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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Sudan, neither mumps nor rubella vaccines are currently used and comprehensive data on the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella (M.M.R) as well as information about circulating mumps virus genotypes are lacking. METHODS: In 2015/2016, dried blood spot samples were collected from 294 children, 153 adults from the general population and 241 health-care workers (HCWs) from Khartoum. The samples were investigated for M.M.R IgG antibodies using ELISA. Oral fluid samples from 16 clinical mumps cases collected in 2017 were characterized by RT-PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of M.M.R antibodies among children was 93.5%, 63.6% and 55.8%, while it was 93.5%, 90.8% and 94.1% among adult volunteers and 99.2%, 97.1% and 97.9% among HCWs. A high measles seroprevalence was observed among all children age groups, suggesting an effective control program, while the mumps and rubella seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), documenting active wild-type circulation. Our results demonstrated higher M.M.R seropositivity rates but also IgG titers of HCWs compared to adult volunteers. Phylogenetic analysis showed for the first time the presence of mumps virus genotype C in Sudan. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings provided new information on M.M.R epidemiology in Sudan, which may guide future control programs in the country.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622429

RESUMO

The Republic of Serbia is a country with ongoing endemic transmission of measles. The aim of this study is to summarize the main characteristics of the measles resurgence that occurred in Serbia in 2014-2015. The national surveillance data on measles was analysed in relation to the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data. Between November 2014 and December 2015 a measles resurgence with 420 cases was observed in Serbia. Measles virus was initially introduced by and spread among citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina with temporary residence in Serbia, before spreading to the resident population. Of the 223 patients with available medical records, 173 (77.6%) were unvaccinated. The overall measles incidence during the outbreak was 5.8/100.000. The highest age-specific incidence rate was recorded in children aged ≤4 years (25.9/100.000), but most cases (67.9%) were ≥20 years old. Hospitalization rate was high (32.9%) and included two cases of encephalitis associated with measles. In total, 42 health-care workers and 22 related cases including hospitalized patients (n = 13) contracted measles. The overall percentage of laboratory confirmed cases was 81.7% (n = 343/420). All measles virus sequences except one (D9) belonged to genotype D8, suggesting interruption of transmission after the previous outbreak in 2010-2011 caused by genotype D4 viruses. The growing number of adult patients as compared to previous epidemics, suggests an urgent need for supplementary immunization activities targeting susceptible health care workers, unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated adults as well as people without vaccination records. The comprehensive investigation of the 2014/2015 measles resurgence will contribute to decisions about appropriate countermeasures to stop the future measles resurgences in Serbia.

3.
Vaccine ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623916

RESUMO

We investigated and compared current national vaccination policies for health-care personnel (HCP) in Europe with results from our previous survey. Data from 36 European countries were collected using the same methodology as in 2011. National policies for HCP immunization were in place in all countries. There were significant differences in terms of number of vaccinations, target HCP and healthcare settings, and implementation regulations (recommended or mandatory vaccinations). Vaccination policies against hepatitis B and seasonal influenza were present in 35 countries each. Policies for vaccination of HCP against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella existed in 28, 24, 25 and 19 countries, respectively; and against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and poliomyelitis in 21, 20, 19, and 18 countries, respectively. Recommendations for hepatitis A immunization existed in 17 countries, and against meningococcus B, meningococcus C, meningococcus A, C, W, Y, and tuberculosis in 10, 8, 17, and 7 countries, respectively. Mandatory vaccination policies were found in 13 countries and were a pre-requisite for employment in ten. Comparing the vaccination programs of the 30 European countries that participated in the 2011 survey, we found that more countries had national vaccination policies against measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis A, diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, meningococcus C and/or meningococcus A, C, W, Y; and more of these implemented mandatory vaccination policies for HCP. In conclusion, European countries now have more comprehensive national vaccination programs for HCP, however there are still gaps. Given the recent large outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe and the occupational risk for HCP, vaccination policies need to be expanded and strengthened in several European countries. Overall, vaccination policies for HCP in Europe should be periodically re-evaluated in order to provide optimal protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and infection control within healthcare facilities for HCP and patients.

4.
Avian Pathol ; 48(6): 503-511, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199168

RESUMO

In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), coronavirus (CoV) and chicken anaemia virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed transmission patterns and relationships. Closely related strains co-circulated in chickens and ducks. While CoV RNA was detected in oral/tracheal swabs of 9.3% of the chickens and 2.4% of the ducks, rates were higher in faecal swabs of both species (27.3% and 48.2%). RNA of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and duck CoV was found in faecal swabs of chickens (19.7% and 7.1%) and ducks (4.1% and 44.1%). Moreover, DNA of the generally chicken-specific CAV was detected in oral/tracheal swabs of chickens (18.1%) and, sporadically, of ducks (2.4%). Despite serological evidence of NDV circulation or vaccination (86.9%), NDV RNA was not detected. We found a high prevalence and indication for cross-species transmission of different CoV strains in backyard poultry. Interestingly, ducks served as biological, or at least mechanical, carriers of viral strains closely related not only to IBV, but also to CAV. Bird containment and poultry species separation could be first steps to avoid cross-species transmission and emergence of novel strains with broad host range and enhanced pathogenicity. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS High rates of avian viruses were detected by PCR in backyard poultry from Lao PDR. Diverse coronavirus and chicken anemia virus strains co-circulated. Phylogenetic analyses suggested virus transmission between chickens and ducks. Serological evidence of Newcastle disease was found, but viral RNA was not detected.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 392, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Lao PDR, the epidemiology of varicella infection is uncertain, since it is not a notifiable disease and VZV outbreaks are rarely reported as fever/rash (F/R) diseases. METHODS: We estimated the seroprevalence of VZV (IgG ELISA) in different age cohorts (9 months to 46 years; N = 3139) and investigated VZV and 6 other viruses in patients during F/R outbreaks and in an ad hoc sentinel site in the context of the national reporting system (IgM ELISA, PCR). RESULTS: At least 80% of the sampled population had evidence of VZV infection before the age of 15. The largest increase in seroprevalence occurred between the age groups 1 to 5 and 6 to 7 year-olds. A VZV outbreak (clade 2) also occurred in this age group mostly during the first year of primary school (median age 6 years, interquartile range 4.0-7.5). During a dengue outbreak, 6% had varicella. At our F/R sentinel site, 14% of children with viral etiology were laboratory diagnosed as varicella and among others, a sizeable number of measles (N = 12) and rubella cases (N = 25) was detected compared to those reported for the whole country (N = 56 and 45), highlighting nationwide a large challenge of underreporting or misdiagnosis of these notifiable diseases because of lack of diagnostic laboratory capacity. CONCLUSION: We recommend strengthening the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of VZV, measles and rubella, the surveillance and reporting of notifiable F/R diseases by retraining of healthcare workers and by setting up sentinel sites and enhancing laboratory capacity.


Assuntos
Exantema/virologia , Febre/virologia , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Varicela/diagnóstico , Varicela/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Exantema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Herpes Zoster/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecção pelo Vírus da Varicela-Zoster/etiologia
7.
J Med Virol ; 91(7): 1351-1354, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817853

RESUMO

Between September 2014 and December 2015, 298 sera from rash and fever patients from all over Cuba were investigated for specific IgM antibodies against measles, rubella, dengue, human parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. B19V IgM positive and equivocal samples were investigated by a polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. No measles, rubella or dengue cases were detected. HHV6-IgM antibodies were confirmed in 5.7% and B19V-IgM antibodies in 10.7% of the patients. A total of 31.3% of the B19V cases were between 5 and 9 years old and 34.4% were 20 years and older. The only B19V sequence obtained belonged to genotype 1a. Diagnosis was established for only 16% of the rash and fever patients, suggesting that other diseases such as Zika or Chikungunya may play a role.

8.
Arch Virol ; 163(11): 3059-3064, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078131

RESUMO

Vaccination with the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine decreased the mumps incidence in Cuba, but in 2006 and 2007 an outbreak with more than 1000 laboratory confirmed cases occurred, mainly among high school and university students. The objective of the study was to investigate mumps epidemiology in Cuba between 2004 and 2015 and provide an in-depth laboratory characterization of selected samples from mumps patients. Samples from 116 cases (throat swabs, urines, paired acute and convalescent serum samples) were tested for mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA, in a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA) or by RT-PCR. IgM antibodies were found in 80.2% of cases. 48.3% of first sera were positive, 30 of which were collected within two days after symptom onset. Testing of all 116 paired sera by HIA showed seroconversion in 55.2% individuals and an at least fourfold increase in antibodies in 44.8% of cases. In 18 out of the 111 vaccinated people (16.2%) no IgM antibodies were detected, neither in the acute nor the convalescent sera, but 14 of them showed seroconversion by HIA and 4 had an at least fourfold increase of hemagglutinin antibody titers. In the RT-PCR, 23 acute phase sera, 4 throat swabs and 5 urines were positive. Detection of mumps-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and additional diagnostic methods may be required in settings with high vaccination coverage rates.


Assuntos
Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuba/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/sangue , Caxumba/virologia , Vírus da Caxumba/classificação , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(8): 1020-1026, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152201

RESUMO

Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus (HEV) differ due to the vast spatial heterogeneity in sanitation status, dietary habits and extent of exposure to animals. Although HEV infections are mostly asymptomatic, prognosis is poor for patients with compromised immune systems or pre-existing liver disease and during pregnancy. In developing countries, low hygienic standards and close human-animal interactions at farms and slaughterhouses likely favour zoonotic transmission of the virus. In this cross-sectional study from Lao People's Democratic Republic, anti-HEV IgG was detected by ELISA in 54.0% (136/252) of slaughter pigs, in 41.0% (57/139) of professionals exposed to pigs and in 18.1% of the nonrisk controls (38/210). We show that people occupationally exposed to pigs are at higher risk of infection (p < 0.001). In particular, contact to young piglets as compared to contact to the older slaughter pigs was a major risk factor (p = 0.011). Besides, consumption of bottled water significantly reduced the risk of infection (p = 0.018). In conclusion, we show that in Lao PDR, the high endemicity of HEV, the inadequate implementation of hygiene measures and the limited access to safe water jeopardize the health of professionals exposed to pigs.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199975, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011283

RESUMO

In recent decades, vaccination has substantially reduced the number of measles cases to levels close to the elimination stage. However, major measles outbreaks occurred in Europe during 2010-2012, after the introduction of the D4-Enfield lineage. We have performed a molecular characterization of 75 measles virus genotype D4 strains from patients infected in Spain between 2004 and 2012 by sequencing the N-450 region and the M-F non-coding region (M-F NCR) in order to identify genetic features of these viruses. The analysis of the N-450 region confirmed that all samples obtained since 2008 belonged to variants or sets of identical sequences of the D4-Enfield lineage, including a new one named MVs/Madrid.ESP/46.10/. Analysis of the M-F NCR showed insertions and deletions associated with previously described, uncommon non-standard genome length measles viruses. This genetic feature was identified in the D4-Enfield lineage viruses, but not in the other D4 viruses that were circulating in Spain before 2008, suggesting that these non-standard length M-F NCR sequences are characteristic of the D4-Enfield lineage. The results of the phylogenetic analysis of Spanish M-F NCRs suggest higher resolution in discriminating strains than did the N-450 analysis. In addition, the results of the analysis of the M-F NCR on the MVs/Madrid.ESP/46.10/ sub-lineage seem to support the potential utility of this region as a tool for epidemiological surveillance complementary to the N-450 region, as previously suggested. Further investigation on this question, as well as the surveillance of new potentially emerging strains with non-standard length M-F NCR are strongly recommended as part of future strategies for measles elimination.

11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(7): 1388-1389, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912692

RESUMO

We detected antibodies against influenza D in 80.2% of the cattle sampled in Luxembourg in 2016, suggesting widespread virus circulation throughout the country. In swine, seroprevalence of influenza D was low but increased from 0% to 5.9% from 2012 to 2014-2015.

12.
J Virol ; 92(17)2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950419

RESUMO

The flexible regulation of cellular metabolic pathways enables cellular adaptation to changes in energy demand under conditions of stress such as posed by a virus infection. To analyze such an impact on cellular metabolism, rubella virus (RV) was used in this study. RV replication under selected substrate supplementation with glucose, pyruvate, and glutamine as essential nutrients for mammalian cells revealed its requirement for glutamine. The assessment of the mitochondrial respiratory (based on the oxygen consumption rate) and glycolytic (based on the extracellular acidification rate) rate and capacity by respective stress tests through Seahorse technology enabled determination of the bioenergetic phenotype of RV-infected cells. Irrespective of the cellular metabolic background, RV infection induced a shift of the bioenergetic state of epithelial cells (Vero and A549) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells to a higher oxidative and glycolytic level. Interestingly there was a RV strain-specific, but genotype-independent demand for glutamine to induce a significant increase in metabolic activity. While glutaminolysis appeared to be rather negligible for RV replication, glutamine could serve as donor of its amide nitrogen in biosynthesis pathways for important metabolites. This study suggests that the capacity of RVs to induce metabolic alterations could evolve differently during natural infection. Thus, changes in cellular bioenergetics represent an important component of virus-host interactions and could complement our understanding of the viral preference for a distinct host cell population.IMPORTANCE RV pathologies, especially during embryonal development, could be connected with its impact on mitochondrial metabolism. With bioenergetic phenotyping we pursued a rather novel approach in virology. For the first time it was shown that a virus infection could shift the bioenergetics of its infected host cell to a higher energetic state. Notably, the capacity to induce such alterations varied among different RV isolates. Thus, our data add viral adaptation of cellular metabolic activity to its specific needs as a novel aspect to virus-host evolution. In addition, this study emphasizes the implementation of different viral strains in the study of virus-host interactions and the use of bioenergetic phenotyping of infected cells as a biomarker for virus-induced pathological alterations.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/metabolismo , Células A549 , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Glutamina/farmacologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/biossíntese , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888475

RESUMO

Although pigs are the main reservoir, ruminants have also been shown to be susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV). We investigated zoonotic transmission of HEV in rural settings of Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) where humans are in close contacts with ruminants and where pigs are rare. Villagers with (n = 171, risk group) and without (n = 155, control group) cattle were recruited in seven villages in Vientiane Capital. Owners of pigs were excluded. Blood, as well as information on socio-demographics, animal contact, dietary habits and awareness of zoonoses were collected to assess risk factors. Blood and rectal swabs were collected from cattle (n = 173) and other ruminants (27 goat, 5 buffaloes) to measure anti-HEV antibody and virus prevalence. A similar anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence was found in cattle (6.8%) and other ruminants (8%). HEV RNA was detected in none of the animal rectal swabs and human sera. Anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was higher in cattle farmers than in the control group (59.1% vs. 43.9%, p = 0.008) and increased significantly with age. Other risk factors included male gender, close contact with cattle and consumption of undercooked meat. We find that HEV is highly endemic in rural Laos and provide first evidence that HEV circulates in free-roaming ruminants with open access to village water sources. Despite some awareness about hygiene, villagers are likely constantly exposed to zoonotic diseases by dietary and lifestyle habits. Cattle farmers had a higher risk of HEV infection than other villagers. Our study highlights the need to raise the awareness of the rural population about water- and food-borne pathogens, and about the role of cattle as a possible source of infection. The knowledge gained on local risk factors and husbandry conditions should guide future awareness raising campaigns and promote appropriate hygienic measures including handwashing and the consumption of safe food and water.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197370, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763458

RESUMO

In 2015, several provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) experienced a vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak. This survey was conducted (i) to evaluate the vaccination coverage in different settings and cohorts using the seroprevalence of anti-poliovirus (PV) antibodies as a surrogate measure, and (ii) to explore the usefulness of an ELISA in a country with limited resources and a specific epidemiological setting. IgG antibodies were assessed by ELISA in Lao children (n = 1216) and adults (n = 1228), including blood donors and health care workers. Protective antibody titers against the 3 vaccine serotypes were determined by microneutralization (VNT) in a subset of participants. More than 92% of the children had anti-poliovirus antibodies, regardless of nutritional status or access to health care, highlighting the success of the vaccination outreach activities in the country. In contrast, anti-poliovirus seroprevalence reached only 81.7% in blood donors and 71.9% in health care workers. Participants born before the introduction of poliovirus vaccination in Lao PDR were considerably less likely to be seropositive. These findings align with the epidemiology of the outbreak. Neutralizing antibodies against at least one of the 3 poliovirus serotypes were detected in all children (99/99) and 93/99 had antibodies against all serotypes. Similarly, all health care workers had neutralizing antibodies against at least one and 92/99 against all serotypes. The comparison of both assays shows an acceptable underestimation of vaccine coverage in children by ELISA, but a low sensitivity of the ELISA in the adults. We show that the ELISA is a reasonable alternative to the VNT in particular in vaccinated children, that an improved version should be serotype specific, and that negativity thresholds should be revisited for optimal sensitivity and specificity. Thus, polio-free countries with an uncertain vaccination coverage and limited laboratory capacity, that are at risk of vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks or of re-importation of wild poliovirus may benefit from an improved ELISA for cohort studies to evaluate their immunization program in children.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Poliomielite/imunologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/imunologia , Poliovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Laos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 70: 15-19, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we monitored the seroprevalence of HBV-HDV co-infection in different population groups in the Western part of Burkina Faso, and described the genetic diversity of the detected virus strains. METHODS: Between October 2013 and December 2014, venous blood samples were collected from different cohorts (blood donors, pregnant women, outpatients) in the western region of Burkina Faso. Samples were tested for HBsAg and total anti-HDV antibodies. Positive samples were further analysed for HBV-DNA and HDV-RNA. Genotyping of the detected virus strains was done by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: A total of 841 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 27.45 years (range: 7-89 years). HBsAg was found in 117 (13.9%) participants. Of the HBsAg positive samples, 4 (3.4%) were positive for total anti-HDV antibodies and negative for HDV RNA. Phylogenetic analyses based on the HBV complete genome (n=10) and S fragment sequences (n=35) showed that all strains belonged to genotype E. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a high HBsAg prevalence, but a low rate of HDV co-infection in HBsAg carriers from western Burkina Faso. The predominance of HBV genotype E in the country was confirmed. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the burden of HBV and HDV infection in western Burkina Faso.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Hepatite D/sangue , Hepatite D/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/classificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Vaccine ; 36(6): 899-905, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306505

RESUMO

Vaccine coverage of the general population in Luxembourg is high, but refugees or asylum seekers may be incompletely vaccinated and susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases. In order to assess protection rates, serum and oral fluid samples were collected from 406 newcomers aged between 13 and 70 years arriving between May and September 2012. Sera were screened for IgG antibodies against measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. Oral fluid samples were screened for antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella virus to investigate their suitability for antibody prevalence studies. More than 90% of the participants had IgG antibodies against rubella, 73% against measles and 56% against mumps. Less than 19% had anti-HBs antibodies. Nearly 84% of the participants had an adequate protection against tetanus, 73% against diphtheria and 40% had pertussis antibodies. 93%, 95% and 78% of the measles, rubella and mumps test results obtained with serum and oral fluid were concordant. The majority of the participants lacked antibodies against at least one of the measles/mumps/rubella (58%) and diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (72%) vaccine components and against hepatitis B virus (82%) and might thus profit from vaccination. Oral fluid is a suitable alternative and non-invasive specimen for measles/rubella antibody prevalence studies.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/história , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(4): 490-496, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of influenza viruses in respiratory infections in sub-Saharan Africa has been historically overlooked, including in Burkina Faso. OBJECTIVES: This study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence and seasonal occurrence of influenza viruses in children under 5 years old, at risk of influenza-related complications, presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). The study also aimed at identifying the periods with increased influenza transmission for vaccination recommendations in Burkina Faso. METHODS: From January 2014 to December 2015, ILI and SARI (2015 only) patients were recruited in six healthcare centers in Burkina Faso. Influenza A and B molecular detection and subtyping were performed. Clade clustering of a subset of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) strains was deduced by performing phylogenetic analyses on hemagglutinin gene sequences. Weekly surveillance data from FluNet (2011-2013; 2016) and this study (2014-2015) were used to identify periods of increased influenza activity. RESULTS: Influenza A and B viruses were detected in 15.1% (112 of 743) of ILI and 6.6% (12 of 181) of SARI patients. Overall, influenza A viruses were largely predominant (81 of 124, 65.3%), with 69.1% of A(H3N2) and 30.9% of A(H1N1)pdm09 strains. Four waves of increased transmission were identified in 2014-2015, each dominated by different influenza subtypes and clades. Between 2011 and 2016, periods of increased influenza activity varied in their frequency, duration, and timing. CONCLUSION: Influenza A and B viruses were detected in a substantial number of ILI and SARI cases in Burkina Faso. Vaccination in September-October would likely protect the highest number of patients.

18.
Arch Virol ; 163(2): 431-438, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119358

RESUMO

In the Republic of Moldova, little is known about hepatitis B, C and D virus (HBV, HCV, HDV) genotypes, although the genetic variant may influence the course and outcome of disease. For HBV genotyping, 301 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive sera collected in 2010 and 2011 from drug users, prison inmates, commercial sex workers, and the general population in different geographical regions were investigated. The 31 HBsAg-positive sera collected in 2011 were also tested for HDV. Eighty-eight anti-HCV-positive sera collected between 2010 and 2011 from the general population and health care workers were used for HCV genotyping. Phylogenetic analysis of 84 HBV sequences showed that most of the viruses belonged to genotype D (n = 82, 97.6%), predominantly to the subgenotype D1/D2 cluster (n = 75/82, 91.5%). One sequence (74110) clustered as an outlier to this cluster, and six sequences belonged to subgenotype D3. Only two subgenotype A2 sequences were found. Cloning of six samples with ambiguous sequence chromatogram signals showed no mixed infections. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV sequences from 66 patients showed a predominance of subtype 1b (n = 63, 95.5%). Two sequences belonged to subtype 3a, and one to subtype 2a. HDV RNA belonging to genotype 1 was found in two sera (2/31, 6.5%). Thus, genotypes prevalent in Europe were detected for all three hepatitis viruses. For both HBV and HCV, one genotype was dominant, while occasional other variants seem to be restricted to certain cohorts and/or transmission routes.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/virologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatite D/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite C/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite D/sangue , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/classificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moldávia , Filogenia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Euro Surveill ; 22(35)2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877843

RESUMO

In Israel, 262 mumps cases were registered between 1 January and 28 August 2017 despite a vaccine coverage of ≥ 96%. The majority (56.5%) of cases were adolescents and young adults between 10 and 24 years of age. Nearly twice as many cases were reported in males than in females. Sequence information identified genotype G and suggested specific transmission chains in different religious communities, with the Muslim population in Jerusalem being most severely affected.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vírus da Caxumba/genética , Vírus da Caxumba/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Distribuição por Sexo , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Theor Biol ; 435: 199-207, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941869

RESUMO

In this study we used non-overlapping parts of the two long open reading frames coding for nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins of all available sequences of the Parvovirus B19 subgenotype 1a genome and found out that the rates of A to G, C to T and A to T mutations are higher in the first long reading frame (NS) of the virus than in the second one (VP). This difference in mutational pressure directions for two parts of the same viral genome can be explained by the fact of transcription of just the first long reading frame during the lifelong latency in nonerythroid cells. Adenine deamination (producing A to G and A to T mutations) and cytosine deamination (producing C to T mutations) occur more frequently in transcriptional bubbles formed by DNA "plus" strand of the first open reading frame. These mutations can be inherited only in case of reactivation of the infectious virus due to the help of Adenovirus that allows latent Parvovirus B19 to start transcription of the second reading frame and then to replicate its genome by the rolling circle mechanism using the specific origin. Results of this study provide evidence that the genomes reactivated from latency make significant contributions to the variability of Parvovirus B19.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Mutação , Parvovirus B19 Humano/genética , Transcrição Genética , Ativação Viral/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Parvovirus B19 Humano/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
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