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1.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 369-379, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156004

RESUMO

Context: Silk peptide from cocoons of silkworm (Bombyx mori L., Bombycidae) has been employed as a biomedical material and exhibits various bioactivities, including immune-modulating activity. Objective: We analyzed whether silk peptide exerts direct modulating effects on NK cells using an NK cell line in vitro and ex vivo splenocytes. We also attempted to delineate the mechanism underlying the modulation. Material and methods: In vitro activity of silk peptide on NK cells was determined by measurement of cytolytic activity against K562 cells at an effector-to-target ratio of 5:1 after incubation of NK-92MI cells with silk peptide (0-2000 µg/mL) for 48 and 72 h. Ex vivo activity of silk peptide on mouse splenic NK cells was determined similarly by using YAC-1 cells. Results: Treatment of NK-92MI NK cells with silk peptide (500-2000 µg/mL) significantly increased cytolytic activity on target cells by 2- to 4-fold. The same concentrations (500-2000 µg/mL) of silk peptide treatment also significantly enhanced the cytolytic activity of splenic NK cells against YAC-1 cells. Silk peptide treatment of IL-2-stimulated splenocytes induced enhanced expression of Th1, 2 and 17 cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-17. Finally, ex vivo treatment with silk peptide on mouse splenocytes significantly enhanced the degree of NK cell maturation in a dose-dependent manner from 3.49 to 23.79%. Discussion and conclusions: These findings suggest that silk peptide stimulates NK cells, thereby influencing systemic immune functions and improving natural immunity. Thus, silk peptide could be useful as a complementary therapy in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Seda/química , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Células K562 , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Seda/imunologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia
2.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 77, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cordyceps is a traditional Chinese herb that produces various biopharmaceutical effects, including immune-enhancing effects. In this study, we prepared a Cordyceps mycelium culture extract (Paecilomyces hepiali, CBG-CS-2) to confirm its efficacy in enhancing the immune system and to evaluate its safety in healthy adults. METHODS: Healthy adults were divided into the intervention group (n = 39), who were given 1.68 g/day of CBG-CS-2 in capsules, and the control group (n = 40) for 8 weeks. The activities of natural killer (NK) cells and serum levels of monocyte-derived mediators were assessed initially for a baseline measurement and after 8 wks. RESULTS: The CBG-CS-2 group showed a significant 38.8 ± 17.6% enhancement from the baseline of NK cell cytotoxic activity relative to the placebo group after the administration of the capsules for 8 wks. (P < 0.019). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the immune system functions well with CBG-CS-2 supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. Thus, CBG-CS-2 is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity in healthy adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at Clinical Trials.gov ( NCT 02814617 ).


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cordyceps/química , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Micélio/química
3.
Phytomedicine ; 52: 198-205, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino leaves (EGP) has been reported recently to have anxiolytic effects on chronically stressed mice models. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of EGP on anxiety level in healthy Korean subjects under chronic stressful conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: This study was conducted with 72 healthy adults who had perceived chronic stress and anxiety with a score on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) from 40 to 60. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either EGP (200 mg, twice a day, N = 36) or placebo (N = 36). All participants were exposed to repetitive loads of stress by performing the serial subtraction task for 5 min every second day during the 8-week intervention. Primary outcome of Trait-STAI and secondary outcomes of State-STAI, total score of STAI, Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), blood norepinephrine and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase, cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) functional test, and heart rate variability (HRV) test were measured before and after intervention. RESULTS: After the 8-week intervention, the EGP significantly lowered the score of the Trait Anxiety Scale of the STAI (T-STAI) by 16.8% compared to the placebo (p = 0.041). The total score on the STAI decreased by 17.8% in the EGP group and tended to improve compared with that of the placebo group (p = 0.067). There were no significant differences in the changes in score of S-STAI, HAM-A, BAI, and other parameters from baseline between the two groups. There was no causal relationship between the ingestion of EGP and adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSION: We found that supplementation with EGP reduced "anxiety proneness" in subjects under chronic psychological stress, as shown by a decrease in the score of T-STAI and the tendency for decrease in the total score of STAI. This result suggests that EGP supplementation can be used as a regimen to safely reduce stress and anxiety; however, more studies are needed to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Gynostemma/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/sangue , Folhas de Planta/química , alfa-Amilases/análise
4.
Immune Netw ; 18(5): e37, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30402332

RESUMO

Silk peptide, the hydrolysate of silk protein derived from cocoons, has been employed as a biomedical material and is believed to be safe for human use. Silk peptide display various bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, immune-regulatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial. Although earlier investigations demonstrated that silk peptide stimulates macrophages and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its effect on natural killer (NK) cell function has not yet been explored. In this study, we initially confirmed that silk peptide enhances NK cell activity in vitro and ex vivo. To assess the modulatory activity of silk peptide on NK cells, mice were fed various amounts of a silk peptide-supplemented diet for 2 months and the effects on immune stimulation, including NK cell activation, were evaluated. Oral administration of silk peptide significantly enhanced the proliferation of mitogen- or IL-2-stimulated splenocytes. In addition, oral silk peptide treatment enhanced the frequency and degree of maturation of NK cells in splenocytes. The same treatment also significantly enhanced the target cell cytolytic activity of NK cells, which was determined by cell surface CD107a expression and intracellular interferon-γ expression. Finally, oral administration of silk peptide stimulated T helper 1-type cytokine expression from splenic lymphocytes. Collectively, our results suggest that silk peptide potentiates NK cell activity in vivo and could be used as a compound for immune-modulating anti-tumor treatment.

5.
Exp Mol Med ; 49(6): e341, 2017 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572573

RESUMO

Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) releases Ca2+ from ryanodine receptor (RyR)-sensitive calcium pools in various cell types. In cardiac myocytes, the physiological levels of cADPR transiently increase the amplitude and frequency of Ca2+ (that is, a rapid increase and decrease of calcium within one second) during the cardiac action potential. In this study, we demonstrated that cADPR levels higher than physiological levels induce a slow and gradual increase in the resting intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) level over 10 min by inhibiting the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Higher cADPR levels mediate the tyrosine-dephosphorylation of α-actin by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) present in the endoplasmic reticulum. The tyrosine dephosphorylation of α-actin dissociates phospholamban, the key regulator of SERCA, from α-actin and results in SERCA inhibition. The disruption of the integrity of α-actin by cytochalasin B and the inhibition of α-actin tyrosine dephosphorylation by a PTP1B inhibitor block cADPR-mediated Ca2+ increase. Our results suggest that levels of cADPR that are relatively higher than normal physiological levels modify calcium homeostasis through the dephosphorylation of α-actin by PTB1B and the subsequent inhibition of SERCA in cardiac myocytes.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , ADP-Ribose Cíclica/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Citocalasina B/farmacologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Coelhos , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Tirosina/metabolismo
6.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 25(3): 487-96, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27440682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Constipation affects up to 20% of the world's population. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with Ficus carica paste could be used to treat constipation in Korean subjects with functional constipation. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with functional constipation were orally supplemented with either F. carica paste (n=40) or placebo (n=40) for 8 weeks. We measured the efficacy and safety of F. carica paste. Primary outcomes (colon transit time) and secondary outcomes (questionnaire related to defecation) were compared before and after the 8-week intervention period. RESULTS: F. carica paste supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in colon transit time and a significant improvement in stool type and abdominal discomfort compared with the placebo. Blood parameters and clinical findings for organ toxicity remained within normal ranges. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that F. carica paste may have beneficial effects in subjects suffering from constipation.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Ficus , Frutas/química , Fitoterapia , Adulto , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ficus/química , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/análise , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Placebos , República da Coreia
7.
Immune Netw ; 16(2): 140-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27162531

RESUMO

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function.

8.
Orient Pharm Exp Med ; 15(1): 7-12, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814919

RESUMO

Cordyceps (CS) is a traditional Chinese herb with various biological effects that include immune modulation. CBG-CS-2 is a strain, Paecilomyces hepiali, of the Cordyceps spp. The anti-inflammatory effects of CBG-CS-2 were investigated. The water-soluble fraction of CBG-CS-2 has high anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced Raw264.7 macrophages. We tested the role of CBG-CS-2 on the anti-inflammation cascade in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. CBG-CS-2 significantly decreased NO production, iNOS expression, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the mechanism by which CBG-CS-2 inhibits NO, iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, we examined the activities of NF-κB and AP-1 in LPS-activated macrophages. The results demonstrate that CBG-CS-2 suppresses the production and expression of NO, iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-activated macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1, which may play an important role in inflammation. These findings suggest that CBG-CS-2 has modulatory effects on the inflammatory system in macrophages, and that it can serve as a useful anti-inflammatory dietary supplement or drug.

9.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 17(12): 1189-99, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854106

RESUMO

Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Hypocreales/química , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Ginseng Res ; 38(4): 239-43, 2014 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25379002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the antidiabetic effects of hydrolyzed ginseng extract (HGE) for Korean participants in an 8-wk, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Impaired fasting glucose participants [fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 5.6mM or < 6.9mM] who had not been diagnosed with any disease and met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. The 23 participants were randomly divided into either the HGE (n = 12, 960 mg/d) or placebo (n = 11) group. Outcomes included measurements of efficacy (FPG, postprandial glucose, fasting plasma insulin, postprandial insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, and homeostatic model assessment-ß) and safety (adverse events, laboratory tests, electrocardiogram, and vital signs). RESULTS: After 8 wk of HGE supplementation, FPG and postprandial glucose were significantly decreased in the HGE group compared to the placebo group. No clinically significant changes in any safety parameter were observed. Our study revealed that HGE is a potent antidiabetic agent that does not produce noticeable adverse effects. CONCLUSION: HGE supplementation may be effective for treating impaired fasting glucose individuals.

11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 237, 2014 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25015735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red ginseng is prepared by steaming raw ginseng, a process believed to increase the pharmacological efficacy. Further bioconversion of red ginseng through fermentation is known to increase its intestinal absorption and bioactivity, and bioconversion diminishes the toxicity of red ginseng's metabolite. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of daily supplementation with fermented red ginseng (FRG) on glycemic status in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This study was a four-week long, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to two groups assigned to consume either the placebo or fermented red ginseng (FRG) three times per day for four weeks. Fasting and postprandial glucose profiles during meal tolerance tests were assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: FRG supplementation led to a significant reduction in postprandial glucose levels and led to an increase in postprandial insulin levels compared to the placebo group. There was a consistently significant improvement in the glucose area under the curve (AUC) in the FRG group. However, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profiles were not different from the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Daily supplementation with FRG lowered postprandial glucose levels in subjects with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01826409.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Panax/química , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 10(4): 1821-7, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050832

RESUMO

The present study was performed to investigate the potential effects of the unripened dried fruit of Rubus coreanus Miq., Rubi Fructus (RF), on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia. Rubi Fructus extract (RFex) fed mice demonstrated a reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight. RFex fed mice also demonstrated decreased aminotransferase levels, lipid contents [triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)], leptin content and increased high­density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL­C) contents in the plasma. These effects were accompanied by a decreased expression of lipogenic genes, including sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, liver X receptor, fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl­CoA carboxylase, cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase and decreased lipogenic enzyme FAS and 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutamyl coenzyme reductase enzyme activities, while elevating carnitine palmitoyltrasferase-1 activity. Based on these results, the present study hypothesized that the inhibitory effect on hepatic steatosis of RFex is the result of the suppression of lipid synthesis in mice fed with HFD, suggesting that RFex may be beneficial in preventing hepatic steatosis and liver lipotoxicity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leptina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rubus/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 297, 2013 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24171779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a set of disorders that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The primary target of treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome is therapeutic lifestyle change. Numerous preclinical study have reported positive effects of chungkookjang in in vivo models of diabetes and obesity, but there is a paucity of controlled clinical trials on variables of metabolic syndrome in obese subjects. Thus, the objective of this trial is to examine the effect of chungkookjang compared to placebo on variables of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese subjects. METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial will be conducted on 120 overweight/obese subjects; aged 19-29 years. Subjects will be recruited from the Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea. Enrolled subjects will be randomly assigned to two groups of equal number; one group received 35 g of chungkookjang (n = 60) and the other group received placebo (n = 60) on a regular daily basis for 12 weeks. After a 12-week washout period, the groups will be crossed over. In addition to anthropometric measures and blood pressure, glucose parameter, lipid profile, adipocytokine, and carnitine assay will be determined at baseline and 12 week. Also, safety will be assessing by measuring total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and creatine kinase at baseline and 12 weeks. 24-hour dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. DISCUSSION: This trial will evaluate the effects of chungkookjang on variables of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese subjects. The results of this study may contribute to the reduction of risk factor for metabolic syndrome caused by obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials NCT01811511.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 13: 58, 2013 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23497020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. RESULTS: Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p = 0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p = 0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. CONCLUSION: The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01634256


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Curcuma , Fermentação , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
15.
J Korean Med Sci ; 27(12): 1472-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23255845

RESUMO

Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a functional food and has been well known for keeping good health due to its anti-fatigue and immunomodulating activities. However, there is no data on Korean red ginseng for its preventive activity against acute respiratory illness (ARI). The study was conducted in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in healthy volunteers (Clinical Trial Number: NCT01478009). Our primary efficacy end point was the number of ARI reported and secondary efficacy end point was severity of symptoms, number of symptoms, and duration of ARI. A total of 100 volunteers were enrolled in the study. Fewer subjects in the KRG group reported contracting at least 1 ARI than in the placebo group (12 [24.5%] vs 22 [44.9%], P = 0.034), the difference was statistically significant between the two groups. The symptom duration of the subjects who experienced the ARI, was similar between the two groups (KRG vs placebo; 5.2 ± 2.3 vs 6.3 ± 5.0, P = 0.475). The symptom scores were low tendency in KRG group (KRG vs placebo; 9.5 ± 4.5 vs 17.6 ± 23.1, P = 0.241). The study suggests that KRG may be effective in protecting subjects from contracting ARI, and may have the tendency to decrease the duration and scores of ARI symptoms.


Assuntos
Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Análise Química do Sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Raízes de Plantas/química , República da Coreia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/prevenção & controle , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 12: 10, 2012 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22314101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI) remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG) in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. DISCUSSION: This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01478009.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Panax , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Cápsulas , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/normas , República da Coreia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Exp Mol Med ; 44(6): 363-8, 2012 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22366884

RESUMO

Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), a new member of the natriuretic peptide family, is structurally similar to atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides. However, the effects of DNP on the cardiac function are poorly defined. In the present study, we examined the effect of DNP on the cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels in rabbit ventricular myocytes. DNP inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in a concentration dependent manner with a IC(50) of 25.5 nM, which was blocked by an inhibitor of protein kinase G (PKG), KT5823 (1 µM). DNP did not affect the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation of I(Ca,L). The α(1c) subunit of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel proteins was phosphorylated by the treatment of DNP (1 µM), which was completely blocked by KT5823 (1 µM). Finally, DNP also caused the shortening of action potential duration in rabbit ventricular tissue by 22.3 ± 4.2% of the control (n = 6), which was completely blocked by KT5823 (1 µM). These results clearly indicate that DNP inhibits the L-type Ca(2+) channel activity by phosphorylating the Ca(2+) channel protein via PKG activation.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Venenos Elapídicos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de GMP Cíclico/antagonistas & inibidores , Venenos Elapídicos/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática , Coração , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 50(3-4): 895-902, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22178225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study examined the effects of fig (Ficus carica L.) paste for the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in a rat model. METHODS: Animals were divided into one normal control group and four experimental groups (0, 1, 6, and 30 g/kg). Loperamide (2 mg/kg, twice per day) was injected intraperitoneally to induce constipation in the four experimental groups. Fig paste was administered for 4 weeks to assess its anti-constipation effects. RESULTS: Fecal pellet number, weight and water content were increased in the fig-treated groups as compared to the control group. Reductions in body weight and increased intestinal transit length were observed in the fig-treated groups. Fecal pellet number was reduced in the distal colons of the fig-treated rats. Exercise and ileum tension increased in the experimental groups as compared to the control group. According to histological analyses, the thickness of the distal colon and areas of crypt epithelial cells that produce mucin were increased in the fig-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Constipation was decreased when fig fruit was fed to rats. Specifically, fecal number, weight, and water content, as well as histological parameters such as thickness and mucin areas in the distal colon were improved. Fig treatment may be a useful therapeutic and preventive strategy for chronic constipation.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/uso terapêutico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Loperamida/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Constipação Intestinal/sangue , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Loperamida/farmacologia , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peristaltismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Korean J Physiol Pharmacol ; 15(5): 259-66, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22128257

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive role of epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG, a derivative of green tea) in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of isolated rat hearts. It has been suggested that EGCG has beneficial health effects, including prevention of cancer and heart disease, and it is also a potent antioxidant. Rat hearts were subjected to 20 min of normoxia, 20 min of zero-flow ischemia and then 50 min of reperfusion. EGCG was perfused 10 min before ischemia and during the whole reperfusion period. EGCG significantly increased left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and increased maximum positive and negative dP/dt (+/-dP/dtmax). EGCG also significantly increased the coronary flow (CF) at baseline before ischemia and at the onset of the reperfusion period. Moreover, EGCG decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). This study showed that lipid peroxydation was inhibited and Mn-SOD and catalase expressions were increased in the presence of EGCG. In addition, EGCG increased levels of Bcl-2, Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase expression and decreased levels of Bax and increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in isolated rat hearts. Cleaved caspase-3 was decreased after EGCG treatment. EGCG markedly decreased the infarct size while attenuating the increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in the effluent. In summary, we suggest that EGCG has a protective effect on I/R-associated hemodynamic alteration and injury by acting as an antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent in one.

20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 11: 125, 2011 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22136279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ) has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80) who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and eosinophil cationic protein. DISCUSSION: This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT). If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01402141.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/uso terapêutico , Histamina/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Pele/imunologia , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
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