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1.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 104064, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998064

RESUMO

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with a characteristic behavioural phenotype. A multidisciplinary approach to care is required to prevent multiple medical complications in individuals affected by PWS. The aim of this study was to describe the rehabilitation, medical care, educational and social support provided to school-aged French PWS patients with varying neuropsychological profiles. Data were obtained from a French multicentre study that included patients aged 4 to 20 years with diverse genetic syndromes. Nineteen PWS subjects with a mean age of 9.2 years were included. The mean full-scale intellectual quotient (IQ) was 58 (Wechsler scale). There were frequent dissociations between verbal and performance IQ that were not associated with a specific profile. We also observed lower autonomy and communication scores (5.3 years and 5.9 years equivalent, respectively, Vineland scale), the absence of hyperactivity (Conners scale), and the presence of behavioural abnormalities (CBCL scale). Multidisciplinary medical supervision was generally coordinated by the paediatric endocrinologist and did not always include follow-up with all of the recommended specialists, in particular with a paediatric psychiatrist. Analysis of multidisciplinary rehabilitation conducted in public and private-sector establishment revealed failings in psychological support, occupational therapy and dietary follow-up. Regarding education, most children younger than 10 years were in normal schools, while older individuals were often cared for in medico-social institutions. In conclusion, children and adolescents with PWS generally received appropriate care. Though there have been considerable improvements in the management of children with PWS, reference centres should continue reinforcing the coordination of multidisciplinary supervision.

2.
Genet Med ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Abnormality of the corpus callosum (AbnCC) is etiologically a heterogeneous condition and the prognosis in prenatally diagnosed cases is difficult to predict. The purpose of our research was to establish the diagnostic yield using chromosomal microarray (CMA) and exome sequencing (ES) in cases with prenatally diagnosed isolated (iAbnCC) and nonisolated AbnCC (niAbnCC). METHODS: CMA and prenatal trio ES (pES) were done on 65 fetuses with iAbnCC and niAbnCC. Only pathogenic gene variants known to be associated with AbnCC and/or intellectual disability were considered. RESULTS: pES results were available within a median of 21.5 days (9-53 days). A pathogenic single-nucleotide variant (SNV) was identified in 12 cases (18%) and a pathogenic CNV was identified in 3 cases (4.5%). Thus, the genetic etiology was determined in 23% of cases. In all diagnosed cases, the results provided sufficient information regarding the neurodevelopmental prognosis and helped the parents to make an informed decision regarding the outcome of the pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Our results show the significant diagnostic and prognostic contribution of CMA and pES in cases with prenatally diagnosed AbnCC. Further prospective cohort studies with long-term follow-up of the born children will be needed to provide accurate prenatal counseling after a negative pES result.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ubiquitination has a central role in numerous biological processes, including cell development, stress responses and ageing. Perturbed ubiquitination has been implicated in human diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases. SIAH1 encodes a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in protein ubiquitination. Among numerous other roles, SIAH1 regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor signalling and affects neural cell fate. Moreover, SIAH1 positively regulates Wnt signalling through ubiquitin-mediated degradation of Axin and accumulation of ß-catenin. METHODS: Trio exome sequencing followed by Sanger validation was undertaken in five individuals with syndromic developmental delay. Three-dimensional structural modelling was used to predict pathogenicity of affected residues. Wnt stimulatory activity was measured by luciferase reporter assays and Axin degradation assays in HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type and mutant SIAH1 expression plasmids. RESULTS: We report five unrelated individuals with shared features of developmental delay, infantile hypotonia, dysmorphic features and laryngomalacia, in whom exome sequencing identified de novo monoallelic variants in SIAH1. In silico protein modelling suggested alteration of conserved functional sites. In vitro experiments demonstrated loss of Wnt stimulatory activity with the SIAH1 mutants, suggesting variant pathogenicity. CONCLUSION: Our results lend support to SIAH1 as a candidate Mendelian disease gene for a recognisable syndrome, further strengthening the connection between SIAH1 and neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, the results suggest that dysregulation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2441, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415109

RESUMO

KIF21B is a kinesin protein that promotes intracellular transport and controls microtubule dynamics. We report three missense variants and one duplication in KIF21B in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) and microcephaly. We demonstrate, in vivo, that the expression of KIF21B missense variants specifically recapitulates patients' neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including microcephaly and reduced intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity. We establish that missense KIF21B variants impede neuronal migration through attenuation of kinesin autoinhibition leading to aberrant KIF21B motility activity. We also show that the ACC-related KIF21B variant independently perturbs axonal growth and ipsilateral axon branching through two distinct mechanisms, both leading to deregulation of canonical kinesin motor activity. The duplication introduces a premature termination codon leading to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Although we demonstrate that Kif21b haploinsufficiency leads to an impaired neuronal positioning, the duplication variant might not be pathogenic. Altogether, our data indicate that impaired KIF21B autoregulation and function play a critical role in the pathogenicity of human neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Cinesina/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Rede Nervosa/patologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Organogênese/genética , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
5.
J Med Genet ; 57(7): 466-474, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Marfanoid habitus (MH) combined with intellectual disability (ID) (MHID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous presentation. The combination of array CGH and targeted sequencing of genes responsible for Marfan or Lujan-Fryns syndrome explain no more than 20% of subjects. METHODS: To further decipher the genetic basis of MHID, we performed exome sequencing on a combination of trio-based (33 subjects) or single probands (31 subjects), of which 61 were sporadic. RESULTS: We identified eight genes with de novo variants (DNVs) in at least two unrelated individuals (ARID1B, ATP1A1, DLG4, EHMT1, NFIX, NSD1, NUP205 and ZEB2). Using simulation models, we showed that five genes (DLG4, NFIX, EHMT1, ZEB2 and ATP1A1) met conservative Bonferroni genomewide significance for an excess of the observed de novo point variants. Overall, at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was identified in 54.7% of subjects (35/64). These variants fell within 27 genes previously associated with Mendelian disorders, including NSD1 and NFIX, which are known to be mutated in overgrowth syndromes. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that DNVs were enriched in chromatin remodelling (p=2×10-4) and genes regulated by the fragile X mental retardation protein (p=3×10-8), highlighting overlapping genetic mechanisms between MHID and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

6.
Thyroid ; 30(8): 1217-1221, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204686

RESUMO

Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is a rare and under-recognized genetic disease caused by mutations of THRA, the gene encoding thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1). We report here two novel THRA missense mutations (M259T, T273A) in patients with RTHα. We combined biochemical and cellular assays with in silico modeling to assess the capacity of mutant TRα1 to bind triiodothyronine (T3), to heterodimerize with RXR, to interact with transcriptional coregulators, and to transduce a T3 transcriptional response. M259T, and to a lower extent T273A, reduces the affinity of TRα1 for T3. Their negative influence is only reverted by large excess of T3. The severity of the two novel RTHα cases originates from a reduction in the binding affinity of TRα1 mutants to T3 and thus correlates with the incapacity of corepressors to dissociate from TRα1 mutants in the presence of T3.

7.
Neuron ; 106(3): 404-420.e8, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135084

RESUMO

De novo germline mutations in the RNA helicase DDX3X account for 1%-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases in females and are associated with autism, brain malformations, and epilepsy. Yet, the developmental and molecular mechanisms by which DDX3X mutations impair brain function are unknown. Here, we use human and mouse genetics and cell biological and biochemical approaches to elucidate mechanisms by which pathogenic DDX3X variants disrupt brain development. We report the largest clinical cohort to date with DDX3X mutations (n = 107), demonstrating a striking correlation between recurrent dominant missense mutations, polymicrogyria, and the most severe clinical outcomes. We show that Ddx3x controls cortical development by regulating neuron generation. Severe DDX3X missense mutations profoundly disrupt RNA helicase activity, induce ectopic RNA-protein granules in neural progenitors and neurons, and impair translation. Together, these results uncover key mechanisms underlying DDX3X syndrome and highlight aberrant RNA metabolism in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disease.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Neurogênese , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , RNA/metabolismo
8.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(6): 758-762, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060908

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the gene encoding deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) are the first genetic cause of isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Here we present the detailed neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological characteristics of 12 individuals from three families with pathogenic variants in DCC (aged 8-50y), who showed ACC and mirror movements (n=5), mirror movements only (n=2), ACC only (n=3), or neither ACC nor mirror movements (n=2). There was heterogeneity in the neurological and neuroimaging features on brain MRI, and performance across neuropsychological domains ranged from extremely low (impaired) to within normal limits (average). Our findings show that ACC and/or mirror movements are associated with low functioning in select neuropsychological domains and a DCC pathogenic variant alone is not sufficient to explain the disability. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Neuropsychological impairment severity is related to presence of mirror movements and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum. A DCC pathogenic variant in isolation is associated with the best prognosis.

9.
J Med Genet ; 57(6): 389-399, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary hereditary microcephaly (MCPH) comprises a large group of autosomal recessive disorders mainly affecting cortical development and resulting in a congenital impairment of brain growth. Despite the identification of >25 causal genes so far, it remains a challenge to distinguish between different MCPH forms at the clinical level. METHODS: 7 patients with newly identified mutations in CDK5RAP2 (MCPH3) were investigated by performing prospective, extensive and systematic clinical, MRI, psychomotor, neurosensory and cognitive examinations under similar conditions. RESULTS: All patients displayed neurosensory defects in addition to microcephaly. Small cochlea with incomplete partition type II was found in all cases and was associated with progressive deafness in 4 of them. Furthermore, the CDK5RAP2 protein was specifically identified in the developing cochlea from human fetal tissues. Microphthalmia was also present in all patients along with retinal pigmentation changes and lipofuscin deposits. Finally, hypothalamic anomalies consisting of interhypothalamic adhesions, a congenital midline defect usually associated with holoprosencephaly, was detected in 5 cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first report indicating that CDK5RAP2 not only governs brain size but also plays a role in ocular and cochlear development and is necessary for hypothalamic nuclear separation at the midline. Our data indicate that CDK5RAP2 should be considered as a potential gene associated with deafness and forme fruste of holoprosencephaly. These children should be given neurosensory follow-up to prevent additional comorbidities and allow them reaching their full educational potential. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01565005.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031333

RESUMO

CDC42BPB encodes MRCKß (myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinase beta), a serine/threonine protein kinase, and a downstream effector of CDC42, which has recently been associated with Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome, an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified 12 heterozygous predicted deleterious variants in CDC42BPB (9 missense, 2 frameshift, and 1 nonsense) in 14 unrelated individuals (confirmed de novo in 11/14) with neurodevelopmental disorders including developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism, hypotonia, and structural brain abnormalities including cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. The frameshift and nonsense variants in CDC42BPB are expected to be gene-disrupting and lead to haploinsufficiency via nonsense-mediated decay. All missense variants are located in highly conserved and functionally important protein domains/regions: 3 are found in the protein kinase domain, 2 are in the citron homology domain, and 4 in a 20-amino acid sequence between 2 coiled-coil regions, 2 of which are recurrent. Future studies will help to delineate the natural history and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanisms of the missense variants leading to the neurodevelopmental and behavioral phenotypes.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(3): 356-370, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109418

RESUMO

Genetic syndromes frequently present with overlapping clinical features and inconclusive or ambiguous genetic findings which can confound accurate diagnosis and clinical management. An expanding number of genetic syndromes have been shown to have unique genomic DNA methylation patterns (called "episignatures"). Peripheral blood episignatures can be used for diagnostic testing as well as for the interpretation of ambiguous genetic test results. We present here an approach to episignature mapping in 42 genetic syndromes, which has allowed the identification of 34 robust disease-specific episignatures. We examine emerging patterns of overlap, as well as similarities and hierarchical relationships across these episignatures, to highlight their key features as they are related to genetic heterogeneity, dosage effect, unaffected carrier status, and incomplete penetrance. We demonstrate the necessity of multiclass modeling for accurate genetic variant classification and show how disease classification using a single episignature at a time can sometimes lead to classification errors in closely related episignatures. We demonstrate the utility of this tool in resolving ambiguous clinical cases and identification of previously undiagnosed cases through mass screening of a large cohort of subjects with developmental delays and congenital anomalies. This study more than doubles the number of published syndromes with DNA methylation episignatures and, most significantly, opens new avenues for accurate diagnosis and clinical assessment in individuals affected by these disorders.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Estudos de Coortes , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Síndrome
12.
Hum Mutat ; 41(4): 837-849, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898846

RESUMO

IFIH1 gain-of-function has been reported as a cause of a type I interferonopathy encompassing a spectrum of autoinflammatory phenotypes including Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and Singleton Merten syndrome. Ascertaining patients through a European and North American collaboration, we set out to describe the molecular, clinical and interferon status of a cohort of individuals with pathogenic heterozygous mutations in IFIH1. We identified 74 individuals from 51 families segregating a total of 27 likely pathogenic mutations in IFIH1. Ten adult individuals, 13.5% of all mutation carriers, were clinically asymptomatic (with seven of these aged over 50 years). All mutations were associated with enhanced type I interferon signaling, including six variants (22%) which were predicted as benign according to multiple in silico pathogenicity programs. The identified mutations cluster close to the ATP binding region of the protein. These data confirm variable expression and nonpenetrance as important characteristics of the IFIH1 genotype, a consistent association with enhanced type I interferon signaling, and a common mutational mechanism involving increased RNA binding affinity or decreased efficiency of ATP hydrolysis and filament disassembly rate.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(3): 565-569, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793730

RESUMO

RING Finger Protein 113 A (RNF113A, MIM 300951) is a highly conserved gene located on chromosome Xq24-q25, encoding a protein containing two conserved zinc finger domains involved in DNA alkylation repair and premessenger RNA splicing. To date, only one pathogenic variant of RNF113A, namely c.901C>T; p.Gln301Ter, has been reported in humans by Tarpey et al. in 2009. Thereafter, Corbett et al. stated that this variant was responsible for an X-linked form of nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy associated with profound intellectual disability, microcephaly, partial corpus callosum agenesis, microphallus, and absent or rudimentary testes. This variant was then shown to alter DNA alkylation repair, providing an additional argument supporting its pathogenicity and important clues about the underlying pathophysiology of nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy. Using exome sequencing, we identified exactly the same RNF113A variant in two fetuses affected with abnormalities similar to those previously reported by Corbett et al. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a RNF113A pathogenic variant in humans.

14.
Neurobiol Dis ; 136: 104709, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843706

RESUMO

Corpus callosum agenesis (CCA) is a brain malformation associated with a wide clinical spectrum including intellectual disability (ID) and an etiopathological complexity. We identified a novel missense G424R mutation in the X-linked p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) gene in a boy presenting with severe ID, microcephaly and CCA and his fetal sibling with CCA and severe hydrocephaly. PAK3 kinase is known to control synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine dynamics but its implication is less characterized in brain ontogenesis. In order to identify developmental functions of PAK3 impacted by mutations responsible for CCA, we compared the biochemical and biological effects of three PAK3 mutations localized in the catalytic domain. These mutations include two "severe" G424R and K389N variants (responsible for severe ID and CCA) and the "mild" A365E variant (responsible for nonsyndromic mild ID). Whereas they suppressed kinase activity, only the two severe variants displayed normal protein stability. Furthermore, they increased interactions between PAK3 and the guanine exchange factor αPIX/ARHGEF6, disturbed adhesion point dynamics and cell spreading, and severely impacted cell migration. Our findings highlight new molecular defects associated with mutations responsible for severe clinical phenotypes with developmental brain defects.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876365

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS, KS1: OMIM 147920 and KS2: OMIM 300867) is caused by pathogenic variations in KMT2D or KDM6A. KS is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Growth restriction is frequently reported. Here we aimed to create specific growth charts for individuals with KS1, identify parameters used for size prognosis and investigate the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height. Growth parameters and parental size were obtained for 95 KS1 individuals (41 females). Growth charts for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and occipitofrontal circumference were generated in standard deviation values for the first time in KS1. Statural growth of KS1 individuals was compared to parental target size. According to the charts, height, weight, BMI, and occipitofrontal circumference were lower for KS1 individuals than the normative French population. For males and females, the mean growth of KS1 individuals was -2 and -1.8 SD of their parental target size, respectively. Growth hormone therapy did not increase size beyond the predicted size. This study, from the largest cohort available, proposes growth charts for widespread use in the management of KS1, especially for size prognosis and screening of other diseases responsible for growth impairment beyond a calculated specific target size.

16.
Clin Genet ; 97(3): 477-482, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883110

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in the PLCB1 gene, encoding for a phospholipase C beta isoform strongly expressed in the brain, have been reported to cause infantile epileptic encephalopathy in only four children to date. We report here three additional patients to delineate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the disease. Our three patients were one sporadic case with an intragenic homozygous deletion and two cousins with the homozygous p.(Arg222*) nonsense variant in PLCB1. These patients had severe to profound intellectual disability, epileptic spasms at age 3-5 months concomitant with developmental arrest or regression, other seizure types and drug-resistant epilepsy. With this report, we expand the clinical, radiologic and electroencephalographic knowledge about the extremely rare PLCB1-related encephalopathy. Since the first report in 2010, the overall number of reported patients with our additional patients is currently limited to seven. All seven patients had epileptic encephalopathy, mainly infantile spasms and 6/7 had profound intellectual disability, with one only being able to walk. Truncal hypotonia was the most frequent neurological sign, sometimes associated with pyramidal and/or extrapyramidal hypertonia of limbs. Microcephaly was inconstant. In conclusion, the phenotypical spectrum of PLCB1-related encephalopathy is relatively narrow, comprises infantile spasms and severe to profound intellectual disability, and does not seem to define a recognizable clinical entity.

17.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 181(4): 509-518, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643139

RESUMO

The common genes responsible for overgrowth syndromes play key roles in regulating transcription through histone modification and chromatin modeling. The SETD2 gene encoding a H3K36 trimethyltransferase is implicated in Sotos-like syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by postnatal overgrowth, macrocephaly, obesity, speech delay, and advanced carpal ossification. We report four new patients with constitutional SETD2 mutations and review nine earlier reported patients. Almost all patients presented with macrocephaly associated with advanced stature and obesity in half of the cases. In addition to these principal manifestations, neurodevelopmental disorders are common such as intellectual disability (83%), autism spectrum disorders (89%), and behavioral difficulties (100%) with aggressive outbursts (83%). A variety of features such as joint hypermobility (29%), hirsutism (33%), and naevi (50%) were also reported. Constitutional SETD2 mutations are intragenic loss-of-function variants with truncating (69%) and missense (31%) mutations. Functional studies are necessary to improve understanding of the pathogenicity of some missense SETD2 mutations.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome de Sotos/genética
19.
J Genet Couns ; 28(5): 1011-1020, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313463

RESUMO

Nail-Patella syndrome (NPS) is a genetic disorder generating physical malformations and, in approximately one in three cases, ocular and renal damage. The present research aimed to deeply understand patients' subjective experience with NPS, particularly the aspects of the syndrome that affect patients' adaptation and to propose interventions that can improve genetic and psychological counseling and help patients cope with their condition. Semi-structured interviews of nine people diagnosed with NPS were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results highlighted attempts to look like a person without disabilities by hiding malformations and not telling the truth about symptoms' genetic origin because of patients' poor self-esteem, negative self-cognition, and social isolation experienced from childhood to adulthood. Difficulties of adaptation to physical limits and pain were also identified. The majority of participants who were not diagnosed at birth tended to consider physical symptoms as "birth malformations" without imagining other potential implications until receiving a diagnosis. Despite the diagnosis, the majority continued to minimize the potential complications by considering NPS as a "physical difference" and not adhering to medical surveillance.

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