DNA methylation landscapes of undifferentiated cell types. Collectively, our data establish a link between P-body homeostasis, chromatin organization, and stem cell potency.

15.
Cell Syst ; 9(3): 258-270.e6, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521603

RESUMO

The highest frequencies of KRAS mutations occur in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The ability to target downstream pathways mediating KRAS oncogenicity is limited by an incomplete understanding of the contextual cues modulating the signaling output of activated K-RAS. We performed mass spectrometry on mouse tissues expressing wild-type or mutant Kras to determine how tissue context and genetic background modulate oncogenic signaling. Mutant Kras dramatically altered the proteomes and phosphoproteomes of preneoplastic and neoplastic colons and pancreases in a context-specific manner. We developed an approach to statistically humanize the mouse networks with data from human cancer and identified genes within the humanized CRC and PDAC networks synthetically lethal with mutant KRAS. Our studies demonstrate the context-dependent plasticity of oncogenic signaling, identify non-canonical mediators of KRAS oncogenicity within the KRAS-regulated signaling network, and demonstrate how statistical integration of mouse and human datasets can reveal cross-species therapeutic insights.

16.
J Proteome Res ; 18(11): 4020-4026, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547658

RESUMO

Stochasticity between independent LC-MS/MS runs is a challenging problem in the field of proteomics, resulting in significant missing values (i.e., abundance measurements) among observed peptides. To address this issue, several approaches have been developed including computational methods such as MaxQuant's match-between-runs (MBR) algorithm. Often dozens of runs are all considered at once by MBR, transferring identifications from any one run to any of the others. To evaluate the error associated with these transfer events, we created a two-sample/two-proteome approach. In this way, samples containing no yeast lysate (n = 20) were assessed for false identification transfers from samples containing yeast (n = 20). While MBR increased the total number of spectral identifications by ∼40%, we also found that 44% of all identified yeast proteins had identifications transferred to at least one sample without yeast. However, of these only 2.7% remained in the final data set after applying the MaxQuant LFQ algorithm. We conclude that false transfers by MBR are plentiful, but few are retained in the final data set.

17.
Anal Chem ; 91(19): 12167-12172, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490667

RESUMO

Stable isotope labeling of peptides is the basis for numerous mass-spectrometry-based quantification strategies. Isobaric tagging and metabolic labeling, namely, tandem mass tagging (TMT) and SILAC, are among the most widely used techniques for relative protein quantification. Here we report an alternative, precursor-based quantification method using nonisobaric TMT variants: TMTzero (TMT0) and superheavy TMT (shTMT). We term this strategy mass difference tandem mass tagging (mTMT). These TMT variants differ by 11 mass units; however, peptides labeled with these reagents coelute, analogous to SILAC-labeled peptide pairs. As a proof-of-concept, we profiled the proteomes of two cell lines that are frequently used in neuroscience studies, SH-SY5Y and SVGp12, using mTMT and standard SILAC-labeling approaches. We show similar quantified proteins and peptides for each method, with highly correlated fold-changes between workflows. We conclude that mTMT is a suitable alternative for precursor-based protein quantification.

18.
Mol Cell ; 75(3): 620-630.e9, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279659

RESUMO

mRNA modifications play important roles in regulating gene expression. One of the most abundant mRNA modifications is N6,2-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am). Here, we demonstrate that m6Am is an evolutionarily conserved mRNA modification mediated by the Phosphorylated CTD Interacting Factor 1 (PCIF1), which catalyzes m6A methylation on 2-O-methylated adenine located at the 5' ends of mRNAs. Furthermore, PCIF1 catalyzes only 5' m6Am methylation of capped mRNAs but not internal m6A methylation in vitro and in vivo. To study the biological role of m6Am, we developed a robust methodology (m6Am-Exo-Seq) to map its transcriptome-wide distribution, which revealed no global crosstalk between m6Am and m6A under assayed conditions, suggesting that m6Am is functionally distinct from m6A. Importantly, we find that m6Am does not alter mRNA transcription or stability but negatively impacts cap-dependent translation of methylated mRNAs. Together, we identify the only human mRNA m6Am methyltransferase and demonstrate a mechanism of gene expression regulation through PCIF1-mediated m6Am mRNA methylation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcrição Genética , Adenosina/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Metiltransferases/genética , Fosforilação , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Cell Metab ; 30(3): 539-555.e11, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257153

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes Burkitt, Hodgkin, and post-transplant B cell lymphomas. How EBV remodels metabolic pathways to support rapid B cell outgrowth remains largely unknown. To gain insights, primary human B cells were profiled by tandem-mass-tag-based proteomics at rest and at nine time points after infection; >8,000 host and 29 viral proteins were quantified, revealing mitochondrial remodeling and induction of one-carbon (1C) metabolism. EBV-encoded EBNA2 and its target MYC were required for upregulation of the central mitochondrial 1C enzyme MTHFD2, which played key roles in EBV-driven B cell growth and survival. MTHFD2 was critical for maintaining elevated NADPH levels in infected cells, and oxidation of mitochondrial NADPH diminished B cell proliferation. Tracing studies underscored contributions of 1C to nucleotide synthesis, NADPH production, and redox defense. EBV upregulated import and synthesis of serine to augment 1C flux. Our results highlight EBV-induced 1C as a potential therapeutic target and provide a new paradigm for viral onco-metabolism.

20.
Cell Rep ; 27(10): 2990-3005.e5, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167143

RESUMO

Interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) of the DNA helix are a deleterious form of DNA damage. ICLs can be repaired by the Fanconi anemia pathway. At the center of the pathway is the FANCD2/FANCI complex, recruitment of which to DNA is a critical step for repair. After recruitment, monoubiquitination of both FANCD2 and FANCI leads to their retention on chromatin, ensuring subsequent repair. However, regulation of recruitment is poorly understood. Here, we report a cluster of phosphosites on FANCD2 whose phosphorylation by CK2 inhibits both FANCD2 recruitment to ICLs and its monoubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. We have found that phosphorylated FANCD2 possesses reduced DNA binding activity, explaining the previous observations. Thus, we describe a regulatory mechanism operating as a molecular switch, where in the absence of DNA damage, the FANCD2/FANCI complex is prevented from loading onto DNA, effectively suppressing the FA pathway.

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