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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900456, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

4.
Rev Prat ; 68(4): 426-430, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869394

RESUMO

Pediatric lumbar puncture : indications, execution and complications. Lumbar puncture (LP) is a commonly performed procedure with specific indications and technical considerations in pediatrics. The principal indication is for the diagnosis of central nervous system infection, but in case of meningitis in infants, nuchal rigidity may be absent and the clinical picture is more likely to be marked by axial hypotonia associated with abnormal behavior and/or a bulging fontanel. Pharmacological agents and non-pharmacological techniques (reassuring approach, distraction, presence of a parent) should be used whenever possible, to create successful environmental conditions for the completion of the LP procedure in childhood. During the procedure, the LP needle should be moved forward slightly and perpendicularly to the patient's back, and the stylet should be removed regularly to check CSF reflux, as resistance related to the spinal ligaments and dura mere are often absent in young children. In children, post-LP headaches may be prevented by the use of atraumatic and/or the smallest LP needle, and the replacement of the stylet prior to needle removal.


Assuntos
Punção Espinal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Agulhas
5.
Mol Cancer ; 16(1): 115, 2017 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679432

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with constitutive activation of the MAPKinase RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK cell signaling pathway. We analyzed 9 LCH cases without BRAF V600 and MAP2K1 mutations by whole exome sequencing. We identified a new somatic BRAF splicing mutation in 2 cases. Both cases were childhood single system (SS) LCH cases, with self-healing outcome of the bone lesions. This mutant consisted in a 9 base pair duplication (c.1511_1517 + 2 duplication), encoding for a predicted mutant protein with insertion of 3 amino acids (p.Arg506_Lys507insLeuLeuArg) in the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain of BRAF. Transient expression of the c.1511_1517 + 2dup BRAF mutant in HEK293 cells enhanced MAPKinase pathway activation, and was not inhibited by vemurafenib but was inhibited by PLX8394, a second-generation BRAF inhibitor able to inhibit signaling of BRAF monomers and dimers. Future LCH molecular screening panel should include this new mutation to better define its prevalence in LCH and its restriction to autoregressive bone SS LCH.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
6.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 20(3): 255-261, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28521627

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, 9 genes including 7 autosomal ( STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15, and IRF8) and 2 X-linked genes ( NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about 18 genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant-INF-γ-mediated immunity. We report here a case of multifocal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin osteomyelitis in a context Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease mimicking a metastatic neuroblastoma in a child presenting with delayed growth. The investigation of her twin sister showed the same disease. A heterozygous mutation in exon 22 of STAT1 gene was found in both sisters, another sister and the father being healthy and heterozygous for the same mutation.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 178(3): 457-467, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444728

RESUMO

The BRAFV600E mutation is reported in half of patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). This study investigated the detection of the BRAFV600E allele in circulating cell-free (ccf) DNA in a paediatric LCH cohort. Children with BRAFV600E -mutated LCH were investigated to detect ccf BRAFV600E at diagnosis (n = 48) and during follow-up (n = 17) using a picolitre-droplet digital PCR assay. At diagnosis, ccf BRAFV600E was positive in 15/15 (100%) patients with risk-organ positive multisystem (RO+ MS) LCH, 5/12 (42%) of patients with RO- MS LCH and 3/21 (14%) patients with single-system (SS) LCH (P < 0·001, Fisher's exact test). The positive BRAFV600E load was higher for RO+ patients (mean, 2·90%; range, 0·04-11·4%) than for RO- patients (mean, 0·16%; range, 0·01-0·39) (P = 0·003, Mann-Whitney U test). After first-line vinblastine-steroid induction therapy, 7/7 (100%) of the non-responders remained positive for ccf BRAFV600E compared to 2/4 (50%) of the partial-responders and 0/4 of the complete responders (P = 0·002, Fisher's exact test). Six children treated with vemurafenib showed a clinical response that was associated with a decrease in the ccf BRAFV600E load at day 15. Thus, ccf BRAFV600E is a promising biomarker for monitoring the response to therapy for children with RO+ MS LCH or RO- LCH resistant to first-line chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/sangue , Adolescente , Alelos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sistema Livre de Células/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Vemurafenib , Vimblastina/uso terapêutico
8.
Presse Med ; 46(1): 85-95, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087208

RESUMO

DEFINITION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is defined by the association of a clinical and radiological involvement and a biopsy of a pathological tissue. Extension: it can affect any organ or system of the body but most commonly the bone (80% of cases), the skin (33%) and the pituitary (25%). Other organs are concerned such as liver, spleen, hematopoietic system and the lungs (15% each), lymph nodes (5-10%) and central nervous system (CNS) excluding the pituitary (2-4%). Natural history: the natural history of the disease is very heterogeneous, ranging from auto-regressive lesions to a disease affecting multiple organs with fatal consequences, while some lesions may be responsible for permanent sequels. A multidisciplinary approach: the perception of disease from physicians varies greatly depending on their speciality and experience, as well as the presentation of the disease or the short-term treatment outcomes. But whatever the initial view of the treating physician, a multidisciplinary approach to the LCH is recommended as well as the coordination of the necessary care of this systemic disease and its associated morbidity. THERAPY: current treatment protocols, adapted to the situation of each patient, provide a survival of 98% in children. The sequels, such as diabetes insipidus, hormonal deficits, deafness and even more rarely respiratory failure and sclerosing cholangitis are seen in up to 30% of children.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/complicações , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/terapia , Humanos
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(25): 3023-30, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAF(V600E) mutation. Patients with BRAF(V600E) manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAF(V600E) comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAF(V600E) mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAF(V600E) more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). CONCLUSION: In children with LCH, BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Registros , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
11.
Br J Haematol ; 174(6): 887-98, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273725

RESUMO

The French national cohort of children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has included 1478 patients since it was established in 1983. LCH therapeutic strategies substantially changed in 1998, so we have divided the cohort into two 15-year periods. Starting in 1998, therapy duration increased from 6 to 12 months, repeated induction therapy was performed in cases showing a poor response to the first induction with vinblastine and steroids, and refractory disease in a risk organ (RO+) was treated with cladribine and cytarabine. A total of 483 (33%) patients were enrolled before 1998, and 995 (67%) after 1998. Five-year survival was 96·6% (95% confidence interval: 95·4-97·5%) overall, improving from 92% pre-1998 to 99% post-1998 (P < 0·001 adjusted to disease extent). This change was supported by an increase in 5-year survival from 60% to 92% in the RO+ group. Survival was particularly associated with cladribine and cytarabine among refractory RO+ patients. Disease reactivation was slightly less frequent after 1998, due to better enrolment of single-system patients, extended therapy duration, and more efficient second-line therapy. The crude rates of endocrine and neurological sequelae (the most frequent sequelae) appeared to improve over time, but this difference was not observed when the analysis was stratified by disease extent.


Assuntos
Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/mortalidade , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Padrão de Cuidado , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(3): 220-34, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26951490

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia is a rare immuno-osseous dysplasia caused by biallelic mutations in ACP5. We aimed to provide a survey of the skeletal, neurological and immune manifestations of this disease in a cohort of molecularly confirmed cases. METHODS: We compiled clinical, genetic and serological data from a total of 26 patients from 18 pedigrees, all with biallelic ACP5 mutations. RESULTS: We observed a variability in skeletal, neurological and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked even between affected siblings. In total, 22 of 26 patients manifested autoimmune disease, most frequently autoimmune thrombocytopenia and systemic lupus erythematosus. Four patients were considered to demonstrate no clinical autoimmune disease, although two were positive for autoantibodies. In the majority of patients tested we detected upregulated expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), in keeping with the autoimmune phenotype and the likely immune-regulatory function of the deficient protein tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Two mutation positive patients did not demonstrate an upregulation of ISGs, including one patient with significant autoimmune disease controlled by immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data expand the known phenotype of SPENCD. We propose that the OMIM differentiation between spondyloenchondrodysplasia and spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation is no longer appropriate, since the molecular evidence that we provide suggests that these phenotypes represent a continuum of the same disorder. In addition, the absence of an interferon signature following immunomodulatory treatments in a patient with significant autoimmune disease may indicate a therapeutic response important for the immune manifestations of spondyloenchondrodysplasia.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/genética , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Osso e Ossos/imunologia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/imunologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Masculino , Osteocondrodisplasias/imunologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/patologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/deficiência , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/imunologia
14.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27018766

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by severe clinical infections usually caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species such as Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG) vaccines and environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria or more virulent mycobacteria as mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since 1996, Nine genes including 7 autosomal (STAT1, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL12B, IL12RB1, ISG15 and IRF8) and two X-linked genes (NEMO and CYBB) have been identified. Allelic heterogeneity leaded to recognize about eighteen genetic diseases with variable clinical phenotypes, but sharing a same physiological mechanism represented by a defect in human IL-12-dependant INF-γ mediated immunity. We report here a case of multifocal BCG osteomyelitis in a context Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease mimicking a metastatic neuroblastoma in a child presenting with delayed growth. The investigation of her twin sister showed the same disease. A heterozygous mutation in exon 22 of STAT 1 gene was found in both sisters, another sister and the father being healthy and heterozygous for the same mutation.

15.
Cancer Discov ; 6(2): 154-65, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566875

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Histiocytic neoplasms are clonal, hematopoietic disorders characterized by an accumulation of abnormal, monocyte-derived dendritic cells or macrophages in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH), respectively. The discovery of BRAF(V600E) mutations in approximately 50% of these patients provided the first molecular therapeutic target in histiocytosis. However, recurrent driving mutations in the majority of patients with BRAF(V600E)-wild-type non-LCH are unknown, and recurrent cooperating mutations in non-MAP kinase pathways are undefined for the histiocytic neoplasms. Through combined whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified recurrent kinase fusions involving BRAF, ALK, and NTRK1, as well as recurrent, activating MAP2K1 and ARAF mutations in patients with BRAF(V600E)-wild-type non-LCH. In addition to MAP kinase pathway lesions, recurrently altered genes involving diverse cellular pathways were identified. Treatment of patients with MAP2K1- and ARAF-mutated non-LCH using MEK and RAF inhibitors, respectively, resulted in clinical efficacy, demonstrating the importance of detecting and targeting diverse kinase alterations in these disorders. SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first description of kinase fusions in systemic histiocytic neoplasms and activating ARAF and MAP2K1 mutations in non-Langerhans histiocytic neoplasms. Refractory patients with MAP2K1- and ARAF-mutant histiocytoses had clinical responses to MEK inhibition and sorafenib, respectively, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genomic analysis of these disorders.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/enzimologia , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células não Langerhans/genética , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptor trkA/genética
18.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; (285): 24-7, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26183096

RESUMO

The paediatric haemato-oncology nurse and the child health nurse in a day hospital have specific technical skills and in-depth knowledge in order to be able to provide global care for children with leukaemia. Close collaboration between the different professionals working in this care unit is essential.


Assuntos
Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Leucemia/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Família , Humanos , Leucemia/terapia , Enfermagem Oncológica , Enfermagem Pediátrica
19.
JAMA ; 313(15): 1550-63, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25898053

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare primary immunodeficiency associated with severe microthrombocytopenia. Partially HLA antigen-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is often curative but is associated with significant comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes and safety of autologous HSC gene therapy in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Gene-corrected autologous HSCs were infused in 7 consecutive patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome lacking HLA antigen-matched related or unrelated HSC donors (age range, 0.8-15.5 years; mean, 7 years) following myeloablative conditioning. Patients were enrolled in France and England and treated between December 2010 and January 2014. Follow-up of patients in this intermediate analysis ranged from 9 to 42 months. INTERVENTION: A single infusion of gene-modified CD34+ cells with an advanced lentiviral vector. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Primary outcomes were improvement at 24 months in eczema, frequency and severity of infections, bleeding tendency, and autoimmunity and reduction in disease-related days of hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were improvement in immunological and hematological characteristics and evidence of safety through vector integration analysis. RESULTS: Six of the 7 patients were alive at the time of last follow-up (mean and median follow-up, 28 months and 27 months, respectively) and showed sustained clinical benefit. One patient died 7 months after treatment of preexisting drug-resistant herpes virus infection. Eczema and susceptibility to infections resolved in all 6 patients. Autoimmunity improved in 5 of 5 patients. No severe bleeding episodes were recorded after treatment, and at last follow-up, all 6 surviving patients were free of blood product support and thrombopoietic agonists. Hospitalization days were reduced from a median of 25 days during the 2 years before treatment to a median of 0 days during the 2 years after treatment. All 6 surviving patients exhibited high-level, stable engraftment of functionally corrected lymphoid cells. The degree of myeloid cell engraftment and of platelet reconstitution correlated with the dose of gene-corrected cells administered. No evidence of vector-related toxicity was observed clinically or by molecular analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated the feasibility of the use of gene therapy in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Controlled trials with larger numbers of patients are necessary to assess long-term outcomes and safety.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lentivirus , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/imunologia
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