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Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163


Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826383


BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Adulto , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vírion/imunologia
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2011-2019, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263951


Healthcare services have been severely strained and stressed coping with the rising burden of COVID-19 patients. With the situation gradually worsening and the growing need to cater to Non-COVID patients, we ventured to reopen the OPDs. This was to be implemented in a staggered manner. The backbone to this endeavour was the specialised screening and sampling OPD for healthcare workers which had been earlier established. We would like to share our two-pronged approach in this unprecedented situation: establishment of a specialised screening and sampling clinic for healthcare workers and a high-volume "Influenza-like screening clinic" for the resumption of outpatient services.

COVID-19 , Assistência Ambulatorial , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Humanos , Índia , SARS-CoV-2
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 175, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723340


BACKGROUND: Informational discontinuity can have far reaching consequences like medical errors, increased re-hospitalization rates and adverse events among others. Thus the holy grail of seamless informational continuity in healthcare has been an enigma with some nations going the digital way. Digitization in healthcare in India is fast catching up. The current study explores the components of informational continuity, its impact on clinical decision-making and captures the general perception among the doctors towards a digital solution. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with snowball sampling. A survey questionnaire was developed and validated through a pilot study, then circulated through online platforms. Responses from doctors were obtained through an online Google form for a period of 3 months and analyzed using SPSS 20. The categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test. RESULTS: 1413 responses were obtained through a national level survey. Respondents were from a wide range of work experiences, locations, sectors, specialties and patient load. Components of patient records like clinical notes, investigation reports, previous diagnosis and treatment details were rated to be very important. 41% reported about half and 20% reported about 3/4th of their patients do not bring relevant records. Patients from rural areas, visiting state government hospitals and visiting general practitioners were less likely to bring relevant records during consultations. The fallouts of not having timely relevant patient information of the patients include more time per patient, repeat investigations, difficulty to arrive at definitive diagnosis, difficulty to take further treatment decisions and impaired overall clinical decision making which were said to be significant by respondents across the spectrum. The benefits of having timely relevant patient information were also reported consistently across the spectrum. An overwhelming proportion (83%), from across the spectrum, unequivocally expressed their willingness to use digital platforms for accessing patients' relevant medical records. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of informational discontinuity and its impact on clinical decision making is significant with definite benefits of having timely relevant medical history. There is strong willingness among the doctors to use digital solution(s) without any extra investment or effort on their part making customized solutions pertinent.

Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Médicos , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Índia , Projetos Piloto