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1.
Epidemiology ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy is a risk factor for endometrial and ovarian cancers. When a progestin is included with the estrogen daily (continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy), there is no increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the effect of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy on risk of ovarian cancer is less clear. METHODS: We pooled primary data from five population-based case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 1,509 postmenopausal ovarian cancer cases and 2,295 postmenopausal controls. Information on previous menopausal hormonal therapy use, as well as ovarian cancer risk factors, was collected using in-person interviews. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy and risk of ovarian cancer by duration and recency of use and disease histotype. RESULTS: Ever postmenopausal use of continuous estrogen-progestin combined therapy was not associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer overall (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.72-1.0). A decreased risk was observed for mucinous ovarian cancer (OR=0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.91). The other main ovarian cancer histotypes did not show an association (endometrioid: OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.57-1.3, clear cell: OR=0.68, 95% CI 0.40-1.2, serous: OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.80-1.2). CONCLUSIONS: Given that estrogen-alone therapy has been shown to be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adding a progestin each day ameliorates the carcinogenic effects of estrogen on the cells of origin for all histotypes of ovarian cancer.

2.
APMIS ; 128(1): 3-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628675

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are a rare heterogeneous disease group with a dismal prognosis and limited treatment options. The mutational landscape consists of genetic aberrations both shared by and characteristic for anatomical location. Here, we present exome sequencing data on 22 genes from a phase 2 trial using a clinically validated panel used in patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 56 patients were included in a one-armed phase 2 trial investigating the treatment combination of capecitabine, gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and cetuximab. Tissue DNA yield and quality allowed analysis of 30 patients on our panel including 22 genes. ARID1A (33%) and TP53 (33%) were found to be most frequently mutated followed by KRAS mutations found in 20% of the patients. Mutational aberrations in ARID1A were found more prevalent than expected, whereas TP53 and KRAS were in concordance with earlier reported data. Mutation in CTNNB1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Our panel is clinically validated and suitable for a high volume of samples to detect mutations in patients with BTC. However, it is reasonable to assume that the clinical utility could be optimized in this patient group by extending the panel to include BTC specific mutations with potential therapeutic consequences such as IDH1/2, FGFR fusions, ERBB3, and BRCA1/2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Exoma , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Inclusão em Parafina , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , beta Catenina/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cancer in women worldwide. Moreover, there are no reliable minimal invasive tests to secure the diagnosis of malignant pelvic masses. Cell-free, circulating microRNAs have the potential as diagnostic biomarkers in cancer. Here, we performed and validated a miRNA panel with the potential to distinguish OC from benign pelvic masses. METHODS: The profile of plasma microRNA was determined with a panel of 46 candidates in a discovery group and a validation group, each consisting of 190 pre-surgery plasma samples from age-matched patients with malignant (n = 95) and benign pelvic mass (n = 95), by real time RT-qPCR. RESULTS: Four up-regulated (miR-200c-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-21-5p, and miR-484) and two down-regulated (miR-195-5p and miR-451a) microRNAs were discovered. From those, miR-200c-3p and miR-221-3p were further confirmed in a validation cohort. A combination of these 2 microRNAs together with CA-125 yielded an overall diagnostic accuracy of AUC = 0.96. CONCLUSIONS: We showed consistent plasma microRNA profiles that provide independent diagnostic information of late stage OC.

4.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 17(6): 562-569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618057

RESUMO

Introduction: Personalized treatment, supported by biomarkers, would improve survival of ovarian cancer patients. RNA molecules are potentially important biomarkers. The Danish CancerBiobank provides an infrastructure for handling and storage of biological material, including RNA, from Danish cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of handling-time and fresh-freezing versus RNAlater® fixation on RNA degradation in solid tissue from pelvic mass samples. Materials and Methods: We evaluated RNA quality in surgical tissue from patients with a pelvic mass. Corresponding samples were either fresh-frozen or fixed in RNAlater, at eight different time points after the surgery. Integrity was measured using a bioanalyzer, and the amount and quality were further investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction measuring the expression of housekeeping genes B2M and HPRT1. Results: Our results show that tissue RNA is stable up to at least 180 minutes after the surgery, as the quality was comparable to the quality of RNA handled immediately. Likewise, patient RNA was of acceptable quality after both fresh-frezing and RNAlater fixation, but RNAlater fixation was slightly more effective for RNA preservation. Discussion and Conclusion: Our data suggest that RNA in pelvic mass samples is relatively stable. Knowledge about RNA stability is an important prerequisite for research in RNA biomarkers, where the challenge is to balance the need for careful RNA handling and storage with the need for effective large-scale biobanking in a busy clinical setting where patient treatment is the main priority.

5.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1599-1608, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573049

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological malignancy. The cancer initially presents with non­specific symptoms; thus, it is typically not discovered until the patient has reached the late, considerably more lethal, stages of the disease. Research focus is currently on finding novel biomarkers, especially for early detection and stratification of the disease. One promising approach has been to focus on mutations or variations in the genetic code that are associated with the risk of developing ovarian cancer. A certain heritable component is already known regarding genes such as BRCA1/2, TP53, MSH6, BRIP1 and RAD51C, yet these are estimated to only account for ~3.1% of the total risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled the investigation of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants in genome­wide association studies in tens of thousands of patients, which has led to the discovery of 108 (39 loci with P<5.0x10­8) novel susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer, presented in this review. Using the published variants in a patient cohort screening, together with variants identified in our ongoing whole exome sequencing project, future aims are to ascertain whether certain of the novel variants could be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis and/or treatment decisions.

6.
Endosc Ultrasound ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552911

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: EUS-FNA is inconclusive in up to 10%-15% of patients with solid pancreatic lesions (SPLs). We aimed to investigate whether supplementary genetic analyses with whole-exome sequencing add diagnostic value in patients with SPLs suspicious of malignancy but inconclusive EUS-FNA. Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine patients, who underwent EUS-FNA of an SPL were retrospectively included. Three groups were defined: 16 (41.0%) had suspected malignancy on EUS confirmed by cytology (malignant), 13 (33.3%) had suspected malignancy on EUS but benign cytology (inconclusive), and 10 (25.6%) had benign EUS imaging and cytology (benign). Areas with the highest epithelial cell concentrations were macro-dissected from the FNA smears from each patient, and extracted DNA was used for whole-exome sequencing by next-generation sequencing of a selected gene panel including 19 genes commonly mutated in cancer. Results: Pathogenic mutations in K-RAS, TP53, and PIK3CA differed significantly between the three groups (P < 0.001, P = 0.018, and P = 0.026, respectively). Pathogenic mutations in KRAS and TP53 were predominant in the inconclusive (54% and 31%, respectively) and malignant groups (81.3% and 50%, respectively) compared to the benign group (0%). Malignant and inconclusive diagnoses correlated strongly with poor overall survival (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Whole-exome sequencing of genes commonly mutated in pancreatic cancer may be an important adjunct in patients with SPLs suspicious for malignancy on EUS but with uncertain cytological diagnosis.

7.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 375-382, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408531

RESUMO

In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL), MYC translocation and MYC/BCL2 or MYC/BCL6 double hit (DH) are associated with poor prognosis, and there is an unmet need for novel treatment targets in this patient group. Treatments targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway are still poorly elucidated in LBCL. PD-L1 expression might predict response to treatment targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. We therefore investigated the relationship between PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels and MYC and DH translocation in LBCL. We detected MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization in tissue samples from 130 patients randomly selected from two cohorts of patients with LBCL: 49 patients with MYC translocation of whom 36 had DH and 81 without MYC translocation. PD-L1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples from 77 patients and PD-L1 mRNA expression by next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) in another 77 patients. Twenty-four patients overlapped, ie, were analysed with both IHC and NGS. Nonparametric tests were performed to evaluate intergroup differences. PD-L1 protein expression level was significantly lower in patients with MYC (n = 42, median = 3.3%, interquartile range [IQR] 0.0-10.8) or DH translocations (n = 31, median = 3.3%, IQR 0.0-10.0) compared with patients with no MYC (n = 35, median = 16.7%, IQR 3.3-30.0) or no DH translocations (n = 46, 13.3%, IQR 2.5-30.0), P = .004 and P ≤ .001, respectively. PD-L1 mRNA expression was also significantly lower in patients with MYC or DH translocations, P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Higher PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels were associated with non-germinal centre (GC) type compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB)-type diffuse LBCL (DLBCL), P = .004 and P = .002, respectively. In conclusion, we report an association between low PD-L1 expression and MYC and DH translocation in patients with LBCL. Our findings may indicate that patients with MYC or DH translocation may benefit less from treatment with PD-L1/PD-1-inhibitors compared with patients without these translocations. This should be evaluated in larger, prospective, consecutive trials.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes myc , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes bcl-2 , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Infect Dis ; 220(8): 1312-1324, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viruses and other infectious agents cause more than 15% of human cancer cases. High-throughput sequencing-based studies of virus-cancer associations have mainly focused on cancer transcriptome data. METHODS: In this study, we applied a diverse selection of presequencing enrichment methods targeting all major viral groups, to characterize the viruses present in 197 samples from 18 sample types of cancerous origin. Using high-throughput sequencing, we generated 710 datasets constituting 57 billion sequencing reads. RESULTS: Detailed in silico investigation of the viral content, including exclusion of viral artefacts, from de novo assembled contigs and individual sequencing reads yielded a map of the viruses detected. Our data reveal a virome dominated by papillomaviruses, anelloviruses, herpesviruses, and parvoviruses. More than half of the included samples contained 1 or more viruses; however, no link between specific viruses and cancer types were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds light on viral presence in cancers and provides highly relevant virome data for future reference.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 822-830, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. Recently, the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) reported a decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer among women with self-reported PCOS. However, given the limitations of self-reported PCOS, the validity of these observed associations remains uncertain. Therefore, we sought to use Mendelian randomization with genetic markers as a proxy for PCOS, to examine the association between PCOS and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Utilizing 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with PCOS we assessed the association between genetically predicted PCOS and ovarian cancer risk, overall and by histotype, using summary statistics from a previously conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer among European ancestry women within the OCAC (22 406 with invasive disease, 3103 with borderline disease and 40 941 controls). RESULTS: An inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk: odds ratio (OR)=0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-0.99; P = 0.03]. When results were examined by histotype, the strongest inverse association was observed between genetically predicted PCOS and endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.92; P = 0.003). Adjustment for individual-level body mass index, oral contraceptive use and parity did not materially change the associations. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for a relationship between PCOS and reduced ovarian cancer risk, overall and among specific histotypes of invasive ovarian cancer. These results lend support to our previous observational study results. Future studies are needed to understand mechanisms underlying this association.

10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(5): 2475-2482, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the 5th most common cancer among European women. Approximately 70-80% of OC is diagnosed at advanced stage resulting in an elevated mortality rate. The aim of this study was to examine whether Annexin A2 and S100A10 expression can be used as prognostic markers for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Annexin A2 and S100A10 was evaluated in EOC tissue samples (n=303) by immunohistochemistry. The staining of the membrane, cytoplasmic and stroma was assessed according to intensity. RESULTS: The expression of both markers correlated to histological subtype, histological grading, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and macro-radical surgery. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that Annexin A2 and S100A10 in stromal tissue correlated with shorter overall survival (OS). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated no independent prognostic significance of stromal Annexin A2 expression. CONCLUSION: High expression of Annexin A2 and S100A10 in stromal tissue from EOC patients was associated with reduced OS; however, no independent prognostic value was found for any of the markers.


Assuntos
Anexina A2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas S100/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
11.
Oncology ; 96(6): 299-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In case of response to chemotherapy, unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer can be converted to resectable and thereby obtain a chance of cure. The primary aim of this trial was to evaluate the response rate with intrahepatic oxaliplatin in combination with systemic 5-FU +/- cetuximab. Secondary aims were to evaluate the conversion rate from unresectable to resectable liver metastases, median progression-free survival, median overall survival, and toxicity. METHODS: Forty-five chemo-naïve patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer were treated in a prospective phase II trial. Calcium folinate and 5-FU were delivered systemically while oxaliplatin was delivered alternating between systemic and intrahepatic administration. When oxaliplatin was delivered intrahepatic-ally, infusion time was reduced to 10 min followed by embolic material. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumors, cetuximab was added. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated and only pain in the liver and a mild increase in liver enzymes were observed after intrahepatic oxaliplatin. The patients obtained a response rate of 82%. Further, 58% converted from having unresectable to resectable liver metastases. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 38.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 33.0-44.3) and 12.9 months (95% CI 10.2-15.6), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intrahepatic infusion of oxaliplatin in 10 min with systemic 5-FU to patients with chemo-naïve colorectal cancer is feasible and with low toxicity. A high response rate and long median overall survival were obtained.


Assuntos
Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Oxaliplatina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(5): 537-547, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905014

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous epidemiologic studies have shown that smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity are associated with poor survival following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Yet, the combined relationship of these unfavorable lifestyle factors on ovarian cancer survival has not been sufficiently investigated. METHODS: Using data pooled from 13 studies, we examined the associations between combined exposures to smoking, overweight/obesity weight, and physical inactivity and overall survival (OS) as well as progression-free survival (PFS) among women diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n = 7,022). Using age- and stage-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with joint exposure to these factors. RESULTS: Combined exposure to current smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity prior to diagnosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality compared to women who never smoked, had normal body mass index (BMI), and were physically active (HR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.10-1.70). The association for a joint exposure to these factors exceeded that of each exposure individually. In fact, exposure to both current smoking and overweight/obesity, and current smoking and physical inactivity was also associated with increased risk of death (HR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52, and HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, respectively). The associations were of a similar magnitude when former smoking was assessed in combination with the other exposures and when excessive weight was limited to obesity only. No significant associations were observed between joint exposure to any of these factors and PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Joint exposure to smoking, excessive weight, and physical inactivity may negatively impact survival of ovarian cancer patients. These results suggest the importance of examining the combined effect of lifestyle factors on ovarian cancer patients' survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso
13.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 10(3): 323-330, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847169

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is a silent killer and, due to late diagnosis and frequent chemo resistance in patients, the primary cause of fatality amongst the various types of gynecological cancer. The discovery of a specific and sensitive biomarker for ovarian cancer could improve early diagnosis, thereby saving lives. Biomarkers could also improve treatment, by predicting which patients will benefit from specific treatment strategies. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism, and 'methylation imbalance' is characteristic of cancer. Previous research suggests that changes in DNA methylation can be used diagnostically, and that they may predict resistance to treatment. This paper gives an up-to-date overview of research investigating the potential of DNA methylation-based markers for diagnostics, prognostics, screening and prediction of drug resistance for ovarian cancer patients. DNA methylation cancer-biomarkers may be useful for cancer treatment, particularly since they are chemically stable and since cancer-associated changes in methylation typically precedes tumor growth. DNA methylation markers could improve diagnosis and treatment and might even be used for screening in the future. Furthermore, DNA methylation biomarkers could facilitate the development of precision medicine. However, at this point no biomarkers for ovarian cancer have a sufficient combination of sensitivity and specificity in a clinical setting. A reason for this is that most studies have focused on a single or a few methylation sites. More large screenings and genome-wide studies must be performed to increase the chance of identifying a DNA methylation marker which can identify ovarian cancer.

14.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 14: 7, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858874

RESUMO

Background: The underlying cause of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. It has been theorized that infectious agents could contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis. Objective: To investigate the potential role of oncogenic viral infection in EOC, we examined the prevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in EOC tissue samples. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-imbedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from 198 patients included in the Danish Pelvic Mass Study were studied: 163 with serous adenocarcinomas, 15 with endometrioid adenocarcinomas, 11 with mucinous adenocarcinomas, and nine with clear-cell carcinomas. For controls in the EBV analysis, we used 176 tissue samples from patients diagnosed with benign mucinous cystadenomas. EBV and CMV genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction with CMV and EBV CE-IVD approved kits. In-situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on the EBV positive samples. Results: Sufficient DNA material was obtained in 191 and 174 tissue samples from cases and controls, respectively. Ten of 191 case samples (5.2%) and one of 174 control samples (0.5%) were positive for EBV DNA (P value = 0.011). CMV DNA was detected in only one case sample (0.5%). ISH confirmed that three of the samples were of stromal origin, while the remaining seven tested negative for EBV. Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate a higher prevalence of EBV DNA in tissue samples from patients with EOC than in a benign control group. However, the cellular origin of seven of the samples could not be determined by ISH analysis. Our study did not support an association between CMV and EOC.

15.
Eur J Haematol ; 102(5): 395-406, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) according to WHO, the prognostic significance of MYC translocation is still not sufficiently clarified. We therefore aimed to investigate whether prognostication could be improved in patients with MYC translocation positive LBCL by additional stratification according to MYC and BCL2 protein expression levels or MYC translocation partner gene as well as concurrent BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocation (DH). METHODS: From an unselected consecutive cohort of >600 patients with LBCL investigated with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), 64 patients were diagnosed with MYC translocation positive LBCL and included in the study. They were further investigated for supplemental translocations with FISH and MYC and BCL2 protein expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: MYC expression >75% was associated with both reduced progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (PFS: HR 6.8 (95% CI 1.5-31), P = 0.004. OS: HR 4.3 (95% CI 0.9-21), P = 0.05). Immunoglobulin (IG) MYC translocation partner gene was related to high MYC protein expression (P = 0.047) but was not prognostic for PFS (P = 0.8) or OS (P = 0.6). DH did not confer a worse outcome compared to MYC single hit (SH). These findings were confirmed in a comparable, independent validation cohort of 28 patients with MYC translocation positive LBCL. All patients included in the survival analyses were treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or R-CHOEP (R-CHOP + etoposide). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in patients with LBCL stratification by MYC protein expression level significantly improves the prognostic impact associated with MYC translocation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/mortalidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Translocação Genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células B/terapia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(2): 567-576, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: New markers for ovarian cancer are needed. This study aimed to examine the expression of tumour cell p53 and endothelial cell CD31 proteins and correlate them to clinicopathological factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of proteins was immunohistochemically assessed using tissue sections from 585-599 ovarian cancer patients from the Danish MALOVA study. RESULTS: High CD31 expression was found in poorly differentiated tumours (p=0.0006), and high p53 expression was found in poorly differentiated cancers (p<0.0001), high clinical stage (p<0.0001), non-radical surgery (p<0.0001) and high serum CA-125 values (p<0.0001). CD31 expression showed no prognostic survival value, but high hazard ratios were found for patients with high p53 expression (HR=2.313, p<0.0001). An interaction was found between p53 and stage of cancer, suggesting a prognostic impact of p53 in low-stage, but not in advanced-stage cancer. CONCLUSION: More than 5% of p53 tissue expression may predict shorter survival of ovarian cancer patients and may be useful for predicting the risk of disease progression in low-stage patients following primary surgery. CD31 has no strong prognostic value.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Diferenciação Celular , Dinamarca , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 27(9): 631-636, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629954

RESUMO

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (oCCC) is a distinctive subtype of ovarian carcinoma, with peculiar genetic and environmental risk factors, precursor lesions, molecular events during oncogenesis, patterns of spread, and response to treatment. Because of low response to chemotherapy and poor prognosis in advanced stages, there is growing interest in investigating the molecular pathways involved in oCCC development, in order to individualize novel/molecular targeted therapies. Until now, the main molecular genetic changes associated with oCCC remain to be identified, and, although several molecular changes have been reported in clear cell tumors, most studies have analyzed a limited number of cases; therefore, the true prevalence of those changes is not known. The present review will present the clinicopathologic features of oCCC, from morphology to molecular biology, discussing the diagnostic and treatment challenges of this intriguing ovarian carcinoma.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2192-2205, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), our study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs. never) and rs13255292 (p value = 3.48 × 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI = 0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
19.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 505-517, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559148

RESUMO

DNA methylation is instrumental for gene regulation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape have been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. However, the role of DNA methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In this study, high-density genetic and DNA methylation data in white blood cells from the Framingham Heart Study (N = 1,595) were used to build genetic models to predict DNA methylation levels. These prediction models were then applied to the summary statistics of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ovarian cancer including 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls to investigate genetically predicted DNA methylation levels in association with EOC risk. Among 62,938 CpG sites investigated, genetically predicted methylation levels at 89 CpG were significantly associated with EOC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 7.94 × 10-7. Of them, 87 were located at GWAS-identified EOC susceptibility regions and two resided in a genomic region not previously reported to be associated with EOC risk. Integrative analyses of genetic, methylation, and gene expression data identified consistent directions of associations across 12 CpG, five genes, and EOC risk, suggesting that methylation at these 12 CpG may influence EOC risk by regulating expression of these five genes, namely MAPT, HOXB3, ABHD8, ARHGAP27, and SKAP1. We identified novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk and propose that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk via regulation of gene expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Identification of novel DNA methylation markers associated with EOC risk suggests that methylation at multiple CpG may affect EOC risk through regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Saúde da Mulher
20.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207319, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death by gynecologic cancers in the Western world. The aim of the study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with prognosis and/or resistance to chemotherapy among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using information from the Pelvic Mass Study we identified a cohort of women with epithelial ovarian cancer. Tumor tissues were then collected and analyzed by global miRNA microarrays. MiRNA profiling was then linked to survival and time to progression using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. Logistic regression models were used for the analysis of resistance to chemotherapy. Our results were validated using external datasets retrieved from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database. RESULTS: A total of 197 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were included for miRNA microarray analysis. In multivariate analyses we identified a number of miRNAs significantly correlated with overall survival (miR-1183 (HR: 1.42, 95% CI:1.17-1.74, p = 0.0005), miR-126-3p (HR: 1.38, 95% CI:1.11-1.71, p = 0.0036), time to progression (miR-139-3p (HR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.13-1.94, p = 0.0047), miR-802 (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.78, p = 0.0035)), progression free survival (miR-23a-5p (HR:1.32, 95% CI:1.09-1.61, p = 0.004), miR-23a-3p (HR:1.70, 95% CI:1.15-2.51, p = 0.0074), miR-802 (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.80, p = 0.0048)), and resistance to chemotherapy (miR-1234 (HR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.64, p = 0.003)). A few miRNAs identified in our training cohort, were validated in external cohorts with similar results. CONCLUSION: Eight miRNAs were identified as significant predictors of overall survival, progression free survival, time to progression, and chemotherapy resistance. A number of these miRNAs were significantly validated using external datasets. Inter-platform and inter-laboratory variations may have influence on the ability to compare and reproduce miRNA results. The use of miRNAs as potential markers of relapse and survival in ovarian cancer warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
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