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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547071

RESUMO

To characterize the genetic basis of facial features in Latin Americans, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 6000 individuals using 59 landmark-based measurements from two-dimensional profile photographs and ~9,000,000 genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We detected significant association of 32 traits with at least 1 (and up to 6) of 32 different genomic regions, more than doubling the number of robustly associated face morphology loci reported until now (from 11 to 23). These GWAS hits are strongly enriched in regulatory sequences active specifically during craniofacial development. The associated region in 1p12 includes a tract of archaic adaptive introgression, with a Denisovan haplotype common in Native Americans affecting particularly lip thickness. Among the nine previously unidentified face morphology loci we identified is the VPS13B gene region, and we show that variants in this region also affect midfacial morphology in mice.

2.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(4): 1060-1077, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325159

RESUMO

We carried out an exhaustive review regarding human skin color variation and how much it may be related to vitamin D metabolism and other photosensitive molecules. We discuss evolutionary contexts that modulate this variability and hypotheses postulated to explain them; for example, a small amount of melanin in the skin facilitates vitamin D production, making it advantageous to have fair skin in an environment with little radiation incidence. In contrast, more melanin protects folate from degradation in an environment with a high incidence of radiation. Some Native American populations have a skin color at odds with what would be expected for the amount of radiation in the environment in which they live, a finding challenging the so-called "vitamin D-folate hypothesis." Since food is also a source of vitamin D, dietary habits should also be considered. Here we argue that a gene network approach provides tools to explain this phenomenon since it indicates potential alleles co-evolving in a compensatory way. We identified alleles of the vitamin D metabolism and pigmentation pathways segregated together, but in different proportions, in agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers. Finally, we highlight how an evolutionary approach can be useful to understand current topics of medical interest.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241282, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147239

RESUMO

The American continent was the last to be occupied by modern humans, and native populations bear the marks of recent expansions, bottlenecks, natural selection, and population substructure. Here we investigate how this demographic history has shaped genetic variation at the strongly selected HLA loci. In order to disentangle the relative contributions of selection and demography process, we assembled a dataset with genome-wide microsatellites and HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing data for a set of 424 Native American individuals. We find that demographic history explains a sizeable fraction of HLA variation, both within and among populations. A striking feature of HLA variation in the Americas is the existence of alleles which are present in the continent but either absent or very rare elsewhere in the world. We show that this feature is consistent with demographic history (i.e., the combination of changes in population size associated with bottlenecks and subsequent population expansions). However, signatures of selection at HLA loci are still visible, with significant evidence selection at deeper timescales for most loci and populations, as well as population differentiation at HLA loci exceeding that seen at neutral markers.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 589-595, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007198

RESUMO

In the post-genomic era, genomic medicine interventions as a key component of personalized medicine and tailored-made health care are greatly anticipated following recent scientific and technological advances. Indeed, large-scale sequencing efforts that explore human genomic variation have been initiated in several, mostly developed, countries across the globe, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and a few others. Here, we highlight the successful implementation of large-scale national genomic initiatives, namely the Genome of Greece (GoGreece) and the DNA do Brasil (DNABr), aiming to emphasize the importance of implementing such initiatives in developing countries. Based on this experience, we also provide a roadmap for replicating these projects in other low-resource settings, thereby bringing genomic medicine in these countries closer to clinical fruition.


Assuntos
Genética Médica/organização & administração , Genoma Humano , Genômica/organização & administração , Saúde Única/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Brasil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Grécia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
5.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 48: 102335, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593164

RESUMO

Over the past few years, tools capable of predicting pigmentation phenotypes have been developed aiming to contribute for criminal and anthropological investigations. In this study, we used eight genetic systems to infer eye, hair, and skin color of ancient and contemporary Native Americans. To achieve this goal, we retrieved 61 SNPs from 42 samples available in free online repositories of DNA sequences. We performed pigmentation predictions using two freely available tools, HIrisPlex-S and Snipper, in addition to two other published models. This workflow made possible to predict all three phenotypes with at least one tool for 29 out of the 42 samples. Considering these 29 individuals, predictions for eye, hair, and skin color were obtained with HIrisPlex-S for 27, 28 and 27 individuals, respectively, while 24, 25 and 25 individuals had such predictions with Snipper. In general, ancient and contemporary Native Americans were predicted to have intermediate/brown eyes, black hair, and intermediate/darker skin pigmentation.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(5): 2372-2377, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932419

RESUMO

In the 15th century, ∼900,000 Native Americans, mostly Tupí speakers, lived on the Brazilian coast. By the end of the 18th century, the coastal native populations were declared extinct. The Tupí arrived on the east coast after leaving the Amazonian basin ∼2,000 y before present; however, there is no consensus on how this migration occurred: toward the northern Amazon and then directly to the Atlantic coast, or heading south into the continent and then migrating to the coast. Here we leveraged genomic data from one of the last remaining putative representatives of the Tupí coastal branch, a small, admixed, self-reported Tupiniquim community, as well as data of a Guaraní Mbyá native population from Southern Brazil and of three other native populations from the Amazonian region. We demonstrated that the Tupiniquim Native American ancestry is not related to any extant Brazilian Native American population already studied, and thus they could be considered the only living representatives of the extinct Tupí branch that used to settle the Atlantic Coast of Brazil. Furthermore, these data show evidence of a direct migration from Amazon to the Northeast Coast in pre-Columbian time, giving rise to the Tupí Coastal populations, and a single distinct migration southward that originated the Guaraní people from Brazil and Paraguay. This study elucidates the population dynamics and diversification of the Brazilian natives at a genomic level, which was made possible by recovering data from the Brazilian coastal population through the genomes of mestizo individuals.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Brasil , Variação Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(9): 2593-2604, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328768

RESUMO

After the colonization of the Americas by Europeans and the consequent Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, most Native American populations in eastern Brazil disappeared or went through an admixture process that configured a population composed of three main genetic components: the European, the sub-Saharan African, and the Native American. The study of the Native American genetic history is challenged by the lack of availability of genome-wide samples from Native American populations, the technical difficulties to develop ancient DNA studies, and the low proportions of the Native American component in the admixed Brazilian populations (on average 7%). We analyzed genome-wide data of 5,825 individuals from three locations of eastern Brazil: Salvador (North-East), Bambui (South-East), and Pelotas (South) and we reconstructed populations that emulate the Native American groups that were living in the 16th century around the sampling locations. This genetic reconstruction was performed after local ancestry analysis of the admixed Brazilian populations, through the rearrangement of the Native American haplotypes into reconstructed individuals with full Native American ancestry (51 reconstructed individuals in Salvador, 45 in Bambui, and 197 in Pelotas). We compared the reconstructed populations with nonadmixed Native American populations from other regions of Brazil through haplotype-based methods. Our results reveal a population structure shaped by the dichotomy of Tupi-/Jê-speaking ancestry related groups. We also show evidence of a decrease of the diversity of nonadmixed Native American groups after the European contact, in contrast with the reconstructed populations, suggesting a reservoir of the Native American genetic diversity within the admixed Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Brasil , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Geografia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 358, 2019 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664655

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association scan in >6,000 Latin Americans for pigmentation of skin and eyes. We found eighteen signals of association at twelve genomic regions. These include one novel locus for skin pigmentation (in 10q26) and three novel loci for eye pigmentation (in 1q32, 20q13 and 22q12). We demonstrate the presence of multiple independent signals of association in the 11q14 and 15q13 regions (comprising the GRM5/TYR and HERC2/OCA2 genes, respectively) and several epistatic interactions among independently associated alleles. Strongest association with skin pigmentation at 19p13 was observed for an Y182H missense variant (common only in East Asians and Native Americans) in MFSD12, a gene recently associated with skin pigmentation in Africans. We show that the frequency of the derived allele at Y182H is significantly correlated with lower solar radiation intensity in East Asia and infer that MFSD12 was under selection in East Asians, probably after their split from Europeans.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Cor de Olho/genética , Genoma Humano , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5388, 2018 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568240

RESUMO

Historical records and genetic analyses indicate that Latin Americans trace their ancestry mainly to the intermixing (admixture) of Native Americans, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Using novel haplotype-based methods, here we infer sub-continental ancestry in over 6,500 Latin Americans and evaluate the impact of regional ancestry variation on physical appearance. We find that Native American ancestry components in Latin Americans correspond geographically to the present-day genetic structure of Native groups, and that sources of non-Native ancestry, and admixture timings, match documented migratory flows. We also detect South/East Mediterranean ancestry across Latin America, probably stemming mostly from the clandestine colonial migration of Christian converts of non-European origin (Conversos). Furthermore, we find that ancestry related to highland (Central Andean) versus lowland (Mapuche) Natives is associated with variation in facial features, particularly nose morphology, and detect significant differences in allele frequencies between these groups at loci previously associated with nose morphology in this sample.


Assuntos
Migração Humana , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , México , Nariz/anatomia & histologia , América do Sul
10.
Cell ; 175(5): 1185-1197.e22, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415837

RESUMO

We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 49 individuals forming four parallel time transects in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and the Southern Cone, each dating to at least ∼9,000 years ago. The common ancestral population radiated rapidly from just one of the two early branches that contributed to Native Americans today. We document two previously unappreciated streams of gene flow between North and South America. One affected the Central Andes by ∼4,200 years ago, while the other explains an affinity between the oldest North American genome associated with the Clovis culture and the oldest Central and South Americans from Chile, Brazil, and Belize. However, this was not the primary source for later South Americans, as the other ancient individuals derive from lineages without specific affinity to the Clovis-associated genome, suggesting a population replacement that began at least 9,000 years ago and was followed by substantial population continuity in multiple regions.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional/história , Genoma Humano , América Central , DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , História Antiga , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , América do Sul
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12733, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143708

RESUMO

The Andean Altiplano has been occupied continuously since the late Pleistocene, ~12,000 years ago, which places the Andean natives as one of the most ancient populations living at high altitudes. In the present study, we analyzed genomic data from Native Americans living a long-time at Andean high altitude and at Amazonia and Mesoamerica lowland areas. We have identified three new candidate genes - SP100, DUOX2 and CLC - with evidence of positive selection for altitude adaptation in Andeans. These genes are involved in the TP53 pathway and are related to physiological routes important for high-altitude hypoxia response, such as those linked to increased angiogenesis, skeletal muscle adaptations, and immune functions at the fetus-maternal interface. Our results, combined with other studies, showed that Andeans have adapted to the Altiplano in different ways and using distinct molecular strategies as compared to those of other natives living at high altitudes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Altitude , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Seleção Genética , Alelos , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Haplótipos/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , América do Sul
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7867, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777172

RESUMO

Establishing the genetic basis that underlies craniofacial variability in natural populations is one of the main topics of evolutionary and developmental studies. One of the genes associated with mammal craniofacial variability is RUNX2, and in the present study we investigated the association between craniofacial length and width and RUNX2 across New World bats (Phyllostomidae) and primates (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini). Our results showed contrasting patterns of association between the glutamate/alanine ratios (Q/A ratio) and palate shape in these highly diverse groups. In phyllostomid bats, we found an association between shorter/broader faces and increase of the Q/A ratio. In New World monkeys (NWM) there was a positive correlation of increasing Q/A ratios to more elongated faces. Our findings reinforced the role of the Q/A ratio as a flexible genetic mechanism that would rapidly change the time of skull ossification throughout development. However, we propose a scenario in which the influence of this genetic adjustment system is indirect. The Q/A ratio would not lead to a specific phenotype, but throughout the history of a lineage, would act along with evolutionary constraints, as well as other genes, as a facilitator for adaptive morphological changes.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Palato/fisiologia , Platirrinos/genética , Alanina/análise , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/classificação , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/química , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Palato/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Platirrinos/classificação , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 963, 2018 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343858

RESUMO

Facial asymmetries are usually measured and interpreted as proxies to developmental noise. However, analyses focused on its developmental and genetic architecture are scarce. To advance on this topic, studies based on a comprehensive and simultaneous analysis of modularity, morphological integration and facial asymmetries including both phenotypic and genomic information are needed. Here we explore several modularity hypotheses on a sample of Latin American mestizos, in order to test if modularity and integration patterns differ across several genomic ancestry backgrounds. To do so, 4104 individuals were analyzed using 3D photogrammetry reconstructions and a set of 34 facial landmarks placed on each individual. We found a pattern of modularity and integration that is conserved across sub-samples differing in their genomic ancestry background. Specifically, a signal of modularity based on functional demands and organization of the face is regularly observed across the whole sample. Our results shed more light on previous evidence obtained from Genome Wide Association Studies performed on the same samples, indicating the action of different genomic regions contributing to the expression of the nose and mouth facial phenotypes. Our results also indicate that large samples including phenotypic and genomic metadata enable a better understanding of the developmental and genetic architecture of craniofacial phenotypes.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuromolecular Med ; 19(4): 501-509, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905220

RESUMO

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. The disease is caused by a pentanucleotide ATTCT expansion in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene on chromosome 22q13.3. SCA10 has shown a geographical distribution throughout America with a likely degree of Amerindian ancestry from different countries so far. Currently available data suggest that SCA10 mutation might have spread out early during the peopling of the Americas. However, the ancestral origin of SCA10 mutation remains under speculation. Samples of SCA10 patients from two Latin American countries were analysed, being 16 families from Brazil (29 patients) and 21 families from Peru (27 patients) as well as 49 healthy individuals from Indigenous Quechua population and 51 healthy Brazilian individuals. Four polymorphic markers spanning a region of 5.2 cM harbouring the ATTCT expansion were used to define the haplotypes, which were genotyped by different approaches. Our data have shown that 19-CGGC-14 shared haplotype was found in 47% of Brazilian and in 63% of Peruvian families. Frequencies from both groups are not statistically different from Quechua controls (57%), but they are statistically different from Brazilian controls (12%) (p < 0.001). The most frequent expanded haplotype in Quechuas, 19-15-CGGC-14-10, is found in 50% of Brazilian and in 65% of Peruvian patients with SCA10. These findings bring valuable evidence that ATTCT expansion may have arisen in a Native American chromosome.


Assuntos
Ataxina-10/genética , Efeito Fundador , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Mutação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , África/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos/genética , Migração Humana , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/etnologia
15.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 163(3): 591-601, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine genetic differences between agriculturalist and hunter-gatherer southern Native American populations for selected metabolism-related markers and to test whether Neel's thrifty genotype hypothesis (TGH) could explain the genetic patterns observed in these populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 375 Native South American individuals from 17 populations were genotyped using six markers (APOE rs429358 and rs7412; APOA2 rs5082; CD36 rs3211883; TCF7L2 rs11196205; and IGF2BP2 rs11705701). Additionally, APOE genotypes from 39 individuals were obtained from the literature. AMOVA, main effects, and gene-gene interaction tests were performed. RESULTS: We observed differences in allele distribution patterns between agriculturalists and hunter-gatherers for some markers. For instance, between-groups component of genetic variance (FCT ) for APOE rs429358 showed strong differences in allelic distributions between hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists (p = 0.00196). Gene-gene interaction analysis indicated that the APOE E4/CD36 TT and APOE E4/IGF2BP2 A carrier combinations occur at a higher frequency in hunter-gatherers, but this combination is not replicated in archaic (Neanderthal and Denisovan) and ancient (Anzick, Saqqaq, Ust-Ishim, Mal'ta) hunter-gatherer individuals. DISCUSSION: A complex scenario explains the observed frequencies of the tested markers in hunter-gatherers. Different factors, such as pleotropic alleles, rainforest selective pressures, and population dynamics, may be collectively shaping the observed genetic patterns. We conclude that although TGH seems a plausible hypothesis to explain part of the data, other factors may be important in our tested populations.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Antropologia Física , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Antígenos CD36/genética , Genótipo , História Antiga , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(9): 2195-2199, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193867

RESUMO

When humans moved from Asia toward the Americas over 18,000 y ago and eventually peopled the New World they encountered a new environment with extreme climate conditions and distinct dietary resources. These environmental and dietary pressures may have led to instances of genetic adaptation with the potential to influence the phenotypic variation in extant Native American populations. An example of such an event is the evolution of the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes, which have been claimed to harbor signals of positive selection in Inuit populations due to adaptation to the cold Greenland Arctic climate and to a protein-rich diet. Because there was evidence of intercontinental variation in this genetic region, with indications of positive selection for its variants, we decided to compare the Inuit findings with other Native American data. Here, we use several lines of evidence to show that the signal of FADS-positive selection is not restricted to the Arctic but instead is broadly observed throughout the Americas. The shared signature of selection among populations living in such a diverse range of environments is likely due to a single and strong instance of local adaptation that took place in the common ancestral population before their entrance into the New World. These first Americans peopled the whole continent and spread this adaptive variant across a diverse set of environments.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Migração Humana/história , Índios Centro-Americanos/genética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Índios Sul-Americanos/genética , Inuítes/genética , Seleção Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Índios Centro-Americanos/história , Índios Norte-Americanos/história , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Inuítes/história , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169287, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28060876

RESUMO

The expression of facial asymmetries has been recurrently related with poverty and/or disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Departing from the developmental instability theory, previous approaches attempted to test the statistical relationship between the stress experienced by individuals grown in poor conditions and an increase in facial and corporal asymmetry. Here we aim to further evaluate such hypothesis on a large sample of admixed Latin Americans individuals by exploring if low socioeconomic status individuals tend to exhibit greater facial fluctuating asymmetry values. To do so, we implement Procrustes analysis of variance and Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) to estimate potential associations between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and socioeconomic status. We report significant relationships between facial fluctuating asymmetry values and age, sex, and genetic ancestry, while socioeconomic status failed to exhibit any strong statistical relationship with facial asymmetry. These results are persistent after the effect of heterozygosity (a proxy for genetic ancestry) is controlled in the model. Our results indicate that, at least on the studied sample, there is no relationship between socioeconomic stress (as intended as low socioeconomic status) and facial asymmetries.


Assuntos
Assimetria Facial/epidemiologia , Assimetria Facial/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11616, 2016 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193062

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association scan for facial features in ∼6,000 Latin Americans. We evaluated 14 traits on an ordinal scale and found significant association (P values<5 × 10(-8)) at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genomic regions for three nose-related traits: columella inclination (4q31), nose bridge breadth (6p21) and nose wing breadth (7p13 and 20p11). In a subsample of ∼3,000 individuals we obtained quantitative traits related to 9 of the ordinal phenotypes and, also, a measure of nasion position. Quantitative analyses confirmed the ordinal-based associations, identified SNPs in 2q12 associated to chin protrusion, and replicated the reported association of nasion position with SNPs in PAX3. Strongest association in 2q12, 4q31, 6p21 and 7p13 was observed for SNPs in the EDAR, DCHS2, RUNX2 and GLI3 genes, respectively. Associated SNPs in 20p11 extend to PAX1. Consistent with the effect of EDAR on chin protrusion, we documented alterations of mandible length in mice with modified Edar funtion.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas a Caderinas/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Face/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Box Pareados/genética , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adulto , Variação Anatômica , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , América Latina , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10815, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926045

RESUMO

We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Face/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino
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