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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows the measurement of changes in blood flow in association with changes in brain activity. This technique has been used frequently to study brain activation in response to odorous stimuli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of odor delivery conditions on brain responses obtained with fMRI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Academic institution. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age = 29.5 years; 9 women, 11 men) participated. Three odor delivery methods were used: "tube" (odor presented intranasally with separate tubing for each nostril), "mask" (odor presented in a face mask covering the subject's nose) and "vacuum" (odor presented into the ambient air). Presentation of the pleasant "peach" odor was performed using a computer-controlled olfactometer. Subjects were asked to evaluate the intensity of the odors after each fMRI run. RESULTS: "Tube" showed higher self-rated odor intensity compared to "mask" and "vacuum" (F = 18.4, p < 0.001). Odor intensity had a positive correlation (r = 0.6, p < 0.05) with percent signal change extracted from the secondary olfactory cortex region in the mask condition. In the tube condition, several selected regions of interest (Amygdala, Insula, Thalamus) showed lower activations compared to the other two conditions (puncorrected < 0.001, mask > tube, vacuum > tube). CONCLUSION: Activations of region of interests (ROIs) in response to the odorous stimuli showed differences under the three conditions (mask, tube, vacuum). In this passive fMRI paradigm, this may partly reflect the differences in odor intensity, but also in attention and contextual variables related to odor perception.

2.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(3): 271-281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436502

RESUMO

Olfactory impairment and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) that may be associated with each other. This review aims to investigate the significance of olfaction in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with RBD and to assess moderating factors affecting olfactory performance. We searched articles on olfaction in RBD and PD in five electronic databases. We identified 32 studies for the systematic review and used 28 of those, including 2858 participants for meta-analysis. Results revealed significant deficits in odour identification (g=-1.80; 95% CI: -2.17 to -1.43), threshold (g=-1.29; 95% CI: -1.67 to -0.91), discrimination (g=-1.08; 95% CI: -1.28 to -0.87) and overall olfactory function (g=-1.64; 95% CI: -1.94 to -1.35) in patients with RBD. Except for the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III scores, none of the known moderating variables (including age, sex, disease duration and years of education) accounted for the olfactory function heterogeneity in patients with RBD. We identified similar olfactory impairments in patients with RBD and patients with PD (either with or without underlying RBD). These findings suggest that olfactory impairment may be a sensitive and stable diagnostic biomarker of RBD and appears to be useful for identifying patients with idiopathic RBD at high risk for early conversion to PD.

3.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(41): 689, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357339
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176319

RESUMO

We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who suffered from anosmia following an apparently mild head trauma when bumping into a door at her home. She reported no other accompanying symptoms after the injury that day. Olfactory function was completely lost, which was noted the day after the trauma. Gustatory function remained normal. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated lesions/bleeding in the right frontal lobe and in the area of the olfactory sulcus/bulb. The present case indicates that in case of apparently mild head trauma with anosmia, an MRI scan of the head should be performed because of suspect brain damage. This case also points to the deeper question how to gauge severity of head trauma.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study aims to determine the association between parosmia and clinically relevant recovery of olfactory function in patients with post-infectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) receiving olfactory training. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with PIOD that received olfactory training. Adult patients with the major complaint of quantitative smell loss were recruited and treated at several ENT clinics in German between 2008 and 2018. The outcome was based on the association between smell-loss related factors (including parosmia and phantosmia) and clinically relevant changes in overall and subdimension olfactory function of threshold, discrimination, and identification using binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 153 participants with PIOD were included. Clinically relevant improvements in overall olfactory function were more likely in those that had lower baseline olfactory function. Relevant improvements in discrimination function were more likely in those that had lower baseline olfactory function and those that had parosmia at the initial visit. Similarly, relevant improvements in odor identification were more likely in those that had a lower baseline olfactory function and in those who had parosmia at the first visit. Clinically significant improvements in odor threshold were more likely in those who were older in age. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the presence of parosmia is associated with clinically relevant recovery in olfactory discrimination and identification function in patients with PIOD receiving olfactory training. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2020.

6.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 277(6): 1675-1680, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research indicates that rheumatic disorders are accompanied by decreased chemosensory function. The present study aimed to specifically evaluate this issue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: 212 RA patients (43 men, 169 women, mean age 59 ± 13.3 years), and 30 healthy controls (10 men, 20 women, mean age 40 ± 15.3 years), were included in this study. Chemosensory measurements consisted of olfactory testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery (with odor thresholds, odor discrimination and odor identification; OT, OD, OI) and gustatory testing on a suprathreshold and a quasi-threshold level using "taste sprays" and "taste strips", respectively. In addition, inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein) and RA autoantibodies (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides, RA factors) were evaluated. RESULTS: Olfactory measurements showed 4% of the RA patients functionally anosmic and 40% hyposmic. RA patients scored significantly lower in suprathreshold olfactory tests (OD, OI) compared to controls (OI: 12.5 ± 2.5 vs. 14.1 ± 1.3; OD: 11.3 ± 2.7 vs. 12.9 ± 1.7). In addition, RA patient had decreased taste function compared to healthy individuals (10.4 ± 2.6 vs. 11.7 ± 1.7). Chemosensory function did not correlate with parameters related to the severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Chemosensory function (taste, OD and OI) appears to be decreased in RA patients. In contrast, OT was not affected. Changes in chemosensory function seem to be independent of disease parameters such as duration of disease or disease activity.

7.
Laryngoscope ; 130(12): E786-E790, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction is a common problem. However, too little attention has been paid to questionnaires used to evaluate quantitative olfactory dysfunction. Therefore, the current study aimed to develop a simple self-reported Mini Olfactory Questionnaire (Self-MOQ) for the screening of quantitative olfactory dysfunction in clinical practice. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-five patients who had subjective complaints of olfactory disorder participated. The Sniffin' Sticks test score was used to define functional anosmia, hyposmia, or normosmia. We assessed the factor structure as well as internal consistency, convergent validity, and discrimination performance. RESULTS: The results showed that the final version of the Self-MOQ included only one factor with five items. The Self-MOQ has a good internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.84) and validity (r = -0.60, P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that the Self-MOQ as compared to a visual analogue scale (VAS) is an effective measure for discriminating normosmic from hyposmic/anosmic patients, anosmic patients, and hyposmic patients. CONCLUSION: The Self-MOQ is a simple, reliable and valid questionnaire to screen olfactory dysfunction in clinical practice that appears to be superior to the use of VASs but does not replace olfactory testing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

8.
Chem Senses ; 44(6): 371-377, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046120

RESUMO

To date, most studies on the relationship between chemosensory performance and quality of life have focused on orthonasal measures of olfactory function. In the current investigation, we examined the predictive value of orthonasal and flavor identification indices of olfactory function on a wide spectrum of health and sociopsychological factors, including quality of life, life satisfaction, overall health, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 178 ENT patients (Mage = 58 ± 1), representing various causes of olfactory loss: idiopathic smell loss (n = 51; Mage = 63 ± 2), sinunasal disease (n = 27; Mage = 56 ± 3), head trauma (n = 33; Mage = 51 ± 2), and infections of the upper respiratory tract (n = 67; Mage = 59 ± 2). They completed self-report questionnaires and underwent olfactory testing using Sniffin' Sticks (orthonasal olfactory testing) and "Taste Powder" (intraorally applied flavors for retronasal olfactory testing, additionally inducing taste sensation). Data were analyzed with hierarchical regression models wherein the first step included subjects' sex, age, and orthonasal olfaction score. In the second step, we included the "Taste Powder" score. Tested models revealed that the first step was not significantly predicting variables of interest; however, there was an improvement of the model's predictive value when the "Taste Powder" score was added. Results of this study suggest that flavor identification significantly improves predictions of health and sociopsychological functioning of ENT patients with various etiologies.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(1): 130-140, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681196

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by sleep impairment and nightmares. As pleasant odors presented during sleep affect the emotional tone of dreams without inducing arousal, we investigated whether sleep patterns in PTSD can be improved via nocturnal olfactory stimulation. Participants were 40 inpatients with PTSD (n = 35 women; age range: 20-59 years) who completed a randomized, patient-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Baseline measurement for 5 consecutive nights was followed by a 5-night experimental intervention or placebo trial. During the intervention, patients received nocturnal stimulation with a pleasant odor (odor condition) or clean air (placebo condition) via an olfactometer that delivered inspiration-triggered stimuli in a nasal tube or via an odorized nasal clip. After each night, the patients completed standardized questionnaires that assessed sleep parameters and dream content. Each night, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, and wakefulness after sleep onset were monitored with a motion biosensor. Baseline assessment revealed that PTSD severity was associated with poorer sleep outcomes. An interaction effect showed that nocturnal odorization affected dream intensity. Post hoc tests revealed an improvement in the group that used the nasal clip as compared to baseline, d = 0.68. No negative effects were observed after odorization with the nasal clip. Considering the limited sample size, the study indicates that nocturnal olfactory stimulation may serve as a low-cost concomitant intervention to improve sleep quality in PTSD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Olfato , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Sonhos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Olfatometria/métodos , Método Simples-Cego , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Physiol Behav ; 201: 64-69, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576694

RESUMO

Olfaction moderates human sexual experiences and smell disorder patients sometimes spontaneously complain about impairments in their sexual life. The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the impact of olfactory dysfunction on sexual desire. We compared a sample of n = 100 (n = 52 women; aged 23-51 years, M = 40.1, SD = 8.2) outpatients with olfactory disorders to a sample of n = 51 healthy controls (n = 32 women; aged 21-63 years, M = 39.2, SD = 13.1). Sexual desire was assessed with a standardized questionnaire and with two additional items asking for quantitative and qualitative change of sexual desire since the onset of olfactory loss. In addition, subjects completed questionnaires about mood and partnership attachment. Within the patients' group, 29% of the subjects reported decreased sexual desire since the onset of olfactory loss. This change was predicted by depressive symptoms and olfactory function. Qualitative reports revealed for instance that the lack of attraction due to the other's body odor impedes partnership intimacy. The change of sexual desire was significantly related to depression and severity of olfactory impairment but not to partnership attachment. However, in the standardized questionnaire about sexual desire we observed no differences between patients and controls. To sum up, a considerable number of patients state sexual impairment as a concomitant complaint of olfactory dysfunction. Patients do typically not spontaneously report those intimate problems, routine care settings should inform about this common side effect and explicitly ask for sexual life.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Afeto , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Olfato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Neurol ; 265(10): 2322-2332, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109478

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a major public health problem may lead to olfactory dysfunction. However, little is known about brain responses to odors in TBI olfactory loss patients. Nineteen healthy controls and forty TBI olfactory dysfunctional patients (19 with hyposmia and 21 with anosmia) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan when two odors (peach and coffee) were presented intranasally using a computerized olfactometer. Olfactory performance was measured using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. TBI patients with hyposmia or anosmia showed decreased odor-induced brain activations in the primary olfactory area and insular cortex as compared to healthy controls (FWE-corrected peak p < 0.05). In addition, negative correlations were found between the time since injury (in month) and odor-induced brain responses in the right primary olfactory area for patients with hyposmia. Similar correlations were seen in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex for patients with anosmia. In conclusion, results from the current study are evidences for the impairment of central nervous processing of odor perception at all levels of the olfactory system among TBI patients with olfactory loss. In addition, the duration after the initial injury may have an impact on the severity of olfactory dysfunction.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicofísica , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 275(7): 1783-1788, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744638

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with the feeling of a congested nose not always suffer from an anatomical obstruction but might just have a low trigeminal sensibility, which prevents them from perceiving the nasal airstream. We examined whether intermittent trigeminal stimulation increases sensitivity of the nasal trigeminal nerve and whether this effect is accompanied by subjective improvement of nasal breathing. METHOD: Thirty-five patients (Mage = 58.4 years; SD = 14.8; Minage = 21 years; Maxage = 79 years; 43% females) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 36.7 years, SD = 14.5; Minage = 20 years; Maxage = 73 years; 60% females) participated in a study comprised of two sessions separated by "trigeminal training". During each session, trigeminal sensitivity towards CO2, trigeminal lateralization abilities and ratings of nasal patency were assessed. Age and training compliance were controlled. RESULTS: "Trigeminal training" had a positive effect on trigeminal sensitivity in both groups, (p = .027) and this effect depended on the training compliance (p < .001). "Trigeminal training" had no effect on lateralization abilities of the subjects (p > .05). Ratings of nasal patency increased in patients (p = .03), but not in controls. CONCLUSIONS: "Trigeminal training" consisting of intermittent presentation of diverse stimulants leads to an increase of trigeminal sensitivity, but this effect depended on the training compliance. Importantly, in patients, this training is also associated with an increase in self-rated nasal patency.


Assuntos
Obstrução Nasal/psicologia , Obstrução Nasal/terapia , Odorantes , Estimulação Física , Nervo Trigêmeo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Neurotrauma ; 35(22): 2632-2640, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699465

RESUMO

Olfactory loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) both lead to anatomical brain alterations in humans. Little research has been done on the structural brain changes for TBI patients with olfactory loss. Using voxel-based morphometry, the gray matter (GM) density was examined for 22 TBI patients with hyposmia, 24 TBI patients with anosmia, and 22 age-matched controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volumes were measured by manual segmentation of acquired T2-weighted coronal slices using a standardized protocol. Brain lesions in the olfactory-relevant areas also were examined for TBI patients. Results showed that patients with anosmia have more frequent lesions in the OB, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and the temporal lobe pole, compared with patients with hyposmia. GM density in the primary olfactory area was decreased in both groups of patients. In addition, compared with controls, patients with anosmia showed GM density reduction in several secondary olfactory eloquent regions, including the gyrus rectus, medial OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and cerebellum. However, patients with hyposmia showed a lesser degree of GM reduction, compared with healthy controls. Smaller OB volumes were found for patients with olfactory loss, compared with controls. TBI patients with anosmia had the smallest OB volumes, which were caused by the lesions for OB. In addition, post-TBI duration was negatively correlated with GM density in the secondary olfactory areas in patients with hyposmia, but was positively correlated with GM density in the frontal and temporal gyrus in patients with anosmia. The GM density and OB volume reduction among TBI patients with olfactory loss was largely dependent on the location and severity of brain lesions in olfactory-relevant regions. Longer post-TBI duration had an impact on brain GM density changes, which indicate a decreased olfactory function in patients with hyposmia and possible compensatory mechanisms in patients with anosmia.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Bulbo Olfatório/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 275(5): 1129-1137, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we introduce an extension of previous work by Soler et al. (Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 6(3):293-298, 2016) on a modified endoscopic scoring system of the Lund-Kennedy Score (focusing on the olfactory cleft) to evaluate its correlation with the olfactory function in patients with various smell disorders. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two-hundred and eighty-eight participants were included and categorized in five groups according to the cause of their olfactory disorder: (0) control, (1) idiopathic, (2) sino-nasal, (3) postinfectious and (4) post traumatic olfactory loss. Olfaction was evaluated using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test. The classical Lund-Kennedy scoring and a new olfactory cleft specific Lund-Kennedy scoring (OC-LK) were performed to evaluate mucosal changes. RESULTS: Significantly higher OC-LK scores on both sides were found in smell-impaired patients as compared to normosmic controls. When comparing the 4 groups, a significant difference of the OC-LK score were present between the sino-nasal and all other groups. Most importantly, significant negative correlations with strong effects were shown in the sino-nasal group between the OC-LK score and odor discrimination and odor identification. However, no such correlation emerged between the classical LK score and smell function. CONCLUSION: Olfactory cleft evaluation using the OC-LK score correlates with the olfactory function in patients with sino-nasal smell disorder. This diagnostic tool may reflect the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of sino-nasal smell loss, and therefore, should complement olfactory diagnostics in patients with sino-nasal smell disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Neurol ; 9: 79, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535673

RESUMO

Background: Nonmotor symptoms are very common in neurodegenerative diseases. In patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), olfactory dysfunction was first reported more than 20 years ago; however, its pathophysiological correlates and further implications remain elusive. Methods: In this so far largest case-control study, we analyzed olfactory performance with the "Sniffin' Sticks," a validated olfactory testing kit used in clinical routine. This test kit was designed to investigate different qualities of olfaction including odor threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification. Results: ALS patients were mildly but significantly impaired in TDI score, the composite of the three subtests (ALS 27.7 ± 7.9, Controls 32.3 ± 5.8). In contrast to Parkinson's disease, ALS patients did not show impaired performance in the suprathreshold tests identification and discrimination. However, the odor threshold was markedly decreased (ALS 6.0 ± 3.4, Controls 8.77 ± 3.6). This pattern of olfactory loss resembles sinonasal diseases, where olfactory dysfunction results from impeded odorant transmission to the olfactory cleft. The evaluation of medical history and clinical data of ALS patients showed that patients with perception of dyspnea (TDI 25.7 ± 8.0) performed significantly worse in olfactory testing compared to those who did not (TDI 30.0 ± 7.4). In line with that, we found that in patients with preserved respiratory function (vital capacity >70% of index value), olfactory performance did not differ from healthy controls. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the mild impairment of olfaction in patients suffering from ALS should at least partly be considered as a consequence of impaired respiratory function, and odor threshold might be a marker of respiratory dysfunction in ALS.

16.
Laryngoscope ; 128(1): 10-15, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Postinfectious olfactory loss is among the most common causes of olfactory impairment and has substantial negative impact on patients' quality of life. Recovery rates have been shown to spontaneously improve in most of patients, usually within 2 to 3 years. However, existing studies are limited by small sample sizes and short follow-up. We aimed to assess the prognostic factors for recovery in a large sample of 791 patients with postinfectious olfactory disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 791 patients with postinfectious olfactory loss. Olfactory functions were assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks test at the first and final visits (mean follow-up = 1.94 years). RESULTS: Smell test scores improved over time. In particular, patient's age and the odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D), and odor identification (I) (TDI) score at first visit were significant predictors of the extent of change. The percentage of anosmic and hyposmic patients exhibiting clinically significant improvement was 46% and 35%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence within the postinfectious olfactory loss literature, shedding light on the prognostic factors and showing that recovery of olfactory function is very frequent, even many years after the infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:10-15, 2018.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Limiar Sensorial
17.
Chem Senses ; 42(8): 699-708, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981826

RESUMO

This study investigated the relation of the fungiform taste papillae density and saliva composition with the taste perception of patients suffering from diagnosed taste disorders. For this purpose, 81 patients and 40 healthy subjects were included. Taste was measured by means of regional and whole mouth chemosensory tests, and electrogustometry. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin Sticks. Fungiform papillae were quantified using the "Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae". In addition, salivary parameters [flow rate, total proteins, catalase, total anti-oxidative capacity (TAC), carbonic anhydrase VI (caVI), and pH] were determined and the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. Patients showed less taste papillae compared to healthy subjects. The number of papillae correlated with total taste strip score and salivary flow rate. Regarding salivary parameters, the flow rate, protein concentration, and TAC of patients were higher compared to controls. In addition, salivary flow rate, protease, caVI, and catalase values correlated with the summed taste strip score. Regarding various taste disorders, salty-dysgeusia patients showed the lowest taste test scores compared to those with bitter or metal-dysgeusia. Olfactory function of patients was significantly worse compared to healthy controls. This difference was most pronounced for ageusia patients. Compared to controls, patients also exhibited higher depressive symptoms. The density of fungiform papillae seemed to be positively associated with taste perception. Furthermore, patients exhibited changes in saliva composition (higher salivary flow rate, increased protein concentration, proteolysis, and TAC) compared to controls indicating that assessment of saliva may be critical for the diagnostic procedure in taste disorders.


Assuntos
Saliva/química , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Paladar/metabolismo , Distúrbios do Paladar/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Percepção Gustatória , Adulto Jovem
18.
Chem Senses ; 41(8): 697-701, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27432834

RESUMO

Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI). Next, the possible impact of background noise and positive concurrent feedback were assessed. A total of 120 individuals participated in the study where the 3 conditional experiments, each involving 40 participants, were completed. Testing procedures that reversed the presentation order of subtests (I->D->T) scored a significantly lower overall TDI score than standard testing order with the threshold subtest being the most influenced. Additionally, nonverbal background noise lowered overall olfactory performance while concurrent feedback modulated threshold performance. These results emphasize the importance of testing parameters where olfactory perception and tasks may be modulated by adaptation and attentional distraction, respectively. This study helped furthermore to demonstrate that the investigated 3 deviations from the standard procedure revealed a significant impact on the performance outcome in olfactory assessment using the Sniffin' Sticks.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Ruído , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Pharm Des ; 22(15): 2245-52, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 5% of the general population is affected by functional anosmia. An additional 15% exhibit decreased olfactory function. Many of these individuals ask ENT-doctors or neurologists for help. A cornerstone of the counselling process is the assessment of olfactory function. The aim of this work is to give a differentiated overview about the administration of commonly used psychophysical tests for olfactory and gustatory function including their normative data. CONCLUSION: The use of standardized, reliable and validated tools is mandatory to provide patients with state-of the-art counseling on treatment options.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Paladar
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