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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity has been shown to be a superior measure over overall obesity for detecting cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to compare the effects of overall and central obesity on VTE and to calculate population attributable fraction for obesity for VTE. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) was used to represent overall and abdominal obesity, respectively. In the cohort study, we included 74,317 Swedish adults with anthropometric measures in 1997 and of whom 4332 were diagnosed with VTE until the end of 2017. A Mendelian randomization study was conducted to investigate causal associations of BMI, WC, and WC adjusted for BMI with VTE using data from FinnGen and UK Biobank study. Population attributable fraction was calculated for overall and abdominal obesity for VTE. RESULTS: In the cohort study, there were dose-response associations of BMI and WC with VTE. The association between BMI and VTE was attenuated largely after adjusting for WC. Among individuals with normal BMI, participants with substantially increased WC had 53% higher (HR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.28, 1.81) risk of VTE compared with those with normal WC. The causality of the association of WC adjusted for BMI with VTE was confirmed in MR analysis. The estimated population-attributable risk due to elevated BMI and WC were 12.4% (8.4%, 16.5%) and 23.7% (18.1%, 29.4%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: WC might be a preferable indictor linking obesity to VTE. A large proportion of VTE cases can be prevented if the population maintained a healthy BMI and WC.

3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3090-3101, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525569

RESUMO

A low intake of fruits and vegetables is a risk factor for gastric cancer, although there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the associations. In our study, the relationship between fruits and vegetables intake and gastric cancer was assessed, complementing a previous work on the association betweenconsumption of citrus fruits and gastric cancer. Data from 25 studies (8456 cases and 21 133 controls) with information on fruits and/or vegetables intake were used. A two-stage approach based on random-effects models was used to pool study-specific adjusted (sex, age and the main known risk factors for gastric cancer) odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Exposure-response relations, including linear and nonlinear associations, were modeled using one- and two-order fractional polynomials. Gastric cancer risk was lower for a higher intake of fruits (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.90), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.02), vegetables (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84), and fruits and vegetables (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.49-0.75); results were consistent across sociodemographic and lifestyles categories, as well as study characteristics. Exposure-response analyses showed an increasingly protective effect of portions/day of fruits (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.57-0.73 for six portions), noncitrus fruits (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.61-0.83 for six portions) and vegetables (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.43-0.60 for 10 portions). A protective effect of all fruits, noncitrus fruits and vegetables was confirmed, supporting further dietary recommendations to decrease the burden of gastric cancer.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 122(10): 1562-1570, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) issued revised recommendations for cancer prevention. We examined the relation between adherence to these recommendations and risk of total cancer in two population-based Swedish prospective cohorts (29,451 men and 25,349 women). METHODS: Standardized-WCRF/AICR 2018 and simplified-WCRF/AICR 2018 adherence scores were constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations for body weight, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption and dietary supplement use. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: During the 15.4 years of follow-up, 12,693 incident cancers were ascertained. The multivariable HR between extreme categories of the Standardized-WCRF/AICR 2018 score (4.1-7 vs. 0-2) was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.82-0.95) and for the Simplified score (5-8 vs. 0-2) was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.80-0.90); each 1-score increment in recommendation adherence was associated with 3% (95% CI = 1-5%) and 4% (95% CI = 2-5%) decreased risk, respectively. Based on the Simplified scoring, most participants (>90%) did not meet WCRF/AICR 2018 recommendations regarding consumption of plant foods, limited consumption of red/processed meat and 'fast food'/processed food, and <50% of participants met the weight and physical activity recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the 2018WCRF/AICR recommendations substantially reduced the risk of total cancer. Given that many people do not meet the recommendations, there is a great potential for cancer prevention.

7.
Gut ; 69(9): 1637-1644, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between Mediterranean diet and risk of later-onset Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83 147 participants (age range: 45-79 years) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men and Swedish Mammography Cohort. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to calculate an adherence score to a modified Mediterranean diet (mMED) at baseline in 1997. Incident diagnoses of CD and UC were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to calculate HRs and 95% CI. RESULTS: Through December of 2017, we confirmed 164 incident cases of CD and 395 incident cases of UC with an average follow-up of 17 years. Higher mMED score was associated with a lower risk of CD (Ptrend=0.03) but not UC (Ptrend=0.61). Compared with participants in the lowest category of mMED score (0-2), there was a statistically significant lower risk of CD (HR=0.42, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.80) but not UC (HR=1.08, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.58). These associations were not modified by age, sex, education level, body mass index or smoking (all Pinteraction >0.30). The prevalence of poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet (mMED score=0-2) was 27% in our cohorts, conferring a population attributable risk of 12% for later-onset CD. CONCLUSION: In two prospective studies, greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a significantly lower risk of later-onset CD.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 671-681, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Eur Respir J ; 55(2)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806717

RESUMO

Dietary antioxidant intake has been hypothesised to influence lung function. The association between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet at age 8 years and lung function development up to 16 years in 2307 participants from the Swedish population-based birth cohort BAMSE (Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology) was investigated.Information on TAC was obtained from a food frequency questionnaire at 8 years. Lung function was measured by spirometry at 8 and 16 years, impulse oscillometry (IOS) and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (F eNO) at 16 years. Low lung function was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) z-score below the 25th percentile. Longitudinal associations between TAC and lung function were analysed by mixed effect models adjusted for potential confounders. Stratification by asthma at 8 years was performed to examine effect modification.The median TAC intake was 10 067 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE)·g-1, with males having a lower mean compared to females (9963 versus 10 819 µmol TE·g-1). In analyses of lung function change between 8 and 16 years, there were no statistically significant associations between TAC in tertiles and spirometry results for the total study population. Among children with asthma at 8 years (prevalence 7%), higher TAC was associated with higher mean FEV1 (0.46 sd, 95% CI 0.11-0.80) and decreased odds of low lung function at 16 years (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12-0.65). There were no associations between TAC and forced vital capacity or IOS/F eNO results.High dietary antioxidant intake in school age may be associated with improved lung function development from school age to adolescence among children with asthma.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 686-697, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether recommended amounts of leisure-time physical activity (ie, 7.5-15 metabolic equivalent task [MET] hours/week) are associated with lower cancer risk, describe the shape of the dose-response relationship, and explore associations with moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. METHODS: Data from 9 prospective cohorts with self-reported leisure-time physical activity and follow-up for cancer incidence were pooled. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of the relationships between physical activity with incidence of 15 types of cancer. Dose-response relationships were modeled with restricted cubic spline functions that compared 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 MET hours/week to no leisure-time physical activity, and statistically significant associations were determined using tests for trend (P < .05) and 95% CIs (< 1.0). RESULTS: A total of 755,459 participants (median age, 62 years [range, 32-91 years]; 53% female) were followed for 10.1 years, and 50,620 incident cancers accrued. Engagement in recommended amounts of activity (7.5-15 MET hours/week) was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of 7 of the 15 cancer types studied, including colon (8%-14% lower risk in men), breast (6%-10% lower risk), endometrial (10%-18% lower risk), kidney (11%-17% lower risk), myeloma (14%-19% lower risk), liver (18%-27% lower risk), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11%-18% lower risk in women). The dose response was linear in shape for half of the associations and nonlinear for the others. Results for moderate- and vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity were mixed. Adjustment for body mass index eliminated the association with endometrial cancer but had limited effect on other cancer types. CONCLUSION: Health care providers, fitness professionals, and public health practitioners should encourage adults to adopt and maintain physical activity at recommended levels to lower risks of multiple cancers.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(6): 2018-2025, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease, with high mortality rate and substantial disability among survivors. Its causes are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate risk factors for SAH using a novel nationwide cohort consortium. METHODS: We obtained individual participant data of 949 683 persons (330 334 women) between 25 and 90 years old, with no history of SAH at baseline, from 21 population-based cohorts. Outcomes were obtained from the Swedish Patient and Causes of Death Registries. RESULTS: During 13 704 959 person-years of follow-up, 2659 cases of first-ever fatal or non-fatal SAH occurred, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 9.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) (7.4-10.6)/100 000 person-years] in men and 13.8 [(11.4-16.2)/100 000 person-years] in women. The incidence rate increased exponentially with higher age. In multivariable-adjusted Poisson models, marked sex interactions for current smoking and body mass index (BMI) were observed. Current smoking conferred a rate ratio (RR) of 2.24 (95% CI 1.95-2.57) in women and 1.62 (1.47-1.79) in men. One standard deviation higher BMI was associated with an RR of 0.86 (0.81-0.92) in women and 1.02 (0.96-1.08) in men. Higher blood pressure and lower education level were also associated with higher risk of SAH. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH is 45% higher in women than in men, with substantial sex differences in risk factor strengths. In particular, a markedly stronger adverse effect of smoking in women may motivate targeted public health initiatives.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/mortalidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(4): 409-414, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30353683

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and some of its components with the incidence of cataract extraction. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort with a total of 45 049 men, aged 45-79 years, from the Cohort of Swedish Men completed in 1997 a self-administered questionnaire concerning anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors. The men were followed from 1 January 1998 through 31 December 2012, and the cohort was matched with registers of cataract extraction. The main outcome measure was incident cases of age-related cataract extraction. RESULTS: Over the 15-years of follow-up, 7573 incident cases of cataract extraction were identified. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between single components of metabolic syndrome, abdominal adiposity, diabetes and hypertension and risk of cataract extraction was rate ratio (RR): 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.10, RR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.64-1.92 and RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.00-1.13, respectively. The risk of cataract extraction increased with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components (p < 0.0001). Men aged 65 years or younger at baseline with all three components of the metabolic syndrome had a relative risk of 2.43 (95% CI: 1.95-3.01) for cataract extraction. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of middle-aged and elderly men, metabolic syndrome with the combination of abdominal adiposity, diabetes and hypertension was associated with an increased risk for cataract extraction, especially among men aged 65 years or younger. These findings put emphasis on the importance of weight control and healthy lifestyle behaviours in order to prevent cataract.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata/estatística & dados numéricos , Catarata/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Catarata/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(6): 2393-2400, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084005

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: High intake of dietary fibres has been associated with a reduced risk of DD. However, reports on which type of dietary fibre intake that is most beneficial have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between different dietary fibres and hospitalisation due to diverticular disease (DD) of the colon. METHODS: This was a major cohort study. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were linked to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register. Data on the intake of dietary fibre were collected through questionnaires. The effect of intake (in quartiles) of different types of dietary fibre on the incidence of hospitalisation due to DD was investigated using multivariable Cox regression. Estimates were adjusted according to age, BMI, physical activity, co-morbidity, intake of corticosteroids, smoking, alcohol intake and education level. RESULTS: Women with intake of fruit and vegetable fibres in the highest quartile (median 12.6 g/day) had a 30% decreased risk of hospitalisation compared to those with the lowest intake (4.1 g/day). Men within the highest quartile (10.3 g/day) had a 32% decreased risk compared to those with a low intake (2.9 g/day). High intake of fibres from cereals did not affect the risk. CONCLUSION: A high intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of hospitalisation due to DD. Intake of cereals did not influence the risk.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Doenças Diverticulares/dietoterapia , Frutas , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças Diverticulares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(1): 123-129, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Consumption of sweetened beverages has been associated with inflammation based on measurements of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor, as well as immune-mediated disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated associations with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83,042 participants (age, 44-83 y) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men or the Swedish Mammography Study. Dietary and lifestyle data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline in 1997. Diagnoses of CD and UC were ascertained from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to calculate hazard ratios and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Through December of 2014, we confirmed 143 incident cases of CD (incidence rate, 11 cases/100,000 person-years) and 349 incident cases of UC (incidence rate, 28 cases/100,000 person-years) over 1,264,345 person-years of follow-up evaluation. Consumption of sweetened beverages was not associated with increased risk of CD (Ptrend = .34) or UC (Ptrend = .40). Compared with participants who reported no consumption of sweetened beverages, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for 1 or more servings per day were 1.02 for CD (95% CI, 0.60-1.73) and 1.14 for UC (95% CI, 0.83-1.57). The association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of CD or UC were not modified by age, sex (cohort), body mass index, or smoking (all Pinteraction ≥ .12). CONCLUSIONS: In analyses of data from 2 large prospective cohort studies from Sweden, we observed no evidence for associations between consumption of sweetened beverages and later risk of CD or UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2256, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892050

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 54: 125-132, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual participant data pooled analyses allow access to non-published data and statistical reanalyses based on more homogeneous criteria than meta-analyses based on systematic reviews. We quantified the impact of publication-related biases and heterogeneity in data analysis and presentation in summary estimates of the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer. METHODS: We compared estimates obtained from conventional meta-analyses, using only data available in published reports from studies that take part in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, with individual participant data pooled analyses including the same studies. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies from the StoP Project assessed the relation between alcohol intake and gastric cancer, 19 had specific data for levels of consumption and 18 according to cancer location; published reports addressing these associations were available from 18, 5 and 5 studies, respectively. The summary odds ratios [OR, (95%CI)] estimate obtained with published data for drinkers vs. non-drinkers was 10% higher than the one obtained with individual StoP data [18 vs. 22 studies: 1.21 (1.07-1.36) vs. 1.10 (0.99-1.23)] and more heterogeneous (I2: 63.6% vs 54.4%). In general, published data yielded less precise summary estimates (standard errors up to 2.6 times higher). Funnel plot analysis suggested publication bias. CONCLUSION: Meta-analyses of the association between alcohol drinking and gastric cancer tended to overestimate the magnitude of the effects, possibly due to publication bias. Additionally, individual participant data pooled analyses yielded more precise estimates for different levels of exposure or cancer subtypes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Razão de Chances
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Using pooled multivariable-adjusted rate ratios (RR), we explored relationships between prediagnostic body-mass-index (BMI), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR), and weight-gain during adulthood, and ALS in 419,894 women and 148,166 men from 10 community-based cohorts in USA, Europe, and Australia; 428 ALS deaths were documented in women and 204 in men. RESULTS: Higher mid-to-later adulthood BMI was associated with lower ALS mortality. For 5 kg/m2 increased BMI, the rate was 15% lower (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4-24%; p = 0.005). Although a clear linear trend was not evident for WHR at enrollment (p = 0.099) individuals in the highest cohort-specific quartile had 27% (95% CI: 0-47%; p = 0.053) lower ALS compared to those in the lowest. BMI in early adulthood did not predict ALS; fewer than 10% of participants had early adulthood BMI >25 kg/m2, limiting power. Weight-gain during adulthood was strongly associated with lower ALS; for an additional 1kg gain in weight/year, the RR = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.65; p < 0.001). Associations persisted when adjusted for diabetes at enrollment, restricted to never-smokers, and ALS deaths in the 5 years after enrollment were excluded (accounting for recent weight loss). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm somewhat conflicting, underpowered evidence that adiposity is inversely associated with ALS. We newly demonstrate that weight-gain during adulthood is strongly predictive of lower ALS risk.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 262: 66-70, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and specific cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is uncertain. Furthermore, data on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in relation to risk of aortic valve stenosis, atrial fibrillation, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and intracerebral hemorrhage are scarce and inconclusive. We examined the associations of T1DM and T2DM with incidence of seven CVD outcomes. METHODS: This study comprised 71,483 Swedish adults from two population-based prospective cohorts. T1DM and T2DM diagnosis and incident CVD cases were ascertained through linkage with the population-based registers. RESULTS: T1DM was associated with myocardial infarction (hazard ratio [HR] 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.47-4.30), heart failure (HR 2.68; 95% CI 1.76-4.09), and ischemic stroke (HR 2.61; 95% CI 1.80-3.79). Increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and heart failure was also observed in T2DM patients and the magnitude of the associations increased with longer T2DM duration. T2DM was also associated with an increased risk of aortic valve stenosis (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.05-1.71) and with lower risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.82) and intracerebral hemorrhage (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30-0.88). Only long-term T2DM (≥20 years) was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.02-2.04). CONCLUSION: T1DM and T2DM are associated with increased risk of major CVD outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort are registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127711 and NCT01127698, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
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