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1.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Each year, millions of people suffer from fragility fractures. Hip fractures are the most devastating type of such fractures. We aimed to investigate whether the association of dietary calcium intake with hip fracture risk can be modified by a healthy diet, herein defined as the modified Mediterranean diet score (mMED), in Swedish adults. METHODS: The study included 82,092 men and women at baseline. Diet and covariate data were collected twice, 12 years apart, using questionnaires. Information on incident hip fractures was collected from a national registry. Dietary calcium intake and mMED were each categorized into low, medium and high categories, and in nine combined strata of the two exposures. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of hip fracture with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, with time-updated information on exposures and covariates. Non-linear trends were assessed using restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: During 20 years of follow-up including 1,367,260 person-years at risk, 5938 individuals experienced a hip fracture. Dietary calcium intake and hip fracture were non-linearly associated, whereas adherence to mMED decreased hip fracture rates in a dose-response pattern. The lowest hip fracture rates were observed among women and men who reported a calcium intake of 800 mg or more, combined with a high adherence to mMED. In each stratum of calcium intake, the HRs of hip fracture were increasingly higher with lower adherence to mMED, compared with the reference level (high calcium and high mMED). Individuals with low calcium intake (<800 mg/day) or high calcium intake (>1200 mg/day) combined with low adherence to mMED had a HR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.28-1.85) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.26-1.77), respectively. No major differences in the hip fracture risk patterns were discerned between women and men. CONCLUSION: A moderate to high dietary calcium intake in the context of an overall healthy diet were associated with lower hip fracture rates.

2.
Int J Med Robot ; : e2195, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Full-procedure virtual reality (VR) simulator training in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a new tool in surgical education. METHODS: Description of the development of a VR RARP simulation model, (RobotiX-Mentor®) including non-guided bladder neck (ngBND) and neurovascular bundle dissection (ngNVBD) modules, and assessment of face, content, and construct validation of the ngBND and ngNVBD modules by robotic surgeons with different experience levels. RESULTS: Simulator and ngBND/ngNVBD modules were rated highly by all surgeons for realism and usability as training tool. In the ngBND-task construct, validation was not achieved in task-specific performance metrics. In the ngNVBD, task-specific performance of the expert/intermediately experienced surgeons was significantly better than that of novices. CONCLUSIONS: We proved face and content validity of simulator and both modules, and construct validity for generic metrics of the ngBND module and for generic and task-specific metrics of the ngNVBD module.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927800

RESUMO

Milk and fermented milk consumption has been linked to health and mortality but the association with Parkinson's disease (PD) is uncertain. We conducted a study to investigate whether milk and fermented milk intakes are associated with incident PD. This cohort study included 81,915 Swedish adults (with a mean age of 62 years) who completed a questionnaire, including questions about milk and fermented milk (soured milk and yogurt) intake, in 1997. PD cases were identified through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, 1251 PD cases were identified in the cohort. Compared with no or low milk consumption (<40 mL/day), the hazard ratios of PD across quintiles of milk intake were 1.29 (95% CI 1.07, 1.56) for 40-159 mL/day, 1.19 (95% CI 0.99, 1.42) for 160-200 mL/day, 1.29 (95% CI 1.08, 1.53) for 201-400 mL/day, and 1.14 (95% CI 0.93, 1.40) for >400 mL/day. Fermented milk intake was not associated with PD. We found a weak association between milk intake and increased risk of PD but no dose-response relationship. Fermented milk intake was not associated with increased risk of PD.

4.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the effect on mortality of a higher body mass index (BMI) can be compensated for by adherence to a healthy diet and whether the effect on mortality by a low adherence to a healthy diet can be compensated for by a normal weight. We aimed to evaluate the associations of BMI combined with adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet on all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our longitudinal cohort design included the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) and the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM) (1997-2017), with a total of 79,003 women (44%) and men (56%) and a mean baseline age of 61 years. BMI was categorized into normal weight (20-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (30+ kg/m2). Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed by means of the modified Mediterranean-like diet (mMED) score, ranging from 0 to 8; mMED was classified into 3 categories (0 to <4, 4 to <6, and 6-8 score points), forming a total of 9 BMI × mMED combinations. We identified mortality by use of national Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazard models with time-updated information on exposure and covariates were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Our HRs were adjusted for age, baseline educational level, marital status, leisure time physical exercise, walking/cycling, height, energy intake, smoking habits, baseline Charlson's weighted comorbidity index, and baseline diabetes mellitus. During up to 21 years of follow-up, 30,389 (38%) participants died, corresponding to 22 deaths per 1,000 person-years. We found the lowest HR of all-cause mortality among overweight individuals with high mMED (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. Using the same reference, obese individuals with high mMED did not experience significantly higher all-cause mortality (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11). In contrast, compared with those with normal weight and high mMED, individuals with a low mMED had a high mortality despite a normal BMI (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.48-1.74). We found similar estimates among women and men. For CVD mortality (12,064 deaths) the findings were broadly similar, though obese individuals with high mMED retained a modestly increased risk of CVD death (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.16-1.44) compared with those with normal weight and high mMED. A main limitation of the present study is the observational design with self-reported lifestyle information with risk of residual or unmeasured confounding (e.g., genetic liability), and no causal inferences can be made based on this study alone. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that diet quality modifies the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in women and men. A healthy diet may, however, not completely counter higher CVD mortality related to obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Suécia
5.
Gerodontology ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors that increase the risk of discontinuing dental care utilisation after dementia is diagnosed in a population in Stockholm County, Sweden. BACKGROUND: As the progression of dementia results in a deteriorating ability to maintain good oral health, it is important to identify people at risk of discontinued dental care after being diagnosed with dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a register-based longitudinal study. Data were extracted from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem), the Swedish National Patient Register, the Dental Health Register and the Municipal Dental Care Register (Stockholm County Council). The data included people using both general public dental services and care-dependent individuals. Dental visits three years before and after dementia had been diagnosed were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 10 444 people were included in the analysis, of which 19% did not have dental visits recorded after they were diagnosed with dementia. A logistic regression model, adjusted for relevant factors, showed that the factors associated with a greater risk for discontinued dental attendance were fewer remaining teeth (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95, 0.97) and living alone compared to living with another adult (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.43). People with Parkinson's disease dementia had a lower risk (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.84) than people with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSION: Patients, dental and healthcare personnel, and family members should all be aware of these risk factors so that appropriate support and oral care for people with dementia can be delivered.

6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 355-365, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is one of the most common craniofacial malformations demanding surgical treatment in infancy. Data on overall psychiatric morbidity among children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis remain limited. This study investigated the risk of psychiatric disorders in nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. METHODS: The authors reviewed a register-based cohort of all individuals born with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis in Sweden between 1973 to 1986 and 1997 to 2012 (n = 1238). The nonsyndromic craniosynostosis cohort was compared with a matched community cohort (n = 12,380) and with unaffected full siblings (n = 1485). The authors investigated the risk of psychiatric disorders, suicide attempts, and suicides by using Cox regression adjusted for perinatal and somatic factors, season and birth year, sex, parental socioeconomic factors, and parental psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis had a higher risk of any psychiatric disorder (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.70; 95 percent CI, 1.43 to 2.02), including intellectual disability (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 4.96; 95 percent CI, 3.20 to 7.70), language disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 2.36; 95 percent CI, 1.57 to 3.54), neurodevelopmental disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.30; 95 percent CI, 1.01 to 1.69), and other psychiatric disorders (adjusted Cox-derived hazard ratio, 1.43; 95 percent CI, 1.11 to 1.85). Full siblings with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis were more likely, in the crude analyses, to be diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder, including intellectual disability, language disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders compared with nonaffected siblings. The higher risk for any psychiatric disorder and intellectual disability remained after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis demonstrated higher risks of any psychiatric disorder compared with children without nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. This risk cannot fully be explained by familial influences (i.e., genetic or environmental factors). CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Craniossinostoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(17): 1486-1494, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Sweden, approximately 1 in 4 women who are ≥50 years of age will sustain a hip fracture. Patients treated for a femoral shaft fracture are likely to have an even higher risk. We hypothesized that intramedullary nails protecting the femoral neck reduce the risk of subsequent hip fracture and allow the patient to avoid a challenging reoperation. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2010, 5,475 fractures of the femoral shaft, in patients who were ≥55 years of age, were registered in a national registry in Sweden. Of these patients, 897 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We used radiographs and register data to identify the reasons for and the types of reoperation that occurred between the index surgical procedure and December 31, 2014. The categories of implants were determined through a review of radiographs as intramedullary nails with and without femoral neck protection. Reoperations related to peri-implant fractures (including hip fractures) were analyzed as a subgroup of all major reoperations. Multivariable-adjusted, cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated to compare the risk of reoperation between cases with nails with and without femoral neck protection. RESULTS: Among the 897 patients, a total of 82 reoperations were performed. In 640 patients who were treated with intramedullary nails with femoral neck protection, there were 7 peri-implant fractures (no hip fractures) and 27 major reoperations. Among the 257 patients who were treated with intramedullary nails without femoral neck protection, 14 peri-implant hip fractures and 24 major reoperations were identified. Patients who received nails with femoral neck protection had a lower hazard for any peri-implant fracture (multivariable-adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07 to 0.5]) and major reoperation (multivariable-adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28 to 0.92]). CONCLUSIONS: Intramedullary nails with femoral neck protection in the treatment of low-energy femoral shaft fractures prevent secondary hip fractures and decrease the overall risk of reoperation for 4 to 6 years postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 473-480, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229696

RESUMO

Objective: Co-aggregation of autoimmune diseases is common, suggesting partly shared etiologies. Genetic factors are believed to be important, but objective measures of environmental vs heritable influences on co-aggregation are absent. With a novel approach to twin studies, we aimed at estimating heritability and genetic overlap in seven organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Design: Prospective twin cohort study. Methods: We used a cohort of 110 814 twins to examine co-aggregation and heritability of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, atrophic gastritis, celiac disease, Graves' disease, type 1 diabetes, vitiligo and Addison's disease. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for twins developing the same or different disease as compared to their co-twin. The differences between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs were used to estimate the genetic influence on co-aggregation. Heritability for individual disorders was calculated using structural equational modeling adjusting for censoring and truncation of data. Results: Co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic twins (median HR: 3.2, range: 2.2-9.2) than in dizygotic twins (median HR: 2.4, range: 1.1-10.0). Heritability was moderate for atrophic gastritis (0.38, 95% CI: 0.23-0.53) but high for all other diseases, ranging from 0.60 (95% CI: 0.49-0.71) for Graves' disease to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00) for Addison's disease. Conclusions: Overall, co-aggregation was more pronounced in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins, suggesting that disease overlap is largely attributable to genetic factors. Co-aggregation was common, and twins faced up to a ten-fold risk of developing diseases not present in their co-twin. Our results validate and refine previous heritability estimates based on smaller twin cohorts.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Doença de Addison/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gastrite Atrófica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença de Graves/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
9.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049443

RESUMO

A conclusive diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM) can be based on effusion cytology using the guidelines for the cytopathologic diagnosis of epithelioid and mixed-type MM. Briefly, the diagnosis is obtained when the mesothelial phenotype of malignant cells is established by ancillary techniques. This study is based on the comparison of the overall survival rates of patients with MM when diagnosed by effusion cytology, histopathology, or a combination of both. A total of 144 patients were diagnosed with epithelioid and mixed-type pleural MM at Karolinska University Hospital between 2004 and 2013. The diagnosis was obtained by histopathology in 74 cases and by cytological examination of pleural effusion in 70 cases. In 29 of the latter cases, a diagnostic biopsy was obtained simultaneously. A total of 104 patients received chemotherapy. All diagnoses were supported by clinical findings, including computer tomography scans. The median time between first symptoms and diagnosis was similar for cytology and histopathology. However, a delay of more than 6 months after first symptoms was seen in many patients in the histopathology group, resulting in late onset of treatment. The overall survival and proportion of long-term survival were significantly better for cases diagnosed by cytology. Similarly, a better survival, following a cytological diagnosis, was also seen in patients who were only provided the best supportive care. Accurate cytological diagnosis enables conclusive diagnosis of MM. Our finding enables the initiation of treatment as soon as the cytological diagnosis is established, avoiding further delay and deterioration of patient survival and possibilities for treatment.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225716, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of multivariable prediction of preeclampsia during pregnancy, based on detailed routinely collected early pregnancy data in nulliparous women. DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based cohort study of 62 562 pregnancies of nulliparous women with deliveries 2008-13 in the Stockholm-Gotland Counties in Sweden. METHODS: Maternal social, reproductive and medical history and medical examinations (including mean arterial pressure, proteinuria, hemoglobin and capillary glucose levels) routinely collected at the first visit in antenatal care, constitute the predictive variables. Predictive models for preeclampsia were created by three methods; logistic regression models using 1) pre-specified variables (similar to the Fetal Medicine Foundation model including maternal factors and mean arterial pressure), 2) backward selection starting from the full suite of variables, and 3) a Random forest model using the same candidate variables. The performance of the British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) binary risk classification guidelines for preeclampsia was also evaluated. The outcome measures were diagnosis of preeclampsia with delivery <34, <37, and ≥37 weeks' gestation. RESULTS: A total of 2 773 (4.4%) nulliparous women subsequently developed preeclampsia. The pre-specified variables model was superior the other two models, regarding prediction of preeclampsia with delivery <34 and <37 weeks, both with areas under the curve of 0.68, and sensitivity of 30.6% (95% CI 24.5-37.2) and 29.2% (95% CI 25.2-33.4) at a 10% false positive rate, respectively. The performance of these customizable multivariable models at the chosen false positive rate, was significantly better than the binary NICE-guidelines for preeclampsia with delivery <37 and ≥37 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: Multivariable models in early pregnancy had a modest performance, although providing advantages over the NICE-guidelines, in predicting preeclampsia in nulliparous women. Use of a machine learning algorithm (Random forest) did not result in superior prediction.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Paridade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(11): 1127-1128, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655724

RESUMO

We read with interest the commentary of Dr. Zablow1 on our publication on neurodevelopmental disorders and orofacial clefts (OFC).2.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Criança , Humanos
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(8): 575-579, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: HIV testing among high-risk groups is a key intervention to diagnose persons living unknowingly with HIV to enable linkage to care and effective antiretroviral treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake of Testpoint, the first large-scale HIV testing programme in Sweden where peer, non-healthcare personnel offered venue-based testing. Testing was performed by staff from the Swedish Foundation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights (RFSL Sweden) and testing was performed at the RFSL offices, gay clubs and gay cruising areas, as well as at various gay festivals. The test was a rapid test using capillary blood from a finger prick. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of all persons aged >18 years who came for HIV testing at one of Testpoint's locations in Sweden between 1 February and 31 December 2016. RESULTS: 595 respondents (96% response rate) were included. Five persons were diagnosed with HIV and referred for treatment and care. A fifth of participants had never tested for HIV before. More than half of the participants were foreign born and the median age was 31 years. About one-fifth of participants stated they would not have tested through the healthcare system if Testpoint was not available. CONCLUSIONS: Testpoint reached their target population of young, foreign-born men who have sex with men (MSM) as well as first time testers and persons who stated that they would not have tested within the healthcare system. Such peer HIV testing outside the healthcare setting is a possible way of increasing uptake of testing in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/organização & administração , Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(5): 866-876, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) varies from asymptomatic nonprogressive to aggressive disease, with up to one in four patients manifesting ESRD within 20 years of diagnosis. Although some studies have suggested that mortality appears to be increased in IgAN, such studies lacked matched controls and did not report absolute risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden, involving patients with biopsy-verified IgAN diagnosed in 1974-2011; main outcome measures were death and ESRD. Using data from three national registers, we linked 3622 patients with IgAN with 18,041 matched controls; we also conducted a sibling analysis using 2773 patients with IgAN with 6210 siblings and a spousal analysis that included 2234 pairs. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 13.6 years, 577 (1.1%) patients with IgAN died (10.67 per 1000 person-years) compared with 2066 deaths (0.7%) in the reference population during a median follow-up of 14.1 years (7.45 per 1000 person-years). This corresponded to a 1.53-fold increased risk and an absolute excess mortality of 3.23 per 1000 person-years (equaling one extra death per 310 person-years) and a 6-year reduction in median life expectancy. Similar increases in risk were seen in comparisons with siblings and spouses. IgAN was associated with one extra case of ESRD per 54 person-years. Mortality preceding ESRD was not significantly increased compared with controls, spouses, or siblings. Overall mortality did not differ significantly between patients with IgAN-associated ESRD and patients with ESRD from other causes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IgAN have an increased mortality compared with matched controls, with one extra death per 310 person-years and a 6-year reduction in life expectancy.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Biópsia por Agulha , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/terapia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia
14.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(3): 303-310, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907196

RESUMO

Objectives: Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but evaluations of multiple sample strategies in colonoscopy screening cohorts are rare. The aim of this study was to assess accuracy of FIT for advanced neoplasia (AN) with two fecal samples in a colonoscopy screening cohort. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1155 participants of the colonoscopy arm in SCREESCO (Screening of Swedish Colons, NCT02078804), a randomized controlled study on CRC screening of 60-year-olds from the Swedish average-risk population. Participants provided two FIT samples prior to colonoscopy. First sample, mean of two, and any of the two samples above cut off level were assessed. Colonoscopy findings (CRC, advanced adenoma (AA), AN (CRC + AA) and adenoma characteristics) were evaluated in uni- and multivariable analysis in relation to FIT positivity (at ≥10 µg hemoglobin (Hb)/g). Results: Of 1155 invited, 806 (416 women, 390 men) participated. CRC, AA and non-AA were found in one (0.1%), 80 (9.9%) and 145 (18%), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for AN were 20%/93%, 25%/92% and 26%/89% for first, mean of two and any of the two samples respectively at cut off level 10 µg/g, corresponding to 60 (74%)-65 (80%) participants with missed AN. The difference in sensitivity between screening strategies was non-significant. The specificity for first sample was significantly higher than for any of the two samples at cut off 10 µg/g (p = .02) and 20 µg/g (p = .04). FIT positivity in participants with adenoma was associated with pedunculated shape (p = .007) and high-risk dysplasia (p = .009). Conclusions: In an average-risk colonoscopy screening cohort of 60-year-olds, sensitivity for AN was modest and did not increase when using two samples instead of one. FIT predominantly detected adenomas with pedunculated shape and high-risk dysplasia, and participants with flat or broad based adenomas may thus be missed in screening.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinas/análise , Sangue Oculto , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suécia
15.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 57(6): 788-794, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this multicentre study was to analyse the outcome of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (rDTAA). METHODS: This is a nationwide retrospective study including all patients who underwent TEVAR for rDTAA at six major vascular university centres in Sweden between January 2000 and December 2015. Outcome measures were analysed using Kaplan-Meier estimator and multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: There were 140 patients (age [mean ± SD] 74.1 ± 8.8 years; 56% men; aneurysm size 64.8 ± 19 mm), with rDTAA. In 53 patients (37.9%), the left subclavian artery was covered, and in 25 patients (17.9%) arch vessel revascularisation was performed. In total, 61/136 patients (45%) had a major complication within 30 days post TEVAR. Stroke (n = 20; 14.7%) was the most common complication, followed by paraplegia (n = 13; 9.6%) and major bleeding (n = 13; 9.6%). TEVAR related complications during follow up included endoleaks 22.1% (30/136; 14 type 1a, six type 1b, 10 not defined). In total, re-interventions (n = 31) were required in 27/137 (19.7%) patients. The median follow up time was 17.0 months (range 0-132 months). The Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 80.0% at one month, 71.7% at three months, 65.3% at one year, 45.9% at three years, and 31.9% at five years. Age (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.07; p = .046), history of stroke (HR 2.35; 95% CI 1.19-4.63; p = .014), previous aortic surgery (HR 2.11; 95% CI 1.15-3.87; p = .016) as well as post-operative major bleeding (HR 4.40; 95% CI 2.20-8.81; p = .001), stroke (HR 2.63; 95% CI 1.37-5.03; p = .004), and renal failure (HR 8.25; 95% CI 2.69-25.35; p = .001) were all associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide multicentre study of patients with rDTAA undergoing TEVAR showed acceptable short- but poor long-term survival. Adequate proximal and distal aortic sealing zones are important for technical success. High risk patients and post-operative complications need to be further addressed in an effort to improve outcome.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(6): 789-796, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In young men, high body mass index (BMI) has been linked to liver disease later in life, but it is unclear if this also applies to women. AIM: To study the association between BMI early in life and development of liver disease later in life in women. METHODS: We obtained data on early pregnancy BMI from 1 139 458 Swedish women between 1992 and 2015. National registers were used to ascertain incident severe liver disease, defined as cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease (hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal varices, hepatorenal syndrome or hepatic encephalopathy) or liver failure. A Cox regression model was used to investigate associations of BMI with incident severe liver disease adjusting for maternal age, calendar year, country of birth, smoking, civil status and education. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 13.8 years, 774 women developed severe liver disease. Compared to women with a low normal BMI (18.5-22.4), an increased risk of severe liver disease was found in women with BMI between 22.5 and 24.9 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.04-1.50), 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2 (aHR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.53) and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (aHR 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24). When examining BMI as a continuous variable, the aHR increased by 4% per kg/m2 (95% CI 1.02-1.05). A diagnosis of diabetes was associated with an increased risk of severe liver disease independent of baseline BMI. CONCLUSION: A high BMI early in life in women is associated with a dose-dependent, increased risk for future severe liver disease.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Humanos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
17.
AIDS Care ; 31(4): 403-412, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444140

RESUMO

Sweden has one of the best HIV treatment outcomes in the world and an estimated 95% of all diagnosed people living with HIV are virally suppressed, but the quality of life (QoL) is understudied. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between variables within sociodemographic, behavioural, clinical, psychological, sexual life, social support and personal resource component and the QoL of people living with HIV in Sweden. Data were derived from a cross-sectional, nation-wide survey completed by 15% (n = 1096) of all people living with HIV and collected at 15 infectious disease clinics and 2 needle exchange sites during 2014. Ordinal univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between potential contributors and QoL. Respondents reported high QoL: 63% rated their QoL 7 or higher on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. QoL was independent of gender, age, mode of HIV transmission and country of origin. Lower QoL was associated with recent homelessness, hazardous alcohol consumption, comorbidities, treatment side-effects, HIV-related physical symptoms, hopelessness, negative self-image, sexual dissatisfaction, and negative changes in sex life after HIV. The QoL of people living with HIV in Sweden was high overall, but still significantly influenced by HIV.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(9): 1860-1866.e1, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is increasing evidence that statins can benefit patients with chronic liver diseases, but their effects have not been studied in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We performed a nationwide study in Sweden to determine the effects of exposure to drugs, including statins, in patients with PSC. METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of patients in Sweden with PSC and concomitant ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease from 2005 through 2014 (n = 2914), followed through 2016. We collected analyzed data from the patient register, the prescribed drug register, the death certificate register and the cancer register. We calculated risk or death, liver transplantation, bleeding of esophageal varices, and cancer in relation to drug exposure. RESULTS: The mean age of patients at the time of diagnosis with PSC was 41.4 years (inter-quartile range [IQR], 25.6-56.1 years). The total follow-up time was 11769 person-years, during which 3.4% of patients received liver transplants and 19.9% died. Proportions of patients exposed to drugs were: ursodeoxycholic acid, 60.2%; 5-aminosalicylic acid, 74.4%; azathioprine or mercaptopurins, 33.7%; and statins, 13.9%. Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.88) and death or liver transplantation (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.66). Use of azathioprine was also associated with reduced mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84) and risk of death or liver transplantation (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Exposure to ursodeoxycholic acid did not affect mortality (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87-1.25). CONCLUSION: In a population-based cohort of patients in Sweden with PSC, we associated use of statins and azathioprine with decreased risks of death and death or liver transplantation. Exposure to ursodeoxycholic acid was not associated with reduced mortality.


Assuntos
Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Colangite Esclerosante/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Colangite Esclerosante/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Masculino , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico
19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(1): 103-112, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but number of tests and cut-off level differ by program. The aim was to evaluate CRC screening with two FIT samples in average-risk 60-year-old men and women and to investigate hemoglobin (Hb) level in correlation to adenoma characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort from Screening of Swedish Colons trial where participants with at least one of two FIT samples ≥10 µg Hb/g are offered colonoscopy. FIT levels and colonoscopy findings were assessed in multivariable analyses. Cut-off levels 10-80 µg Hb/g for one and two samples were assessed. FIT levels and advanced neoplasia (AN) were investigated by gender. RESULTS: A total of 12 383 participated and 1182 positives (551 women) completed colonoscopy diagnosing 27 (2.3%) CRC and 269 (23%) advanced adenomas (AA). Median FIT level was 241.0 and 23.8 for CRC and AA compared with 13.4-15.8 in other subgroups (P = 0.002) correlating with adenoma size (P = 0.038). CRC was detected in 22 and 19 subjects for the first sample at cut-off 20 and 40 µg Hb/g, compared with 20 and 17 for the mean of two samples at cut-off 40 and 80 µg Hb/g (P < 0.05). Men had more AN (CRC + AA), (P = 0.003). In women, similar number of AN would be detected with cut-off lowered from 40 to 20 or from 80 to 40 µg Hb/g, requiring additional 26-34% colonoscopies. CONCLUSION: In average-risk 60-year-olds, FIT was higher in participants with AN and correlated with adenoma size. FIT screening with one sample at low cut-off detected more CRC than two samples at higher cut-off. Applying lower cut-off in women to equalize gender differences in AN would result in considerable increase in colonoscopy workload.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinas/análise , Sangue Oculto , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Carga Tumoral
20.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(11): 1299-1305, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411076

RESUMO

There are limited data on pregnancy outcomes in women with cirrhosis. To address this gap, we examined the records of singleton births from Sweden's National Patient Register (NPR), Cause of Death Register (CDR), and Medical Birth Register (MBR) between 1997 and 2011 to assess exposure and pregnancy-related and liver-related outcomes of pregnant women with cirrhosis. Exposure status was defined as having an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code for cirrhosis obtained prior to or during pregnancy. Poisson regression with cluster-robust standard errors was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) adjusted for maternal age, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). We identified 103 pregnancies in women with cirrhosis and compared these to 1,361,566 pregnancies in women without cirrhosis. Pregnancies in women with cirrhosis were at increased risk of caesarean delivery (36% versus 16%, respectively; adjusted RR [aRR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.73), low birth weight (15% versus 3%; aRR, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.11-7.06), and preterm delivery (19% versus 5%; aRR, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.16-5.72). Rates of maternal mortality during pregnancy (no cases), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, small for gestational age, congenital malformations, and stillbirth were not increased when compared to the pregnant women without cirrhosis. There were 12 hospitalizations during pregnancy due to liver-related events, including one case with bleeding esophageal varices. Conclusion: Women with cirrhosis are at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, severe maternal and fetal adverse events were rare in our study, and most pregnancies in women with cirrhosis ended without complications.

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