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2.
Circ J ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aortic valve area index (AVAI) in aortic stenosis (AS) is measured by echocardiography with a continuity equation using the stroke volume index by Doppler (SVIDoppler) or biplane Simpson (SVIBiplane) method. AVAIDopplerand AVAIBiplaneoften show discrepancy due to differences between SVIDopplerand SVIBiplane. The degree of discrepancy and utility of combined AVAIs have not been investigated in a large population of AS patients, and the characteristics of subjects with larger discrepancies are unknown.Methods and Results:We studied 820 patients with significant AS (AVADoppler<1.5 cm2) enrolled in the Asian Valve Registry, a prospective multicenter registry at 12 Asian centers. All-cause death and aortic valve replacement were defined as events. SVIDopplerwas significantly larger than SVIBiplane(49±11 vs. 39±11 mL/m2, P<0.01) and AVAIDopplerwas larger than AVAIBiplane(0.51±0.15 vs. 0.41±0.14 cm2/m2, P<0.01). An increase in (AVAIDoppler- AVAIBiplane) correlated with shorter height, lower weight, older age, smaller left ventricular (LV) diameter and increased velocity of ejection flow at the LV outflow tract. Severe AS by AVAIDoppleror AVAIBiplaneenabled prediction of events, and combining these AVAIs improved the predictive value of each. CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancy in AVAI by Doppler vs. biplane method was significantly more pronounced with increased LV outflow tract flow velocity, shorter height, lower weight, older age and smaller LV cavity dimensions. Combining the AVAIs enabled mutual and incremental value in predicting events.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2933-2940, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697045

RESUMO

AIMS: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is characterized by right ventricular (RV) dilatation and dysfunction and is often seen in combination with tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and prognostic implications of TR in patients with AC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical, echocardiographic, and cardiac magnetic resonance data of 52 patients with AC fulfilling 2010 Task Force criteria in a single centre were retrospectively evaluated. TR in AC was classified as no/mild, moderate, or severe on the basis of the current guidelines. Significant TR was defined as at least moderate TR. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, heart transplantation, and tricuspid valve surgery. There were seven patients (13.4%) with moderate TR and 13 patients (25.0%) with severe TR at initial diagnosis. Patients with severe TR showed a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and a higher mean NT-pro-BNP than other groups (68%, P = 0.013; 2423 ± 1578 pg/mL, P < 0.001, respectively). Patients with significant TR revealed a higher incidence of heart failure at initial presentation than did those without significant TR (30.0 vs. 3.1%, P = 0.022). Patients with severe TR showed significantly larger RV and lower RV and left ventricular functional parameters. During a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, three groups classified by TR severity considerably discriminated clinical outcomes (log rank P = 0.019). Patients with significant TR had a poorer prognosis than those with no or mild TR (42.9 vs. 3.1%, log rank P = 0.005). Cox regression analysis showed significant TR as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 11.41, 95% confidential interval 1.30-99.92, P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Significant TR at initial diagnosis in patients with AC is a poor prognostic factor.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652901

RESUMO

We sought to investigate the psychosocial characteristics of patients with uncontrolled hypertension and examine factors that influence blood pressure (BP) control. A total of 1011 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were enrolled in 13 tertiary hospitals. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg despite on antihypertensive therapy. Socio-demographics, anthropometrics, behavioral risk factors, medication pattern, adherence, and measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EuroQol 5D visual analog scale [EQ-5D VAS]) were assessed at baseline and during follow-up visits (3 and 6 months). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on BP control status at 6 months (controlled group [n = 532] vs uncontrolled group [n = 367]). There were no differences in clinical characteristics except the proportion of smokers and baseline BP between patients with controlled BP and uncontrolled BP. At 6 months, the adherence of antihypertensive medication did not differ between the groups but the proportion of combination therapy with ≥3 antihypertensives was significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled BP. EQ-5D VAS at follow-up was significantly lower in patients with uncontrolled BP despite similar baseline values. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that EQ-5D VAS at follow-up significantly correlated with BP control. Patients with worse HRQoL had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index and higher proportion of taking ≥3 antihypertensives, but medication adherence was similar to those with better HRQoL. These findings suggest that along with pharmacologic intervention of hypertension, management of comorbid conditions or psychological support might be helpful for optimizing BP control in patients with uncontrolled hypertension.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 60-66, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650925

RESUMO

Left atrial calcium (LAC) is often observed in patients who have undergone mitral valve (MV) surgery, but little is known about its characteristics and clinical implications. Therefore, we sought to investigate the structural and hemodynamic significance of LAC and its association with clinical outcomes. We investigated 327 patients with repaired or prosthetic MV who underwent cardiac CT from 2010 to 2017. The degree of LAC was analyzed and classified into three groups: group 1 (no LAC), group 2 (mild-to-moderate LAC), and group 3 (severe LAC). Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared in three groups. LAC was seen in 79 (24.2%) patients. Groups 2 and 3 showed more prevalent atrial fibrillation, a rheumatic etiology, a higher number of previous surgeries, a larger LA volume index, and higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure than group 1. Paravalvular leakage of the MV increased progressively according to severity of LAC (15.4% in group 1, 39.3% in group 2, and 66.7% in group 3, p <0.001). Event-free survival rate for major adverse cardiovascular adverse events (log rank p = 0.033) and all-cause mortality (log rank p <0.001) were significantly different according to LAC group. In Cox regression analyses, presence of severe LAC was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.71 to 11.58, p = 0.002). LAC on cardiac CT is not uncommon and reflects more advanced LA remodeling and a stiff LA. The presence and severity of LAC are associated with a worse clinical outcome after MV surgery.


Assuntos
Calcinose/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235230, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589674

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of lead-related tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with permanent pacemaker (PM). A total of 2,533 patients who underwent permanent PM implantation between January 2008 and December 2017 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, 429 patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 90 days before implantation and were followed up at least 3 months after PM implantation were included. Patients who had pre-existing grade 3 or 4 TR, had a single atrial lead, or had undergone tricuspid valve surgery before PM implantation were excluded. Occurrence of PM-related TR (PMTR) was defined as worsening of TR by at least 2 grades on follow-up echocardiography. Cardiovascular outcomes were defined as the composite of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure. During the median follow-up of 855 days, 42 (9.8%) patients had PMTR and 86 (20.0%) presented with cardiovascular outcomes. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-4.09, p = 0.037]) and history of open-heart surgery (HR: 3.34, 95% CI: 1.68-6.68, p<0.001) were independently associated with PMTR. Patients with PMTR showed significantly higher cardiovascular events than those without (45.2 vs. 17.3%, log-rank p<0.001). Furthermore, PMTR was independently associated with the primary outcome (HR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.43-4.22, p = 0.001). In conclusion, the occurrence of TR in patients with permanent PM is not uncommon. PMTR is associated with atrial fibrillation, the history of open-heart surgery, and poorer cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia
7.
J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462831

RESUMO

Diastolic dysfunction, which is increasingly seen as being influential in precipitating heart failure and determining prognosis, is often unrecognized. In elderly patients with high rates of comorbidities, determining whether symptoms are attributable to cardiac conditions or other coexisting comorbidities can be clinically challenging. Moreover, in hemodynamically unstable patients, real-time decisions regarding fluid status are critically important. With better understanding and assessment of diastolic function, physicians should be in a better position not only to diagnose diastolic dysfunction or heart failure, but also to manage it more effectively. To optimize this approach, assessing diastolic function at the time of hemodynamic compromise or symptomatic deterioration is essential. In this review, clinical implications of assessing left ventricular diastolic function and filling pressures in critically ill patients will be reviewed with case-based discussions to emphasize how information regarding left ventricular diastolic function and filling pressure can be used for correct diagnosis and proper management of these patients.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with risk of stroke. This study aimed to define the morphological and functional characteristics of MAC that are related to stroke. METHODS: A total of 460 subjects with MAC from transthoracic echocardiography in a single center from 2012 to 2016 was retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were classified into two groups according to history of stroke [Group 1 (n = 366): without stroke; Group 2 (n = 94): with stroke]. Morphological and functional features of MAC on echocardiogram were scored from 0 to 3 according to MAC mobility, presence of echodense mass with central echolucencies in the periannular region suggesting caseous necrosis, and functional stenosis. RESULTS: Significantly more patients in group 2 were men and had history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, or infective endocarditis. Although MAC thickness and extent did not differ between the two groups, group 2 showed a considerably higher MAC score than group 1 (0.50 ± 0.77 vs. 0.23 ±0.52 p<0.001) as a result of the higher prevalence of each component in group 2 [mobility (22 vs. 11%, p = 0.003), echodense mass with central areas of echolucencies suggesting caseous necrosis (23 vs. 7%, p<0.001), and functional mitral stenosis (12 vs. 7%, p = 0.042)]. On logistic regression analysis, MAC score was independently associated with stroke and showed significant incremental value to demographic factors and comorbidities in association with stroke in a consecutive manner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, morphological and functional characteristics of MAC had incremental value in association with stroke over traditional risk factors. MAC score consisting of MAC mobility, typical echodense mass with central echolucencies suggesting caseous necrosis, and functional mitral stenosis was independently associated with stroke. MAC with high-risk features may act as a source of stroke or more potent composite surrogate markers for stroke-related risk factors.


Assuntos
Calcinose/complicações , Estenose da Valva Mitral/complicações , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcinose/patologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/patologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/patologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
14.
Heart Vessels ; 35(5): 665-671, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705186

RESUMO

There are some similarities in clinical features between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during the peripartum period (PTCM) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Both conditions present as acute heart failure and decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction in the peripartum period in previously heart-healthy women. The present study aimed to evaluate the differences in clinical features and outcomes between PTCM and PPCM. Between January 2004 and December 2016, 37 consecutive patients who demonstrated LV dysfunction during the peripartum period without previous heart disease were recruited retrospectively. The clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data of these patients were comprehensively reviewed. Twenty-one (57%) and 16 (43%) patients were classified into PPCM and PTCM groups, respectively, based on echocardiographic findings. The initial LV ejection fraction did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, all patients with PTCM showed complete recovery of LV ejection fraction at the 1-month follow-up. However, among 20 patients with PPCM who underwent 1-month echocardiography, only 6 (30%) showed complete recovery of LV ejection fraction at the 1-month follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, only 10 patients showed complete recovery of LV ejection fraction. The incidence of PTCM was much higher than expected. Although LV dysfunction was similar at the initial diagnosis, the prognosis of LV recovery was more favorable in PTCM than in PPCM. Therefore, physicians should differentiate these two diseases entities, although they have several similarities in acute LV dysfunction.

15.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 2): 272-282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202741

RESUMO

Diastolic dysfunction is a key factor in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Around 50% of cases of heart failure, the hemodynamic correlate of which is increased left ventricular filling pressure, are caused by diastolic dysfunction in the setting of apparently normal systolic function. Due to its high prevalence, diastolic dysfunction is often recognized as an incidental finding. Many patients have Doppler echocardiographic evidence of impaired diastolic function but do not have any symptoms of heart failure at rest. In many of these patients, symptoms of diastolic dysfunction occur only during exercise, as left ventricular filling pressure is normal at rest, but increases with exercise. This implies that filling pressures should also be measured during exercise. The diastolic stress test refers to the evaluation of diastolic function, either invasively or noninvasively, during exercise. This review focuses on the clinical need for diastolic stress testing, both invasively and noninvasively.

16.
Circ J ; 84(1): 119-126, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the flow-gradient pattern characteristics and associated factors in severe bicuspid aortic stenosis (AS) compared with severe tricuspid AS.Methods and Results:A total of 252 patients with severe AS (115 bicuspid vs. 137 tricuspid) who underwent aortic valve (AV) replacement were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to stroke volume index and mean pressure gradient across the AV [normal-flow-high-gradient (NF-HG), low-flow-high-gradient, normal-flow-low-gradient, low-flow-low-gradient (LF-LG)]. In 89 patients who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT), influential structural parameters of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), AV and ascending aorta were assessed. Bicuspid AS was more likely to present a NF-HG pattern (83.5% vs. 64.2%, P<0.001), and significantly fewer presented a LF-LG pattern compared with tricuspid AS. In bicuspid AS, there was a significant mismatch between geometric orifice area (GOA) on CT planimetry and effective orifice area (EOA) calculated using the echocardiographic continuity equation. Bicuspid AS presented with a larger angle between the LVOT-AV and aorta. Multivariate analysis of bicuspid AS revealed that systemic arterial compliance (ß=-0.350, P=0.031) and the LVOT-AV-aorta angle (ß=-0.538, P=0.001), and stroke volume index (ß=0.409, P=0.008) were associated with a discrepancy between GOA and EOA. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-gradient patterns in bicuspid AS differ from those of tricuspid AS and are associated with the structural and functional characteristics of the aorta.

17.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(10): 2097-2098, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601383
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(9): 816-823, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433579

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical significance of concomitant specific cardiomyopathies in subjects with bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1186 adults with BAV (850 males, mean age 56±14 years) at a single tertiary center were comprehensively reviewed. Left ventricular non-compaction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were confirmed when patients fulfilled current clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, including comorbidities, heart failure presentation, BAV morphology, function, and aorta phenotypes, in BAV subjects with or without specific cardiomyopathies were compared. RESULTS: Overall, 67 subjects (5.6%) had concomitant cardiomyopathies: 40 (3.4%) patients with left ventricular non-compaction, 17 (1.4%) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and 10 (0.8%) with dilated cardiomyopathy. BAV subjects with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had higher prevalences of diabetes mellitus and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and tended to have type 0 phenotype, while BAV subjects with dilated cardiomyopathy showed higher prevalences of chronic kidney disease and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. BAV subjects with left ventricular non-compaction were significantly younger and predominantly male, and had greater BAV dysfunction and a higher prevalence of normal aorta shape. In multiple regression analysis, cardiomyopathy was independently associated with heart failure (odds ratio 2.795, 95% confidential interval 1.603-4.873, p<0.001) after controlling for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: Concomitant cardiomyopathies were observed in 5.6% of subjects with BAV. A few different clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were found. The presence of cardiomyopathy was independently associated with heart failure.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
19.
J Clin Med ; 8(9)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450580

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a mathematical model to predict the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic dilatation (AD) in bicuspid aortic valve patients. Bicuspid AS patients who underwent at least two serial echocardiograms from 2005 to 2017 were enrolled. Mathematical modeling was undertaken to assess (1) the non-linearity associated with the disease progression and (2) the importance of first visit echocardiogram in predicting the overall prognosis. Models were trained in 126 patients and validated in an additional cohort of 43 patients. AS was best described by a logistic function of time. Patients who showed an increase in mean pressure gradient (MPG) at their first visit relative to baseline (denoted as rapid progressors) showed a significantly faster disease progression overall. The core model parameter reflecting the rate of disease progression, α, was 0.012/month in the rapid progressors and 0.0032/month in the slow progressors (p < 0.0001). AD progression was best described by a simple linear function, with an increment rate of 0.019 mm/month. Validation of models in a separate prospective cohort yielded comparable R squared statistics for predicted outcomes. Our novel disease progression model for bicuspid AS significantly increased prediction power by including subsequent follow-up visit information rather than baseline information alone.

20.
J Hypertens ; 37(12): 2490-2497, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify associations between the smoothness index of central SBP (CSBP) and changes of ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in response to 20-week treatments with losartan and amlodipine vs. losartan and hydrochlorthiazide combinations. METHODS: For 142 (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 72, losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 70) patients examined with ambulatory central blood pressure (BP) monitoring device, we calculated smoothness indices and trough-to-peak ratios of brachial SBP, CSBP, ambulatory pulse pressure amplification (APPA), ambulatory augmentation index at heart rate 75 beats per minute (AAIx75) and ambulatory carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (AcfPWV). RESULTS: Mean age was 58.9 ±â€Š12.3 years, and women accounted for 25.9%. Changes in office SBP/DBP were not different between groups (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: -15.2 ±â€Š15.0/-7.8 ±â€Š8.0 vs. losartan and amlodipine: -14.9 ±â€Š13.7/-9.2 ±â€Š7.5 mmHg). Reduction of 24-h CSBP was not significantly different (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 6.4 ±â€Š1.1 vs. losartan and amlodipine: 9.2 ±â€Š1.1 mmHg, P = 0.074). Reduction in nocturnal AcfPWV was greater in the losartan and amlodipine group (losartan and hydrochlorthiazide: 0.09 ±â€Š0.05 vs. losartan and amlodipine: 0.26 ±â€Š0.05 m/s, P = 0.0216). Intraindividual SIs for CSBP were higher in the losartan and amlodipine group (0.40 ±â€Š0.57 vs. 0.65 ±â€Š0.74, P = 0.022). In multivariable regression analysis, smoothness index of CSBP was independently associated with the losartan and amlodipine group. In model additionally considering the changes in arterial stiffness, decrease in AcfPWV instead of the treatment group was independently associated with smoothness indices. In mediation analysis, smoothness index was fully mediated by reduction in night-time AcfPWV. CONCLUSION: Losartan and amlodipine combination was superior to the losartan and hydrochlorthiazide combination in terms of achieving higher smoothness index for CSBP after 20-week treatments. The effect of losartan and amlodipine on smoothness index was fully mediated by reduction of night-time AcfPWV.

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