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1.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406246

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Errors in laboratory medicine could compromise patient safety. Good laboratory practice includes identifying and managing nonconformities in the total test process. Varying error percentages have been described in other fields but are lacking for molecular oncology. OBJECTIVES.­: To gain insight into incident causes and frequency in the total test process from 8 European institutes routinely performing biomarker tests in non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. DESIGN.­: All incidents documented in 2018 were collected from all hospital services for pre-preanalytical entries before the biomarker test, as well as specific incidents for biomarker tests. RESULTS.­: There were 5185 incidents collected, of which 4363 (84.1%) occurred in the pre-preanalytical phase (all hospital services), 2796 of 4363 (64.1%) related to missing or incorrect request form information. From the other 822 specific incidents, 166 (20.2%) were recorded in the preanalytical phase, 275 (33.5%) in the analytical phase, and 194 (23.6%) in the postanalytical phase, mainly due to incorrect report content. Only 47 of 822 (5.7%) incidents were recorded in the post-postanalytical phase, and 123 (15.0%) in the complete total test process. For 17 of 822 (2.1%) incidents the time point was unknown. Pre-preanalytical incidents were resolved sooner than incidents on the complete process (mean 6 versus 60 days). For 1215 of 5168 (23.5%) incidents with known causes a specific action was undertaken besides documenting them, not limited to accredited institutes. CONCLUSIONS.­: There was a large variety in the number and extent of documented incidents. Correct and complete information on the request forms and final reports are highly error prone and require additional focus.

2.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480087

RESUMO

We investigated the intratumoral source of PD-L1 expression and the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) with or without MYC-translocation, as well as possible correlations to BCL2-and BCL6-translocations and cell of origin (COO). One-hundred and twenty-six patient samples were studied in a cohort enriched for MYC-translocated tumors with 34 samples carrying this translocation. Demonstration of intratumoral distribution and cellular source of PD-L1 was enabled by immunohistochemical (IHC) dual staining specifically highlighting PD-L1 expression in lymphoma B-cells with antibodies against PD-L1 and PAX5. Additional IHC with antibodies against CD68 and CD163 identified TAMs. We found that CD68-positive TAMs were the main source of PD-L1 protein expression in contrast to lymphoma B cells which rarely expressed PD-L1. Semiquantitative IHC demonstrated a significant correlation between CD68 and PD-L1 protein expression. Unsupervised hierarchical analysis of PD-L1, CD68, and CD163 IHC data subsequently demonstrated three potential clusters defined by expression of the three biomarkers. Cluster A consisted of patient samples with significantly lower expression of PD-L1, CD68, and CD163, but also significantly higher prevalence of BCL2-translocation and MYC-BCL2-double-hit (DH) compared to the other two clusters. In cluster C we found a significant accumulation of BCL6 translocated tumors. This cluster in contrast had the highest protein expression of PD-L1, CD68, and CD163. Cluster B tumors had an intermediate expression of the three biomarkers, but no accumulation of the specific genetic translocations. Our data, which were based on morphological analysis, immunophenotyping and genotyping by fluorescence in situ hybridization were in line with new concepts of LBCL taxonomy integrating genetic, phenotypical, and immunological characteristics with identification of new subgroups where MYC translocation and MYC-BCL2 DH may identify a noninflamed subtype. These findings may furthermore hold significant predictive value especially regarding immune checkpoint blockade therapy, but further molecular characterization should be done to substantiate this hypothesis.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336394

RESUMO

Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is treated with cetuximab 250 mg/m2 administered weekly over 1 hour or biweekly (q2w) over 3.5 hours when combined with irinotecan. This prospective study investigated cetuximab 500 mg/m2 plus irinotecan 180 mg/m2 administered q2w over 1.5 hours independent of RAS or BRAF mutation status in mCRC patients in a third-line setting. The intention-to-treat population included 181 patients. No patients had complete response, 18% had partial responses (PR) and 48% stable disease (SD). For cetuximab, a relative dose intensity of ≥90% was reached in 78% and for irinotecan in 67% of the patients. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were pain (17%), fatigue (9%), neutropenia (8%), diarrhea (8%), rash (8%), infection (7%) and hypersensitivity (3%). No deaths occurred. Next-generation sequencing in 96.7% of the patients revealed that 50.3% had RAS and BRAFV600E wild type (WT), with a mutation type (MT) in 45.1% of the RAS and 4.4% of the BRAFV600E genes. In patients with RAS-WT and RAS-MT tumors, a PR was obtained in 32% and 4% (P = .000003) and an SD in 43% and 53%, respectively, with a superior PFS (6.2 vs 3.7 months; hazard ratio [HR] 2.12, P = .00001) and OS (12.9 vs 8.8 months; HR 1.71, P = .0008). Treatment efficacy was poor in 7.4% of patients with an RAS mutation outside KRAS exon 2 and in 38% of patients with KRAS exon 2 mutations. Administration of cetuximab and irinotecan q2w, shortening treatment time from 3.5 to 1.5 hours, is recommended as standard therapy.

4.
APMIS ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075161

RESUMO

The MAPK signalling genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF and the PIK3CA gene are routinely investigated for mutations in the diagnostic routine of colorectal cancer. Few studies have reported co-existing mutations in these genes with clinical relevance, while some have been previously regarded as mutually exclusive. We set to investigate the frequency and co-occurrent mutations in these targets, and the occurrence of mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) in a large cohort of Danish colorectal cancers. 1000 colorectal tumours were sequenced as part of our diagnostic workflow for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and analysed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for loss of the MMR proteins, MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6. Co-existing mutations in 12 patients (1.2%) occurred as multiple mutations in the same gene or spread across several genes (KRAS, NRAS and/or BRAF). The frequency of single mutations in the genes occurred with a frequency similar to previously reported, except for a higher frequency of BRAF mutations (18.0%). We found dMMR in 14.6% of the cases with a majority lacking expression of both MLH1 and PMS2. BRAF mutations were only present in dMMR cases involving MLH1 and/or PMS2. Our findings suggest that co-existing mutations occur, except for the hotspot BRAF V600E, which is mutually exclusive with KRAS/NRAS mutations. Therefore, instead of single gene alterations from the MAPK signalling, assessing co-occurrence of mutations within one or more of those genes should also be accounted. This may impact future oncological treatments and should be considered in the diagnostic workflow.

5.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125686

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most frequent type of gynecological cancers worldwide. In the past decades, the development of novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers available for OC has been limited, reflecting by the lack of specificity of such markers or very costly management. Microarray expression profiling has shown very effective results in exploring new molecular markers for patients with OC. Nonetheless, most screenings are focused on mutations or expression of molecules that are translated into proteins, corresponding to only 2% of the total human genome. In order to account for the vast majority of transcripts, in the present exploratory study, we assessed the expression levels of a comprehensive panel of noncoding RNA in different subtypes of OC. We further evaluated their association with patient overall survival (OS) and aggressive forms of the disease, such as tumor type, stage, and chemotherapy resistance. By microarray profiling in a total of 197 epithelial OC patients (162 serous carcinomas, 15 endometrioid carcinomas, 11 mucinous carcinomas, and 9 clear cell carcinomas), we found two candidates, SNORA68 and SNORD74, which associated with OS and poor clinicopathological features. The overexpression of those two targets combined was correlated with shorter OS and progression-free survival. That association was further observed to correlate with a more aggressive form of the disease. Overall, the results indicate that a panel comprised of SNORA68 and SNORD74 may be clinically relevant, where patients could be offered a more individualized, targeted follow-up, given its further validation on future prospective clinical studies.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114313

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These are chronic autoimmune diseases of unknown etiology affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The IBD population includes a heterogeneous group of patients with varying disease courses requiring personalized treatment protocols. The complexity of the disease often delays the diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate treatments. In a subset of patients, IBD leads to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). MicroRNAs are single-stranded regulatory noncoding RNAs of 18 to 22 nucleotides with putative roles in the pathogenesis of IBD and colorectal cancer. They have been explored as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Both tissue-derived and circulating microRNAs have emerged as promising biomarkers in the differential diagnosis and in the prognosis of disease severity of IBD as well as predictive biomarkers in drug resistance. In addition, knowledge of the cellular localization of differentially expressed microRNAs is a prerequisite for deciphering the biological role of these important epigenetic regulators and the cellular localization may even contribute to an alternative repertoire of biomarkers. In this review, we discuss findings based on RT-qPCR, microarray profiling, next generation sequencing and in situ hybridization of microRNA biomarkers identified in the circulation and in tissue biopsies.

7.
APMIS ; 128(11): 573-582, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860265

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene status and overexpression, occurring in ~ 13.6% of primary breast cancers, is essential for identifying patients likely to benefit from biological treatment. In this method of evaluation study, we tested and compared the HER2 gene-protein assay (GPA) with routine HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The GPA was evaluated using 67 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HER2 equivoval IHC (2+) breast cancer tissue samples. Overall, agreement between GPA silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and FISH was 91.9% (57/62). Regression analysis revealed slightly higher, but non-significant difference in HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio for GPA as compared to FISH (p = 0.074). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of 0.94 and Spearman´s rank correlation coefficients of 0.93 (p < 0.0001) for FISH and GPA SISH suggested strong inter-observer association for methods with one observer counting on average 0.23 significant higher for GPA SISH (p = 0.014). Intra-observer IHC method reproducibility was 52.6% (κ = 0.3122, p = 0.004) and 79.7% (κ = 0.6428, p = 0.9197), suggesting fair significant and substantial non-significant difference between tests for reviewers. Inter-observer reproducibility for IHC methods was 53%. While inter-observer reproducibility for experienced IHC interpretation suggested significant differences (κ = 0.3636, p = 0.0332), unexperienced interpretation of IHC GPA suggested fair non-significant difference between reviewers (κ = 0.3101, p = 0.0747). Using FISH as reference, the diagnostic indices for GPA SISH were as follows: sensitivity 100%, specificity 95% and accuracy 92%. Inaccuracy between tests was in 80% of cases due to ISH categorization as equivocal by one of the methods. IHC results highlight that it may be beneficial with a method for simultaneously visualization of HER2 gene and protein status.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Metástase Linfática , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708825

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the use of cancer cell protein expression of ABCG2 to predict efficacy of systemic first-line irinotecan containing therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). From a Danish national cohort, we identified 119 mCRC patients treated with irinotecan containing therapy in first-line setting. Among these, 108 were eligible for analyses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were performed on the primary tumor tissue in order to classify samples as high or low presence of ABCG2 protein. Data were then associated with patient outcome (objective response (OR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)). ABCG2 protein expression in the basolateral membrane was high (score 3+) in 33% of the patients. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant interaction between ABCG2 score, adjuvant treatment and OR (p = 0.041) in the 101 patients with evaluable disease. Patients with low ABCG2 (score 0-2) and no prior adjuvant therapy had a significantly higher odds ratio of 5.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.68-18.7; p = 0.005) for obtaining OR. In contrast, no significant associations between ABCG2 expression and PFS or OS were found. These results suggest that measurement of the ABCG2 drug efflux pump might be used to select patients with mCRC for irinotecan treatment. However, additional studies are warranted before conclusions regarding a clinical use can be made. Moreover, patients with high ABCG2 immunoreactivity could be candidates for specific ABCG2 inhibition treatment in combination with irinotecan.

10.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

11.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(7): 1034-1042, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression affects tumor evasion of immune surveillance. The prognostic value and relationship of PD-L1 expression to T-cell-inflamed immune signatures in ovarian cancer are unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of PD-L1 on overall survival and its correlation with an immune-mediated gene expression profile in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: PD-L1 expression in tumor and immune cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and PD-L1-positive expression was defined as a combined positive score ≥1; a T-cell-inflamed gene expression profile containing interferon γ response genes was evaluated using extracted RNA from surgical samples. Associations between PD-L1 expression, gene expression profile status, and overall survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: A total of 376 patients with advanced epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer treated by cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based therapy were included. PD-L1-positive expression was observed in 50.5% of patients and associated with more advanced stage (p=0.047), more aggressive histologic subtype (p=0.001), and platinum sensitivity defined by increasing treatment-free interval from first platinum-based chemotherapy to next systemic treatment (p=0.027). PD-L1-positive expression was associated with longer overall survival in multivariate analyses (adjusted HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). In subgroup analyses, this association was most pronounced in patients with partially platinum-sensitive disease (treatment-free interval ≥6 to <12 months). T-cell-inflamed gene expression profile status correlated with PD-L1 expression (Spearman, ρ=0.712) but was not an independent predictor of overall survival. CONCLUSION: PD-L1 expression is associated with longer overall survival among advanced ovarian cancer patients. PD-L1 expression may be an independent prognostic biomarker.

12.
Epidemiology ; 31(3): 402-408, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear. METHODS: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype. RESULTS: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.72, 1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.3, clear cell: OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.40, 1.2; serous: OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

14.
APMIS ; 128(1): 3-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628675

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are a rare heterogeneous disease group with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. The mutational landscape consists of genetic aberrations both shared by and characteristic for anatomical location. Here, we present exome sequencing data on 22 genes from a phase 2 trial using a clinically validated panel used in patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 56 patients were included in a one-armed phase 2 trial investigating the treatment combination of capecitabine, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab. Tissue DNA yield and quality allowed analysis of 30 patients on our panel including 22 genes. ARID1A (33%) and TP53 (33%) were found to be most frequently mutated followed by KRAS mutations found in 20% of the patients. Mutational aberrations in ARID1A were found more prevalent than expected, whereas TP53 and KRAS were in concordance with earlier reported data. Mutation in CTNNB1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Our panel is clinically validated and suitable for a high volume of samples to detect mutations in patients with BTC. However, it is reasonable to assume that the clinical utility could be optimized in this patient group by extending the panel to include BTC specific mutations with potential therapeutic consequences such as IDH1/2, FGFR fusions, ERBB3, and BRCA1/2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Exoma , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Inclusão em Parafina , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , beta Catenina/genética
15.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 9(1): 37-44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552911

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: EUS-FNA is inconclusive in up to 10%-15% of patients with solid pancreatic lesions (SPLs). We aimed to investigate whether supplementary genetic analyses with whole-exome sequencing add diagnostic value in patients with SPLs suspicious of malignancy but inconclusive EUS-FNA. Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients, who underwent EUS-FNA of an SPL were retrospectively included. Three groups were defined: 16 (41.0%) had suspected malignancy on EUS confirmed by cytology (malignant), 13 (33.3%) had suspected malignancy on EUS but benign cytology (inconclusive), and 10 (25.6%) had benign EUS imaging and cytology (benign). Areas with the highest epithelial cell concentrations were macro-dissected from the FNA smears from each patient, and extracted DNA was used for whole-exome sequencing by next-generation sequencing of a selected gene panel including 19 genes commonly mutated in cancer. Results: Pathogenic mutations in K-RAS, TP53, and PIK3CA differed significantly between the three groups (P < 0.001, P = 0.018, and P = 0.026, respectively). Pathogenic mutations in KRAS and TP53 were predominant in the inconclusive (54% and 31%, respectively) and malignant groups (81.3% and 50%, respectively) compared to the benign group (0%). Malignant and inconclusive diagnoses correlated strongly with poor overall survival (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Whole-exome sequencing of genes commonly mutated in pancreatic cancer may be an important adjunct in patients with SPLs suspicious for malignancy on EUS but with uncertain cytological diagnosis.

16.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women worldwide. Moreover, there are no reliable minimal invasive tests to secure the diagnosis of malignant pelvic masses. Cell-free, circulating microRNAs have the potential as diagnostic biomarkers in cancer. Here, we performed and validated a miRNA panel with the potential to distinguish OC from benign pelvic masses. METHODS: The profile of plasma microRNA was determined with a panel of 46 candidates in a discovery group and a validation group, each consisting of 190 pre-surgery plasma samples from age-matched patients with malignant (n = 95) and benign pelvic mass (n = 95), by real time RT-qPCR. RESULTS: Four up-regulated (miR-200c-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-21-5p, and miR-484) and two down-regulated (miR-195-5p and miR-451a) microRNAs were discovered. From those, miR-200c-3p and miR-221-3p were further confirmed in a validation cohort. A combination of these 2 microRNAs together with CA-125 yielded an overall diagnostic accuracy of AUC = 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: We showed consistent plasma microRNA profiles that provide independent diagnostic information of late stage OC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , MicroRNA Circulante , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Pelve/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Curva ROC , Transcriptoma
17.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(6): 562-569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618057

RESUMO

Introduction: Personalized treatment, supported by biomarkers, would improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. RNA molecules are potentially important biomarkers. The Danish CancerBiobank provides an infrastructure for handling and storage of biological material, including RNA, from Danish cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of handling-time and fresh-freezing versus RNAlater® fixation on RNA degradation in solid tissue from pelvic mass samples. Materials and Methods: We evaluated RNA quality in surgical tissue from patients with a pelvic mass. Corresponding samples were either fresh-frozen or fixed in RNAlater, at eight different time points after the surgery. Integrity was measured using a bioanalyzer, and the amount and quality were further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction measuring the expression of housekeeping genes B2M and HPRT1. Results: Our results show that tissue RNA is stable up to at least 180 minutes after the surgery, as the quality was comparable to the quality of RNA handled immediately. Likewise, patient RNA was of acceptable quality after both fresh-frezing and RNAlater fixation, but RNAlater fixation was slightly more effective for RNA preservation. Discussion and Conclusion: Our data suggest that RNA in pelvic mass samples is relatively stable. Knowledge about RNA stability is an important prerequisite for research in RNA biomarkers, where the challenge is to balance the need for careful RNA handling and storage with the need for effective large-scale biobanking in a busy clinical setting where patient treatment is the main priority.


Assuntos
Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Pelve/patologia , RNA/química , RNA/normas , Fixação de Tecidos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Dinamarca , Feminino , Genes Essenciais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , RNA/efeitos adversos , Estabilidade de RNA , Microglobulina beta-2/genética
18.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1599-1608, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573049

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy. The cancer initially presents with non­specific symptoms; thus, it is typically not discovered until the patient has reached the late, considerably more lethal, stages of the disease. Research focus is currently on finding novel biomarkers, especially for early detection and stratification of the disease. One promising approach has been to focus on mutations or variations in the genetic code that are associated with the risk of developing ovarian cancer. A certain heritable component is already known regarding genes such as BRCA1/2, TP53, MSH6, BRIP1 and RAD51C, yet these are estimated to only account for ~3.1% of the total risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled the investigation of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants in genome­wide association studies in tens of thousands of patients, which has led to the discovery of 108 (39 loci with P<5.0x10­8) novel susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer, presented in this review. Using the published variants in a patient cohort screening, together with variants identified in our ongoing whole exome sequencing project, future aims are to ascertain whether certain of the novel variants could be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
19.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 375-382, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408531

RESUMO

In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL), MYC translocation and MYC/BCL2 or MYC/BCL6 double hit (DH) are associated with poor prognosis, and there is an unmet need for novel treatment targets in this patient group. Treatments targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway are still poorly elucidated in LBCL. PD-L1 expression might predict response to treatment targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. We therefore investigated the relationship between PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels and MYC and DH translocation in LBCL. We detected MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization in tissue samples from 130 patients randomly selected from two cohorts of patients with LBCL: 49 patients with MYC translocation of whom 36 had DH and 81 without MYC translocation. PD-L1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples from 77 patients and PD-L1 mRNA expression by next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) in another 77 patients. Twenty-four patients overlapped, ie, were analysed with both IHC and NGS. Nonparametric tests were performed to evaluate intergroup differences. PD-L1 protein expression level was significantly lower in patients with MYC (n = 42, median = 3.3%, interquartile range [IQR] 0.0-10.8) or DH translocations (n = 31, median = 3.3%, IQR 0.0-10.0) compared with patients with no MYC (n = 35, median = 16.7%, IQR 3.3-30.0) or no DH translocations (n = 46, 13.3%, IQR 2.5-30.0), P = .004 and P ≤ .001, respectively. PD-L1 mRNA expression was also significantly lower in patients with MYC or DH translocations, P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Higher PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels were associated with non-germinal centre (GC) type compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB)-type diffuse LBCL (DLBCL), P = .004 and P = .002, respectively. In conclusion, we report an association between low PD-L1 expression and MYC and DH translocation in patients with LBCL. Our findings may indicate that patients with MYC or DH translocation may benefit less from treatment with PD-L1/PD-1-inhibitors compared with patients without these translocations. This should be evaluated in larger, prospective, consecutive trials.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes myc , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes bcl-2 , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Infect Dis ; 220(8): 1312-1324, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses and other infectious agents cause more than 15% of human cancer cases. High-throughput sequencing-based studies of virus-cancer associations have mainly focused on cancer transcriptome data. METHODS: In this study, we applied a diverse selection of presequencing enrichment methods targeting all major viral groups, to characterize the viruses present in 197 samples from 18 sample types of cancerous origin. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated 710 datasets constituting 57 billion sequencing reads. RESULTS: Detailed in silico investigation of the viral content, including exclusion of viral artefacts, from de novo assembled contigs and individual sequencing reads yielded a map of the viruses detected. Our data reveal a virome dominated by papillomaviruses, anelloviruses, herpesviruses, and parvoviruses. More than half of the included samples contained 1 or more viruses; however, no link between specific viruses and cancer types were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds light on viral presence in cancers and provides highly relevant virome data for future reference.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenoma/genética , Neoplasias/virologia , Anelloviridae/genética , Anelloviridae/isolamento & purificação , Biópsia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Herpesviridae/genética , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus/genética , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação
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