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1.
Brain ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459760

RESUMO

The von Willebrand Factor A domain containing 1 protein, encoded by VWA1, is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in muscle and peripheral nerve. It interacts with collagen VI and perlecan, two proteins that are affected in hereditary neuromuscular disorders. Lack of VWA1 is known to compromise peripheral nerves in a Vwa1 knock-out mouse model. Exome sequencing led us to identify bi-allelic loss of function variants in VWA1 as the molecular cause underlying a so far genetically undefined neuromuscular disorder. We detected six different truncating variants in 15 affected individuals from six families of German, Arabic, and Roma descent. Disease manifested in childhood or adulthood with proximal and distal muscle weakness predominantly of the lower limbs. Myopathological and neurophysiological findings were indicative of combined neurogenic and myopathic pathology. Early childhood foot deformity was frequent, but no sensory signs were observed. Our findings establish VWA1 as a new disease gene confidently implicated in this autosomal recessive neuromyopathic condition presenting with child-/adult-onset muscle weakness as a key clinical feature.

2.
Brain ; 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313762

RESUMO

Claudin-11, a tight junction protein, is indispensable in the formation of the radial component of myelin. Here, we report de novo stop-loss variants in the gene encoding claudin-11, CLDN11, in three unrelated individuals presenting with an early-onset spastic movement disorder, expressive speech disorder and eye abnormalities including hypermetropia. Brain MRI showed a myelin deficit with a discrepancy between T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and some progress in myelination especially involving the central and peripheral white matter. Exome sequencing identified heterozygous stop-loss variants c.622T>C, p.(*208Glnext*39) in two individuals and c.622T>G, p.(*208Gluext*39) in one individual, all occurring de novo. At the RNA level, the variant c.622T>C did not lead to a loss of expression in fibroblasts, indicating this transcript is not subject to nonsense-mediated decay and most likely translated into an extended protein. Extended claudin-11 is predicted to form an alpha helix not incorporated into the cytoplasmic membrane, possibly perturbing its interaction with intracellular proteins. Our observations suggest that stop-loss variants in CLDN11 expand the genetically heterogeneous spectrum of hypomyelinating leukodystrophies.

3.
Neurol Sci ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy (hATTRPN) is an autosomal dominant multi-organ disorder manifesting in the third to fifth decade with the key clinical features of distal and painful sensory loss of the lower limbs and autonomic dysregulation. Motor neuropathy and cardiomyopathy evolve in the course of the disease. Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease leading to decreased levels of lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase and proximal muscle weakness. We report the clinical features and diagnostic workup in the rare case of a patient with ATTR amyloidosis and late-onset Pompe disease, both genetically confirmed. METHODS: We performed a detailed clinical assessment, exome sequencing, and biochemical measurements. RESULTS: The patient presented with a distal, painful hypaesthesia of both legs, a cardiomyopathy, and a muscle weakness in the form of a girdle-type pattern of the arms and legs at the beginning and a spreading to distal muscle groups in the course of disease. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the importance of searching for co-occurrence of rare monogenetic neuromuscular diseases, especially in cases in which all clinical features can be readily explained by a single gene defect.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 152, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic CDKN1C gain-of-function variants on the maternal allele were initially reported as a cause of IMAGe syndrome characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, primary adrenal insufficiency and genital anomalies. Recently, a maternally inherited CDKN1C missense mutation (p.Arg279Leu) was identified in several members of a single family clinically diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) but without adrenal insufficiency. Thereafter, two half siblings from UK with familial SRS were described who carried the same mutation. This specific amino acid change is located within a narrow functional region containing the mutations previously associated with IMAGe syndrome. RESULTS: Here, we describe a third familial case with maternally inherited SRS due to a missense variant affecting the same amino acid position 279 but leading to a different amino acid substitution (p. (Arg279Ser)). The two affected family members (mother and son) presented with the complete SRS phenotype (both Netchine-Harbison CSS score 5 of 6) but without body asymmetry or adrenal insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with loss-of-function genomic IGF2 mutations, CDKN1C gain-of-function mutations are a less frequent cause of SRS and seem to affect a cluster of few amino acids.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15093, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934269

RESUMO

X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene resulting in the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). X-ALD is the most common peroxisomal disorder with adult patients (male and female) presenting with progressive spastic paraparesis with bladder disturbance, sensory ataxia with impaired vibration sense, and leg pain. 80% of male X-ALD patients have an adrenal failure, while adrenal dysfunction is rare in women with X-ALD. The objective of this study was to define optimal serum VLCFA cutoff values in patients with X-ALD-like phenotypes for the differentiation of genetically confirmed X-ALD and Non-X-ALD individuals. Three groups were included into this study: a) X-ALD cases with confirmed ABCD1 mutations (n = 34) and two Non-X-ALD cohorts: b) Patients with abnormal serum VCLFA levels despite negative testing for ABCD1 mutations (n = 15) resulting from a total of 1,953 VLCFA tests c) Phenotypically matching patients as Non-X-ALD controls (n = 104). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to optimize VLCFA cutoff values, which differentiate patients with genetically confirmed X-ALD and Non-X-ALD individuals. The serum concentration of C26:0 was superior to C24:0 for the detection of X-ALD. The best differentiation of Non-X-ALD and X-ALD individuals was obtained with a cutoff value of < 1.0 for the C24:0/C22:0 ratio resulting in a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 94.1% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.8% for true X-ALD. Our findings further suggested a cutoff of < 0.02 for the ratio C26:0/C22:0 leading to a sensitivity of 90.9%, a specificity of 95.0%, and a PPV of 80.6%. Pearson correlation indicated a significant positive association between total blood cholesterol and VLCFA values. Usage of serum VLCFA are economical and established biomarkers suitable for the guidance of genetic testing matching the X-ALD phenotype. We suggest using our new optimized cutoff values, especially the two ratios (C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0), in combination with standard lipid profiles.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(10): 2272-2283, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776697

RESUMO

Synaptotagmins are integral synaptic vesicle membrane proteins that function as calcium sensors and regulate neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Synaptotagmin-2 (SYT2), is the major isoform expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Recently, dominant missense variants in SYT2 have been reported as a rare cause of distal motor neuropathy and myasthenic syndrome, manifesting with stable or slowly progressive distal weakness of variable severity along with presynaptic NMJ impairment. These variants are thought to have a dominant-negative effect on synaptic vesicle exocytosis, although the precise pathomechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we report seven patients of five families, with biallelic loss of function variants in SYT2, clinically manifesting with a remarkably consistent phenotype of severe congenital onset hypotonia and weakness, with variable degrees of respiratory involvement. Electrodiagnostic findings were consistent with a presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in some. Treatment with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pursued in three patients showed clinical improvement with increased strength and function. This series further establishes SYT2 as a CMS-disease gene and expands its clinical and genetic spectrum to include recessive loss-of-function variants, manifesting as a severe congenital onset presynaptic CMS with potential treatment implications.

8.
Neurol Genet ; 6(5): e500, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802957

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical, neuroimaging, and genetic characterization of 3 patients with LINS1-associated developmental regression, intellectual disability, dysmorphism, and further neurologic deficits. Methods: Three affected brothers from a consanguineous family from Afghanistan, their 2 healthy siblings, and both parents were all assessed in the clinic. General and neurologic examination, expert dysmorphology examination, and 3T brain MRI were performed. Whole-exome sequencing was performed for the 3 affected brothers, followed by Sanger sequencing in all available family members. Results: The index patient and his 2 affected brothers presented a complex neurologic syndrome with similar features but marked intrafamilial phenotypical variability, including varying degrees of cognitive impairment, speech impairment, dystonia, abnormal eye movements, and dysmorphic features. All 3 affected brothers are homozygous for a novel, pathogenic frameshift mutation in LINS1, c.1672_1679del, and p.Gly558Profs*22, whereas both parents and healthy siblings are heterozygous for the mutation. No major brain malformations were evident in 3T brain MRI of the affected brothers. Conclusion: This consanguineous family with a novel mutation expands the spectrum of LINS1-associated disorder to include developmental regression, oculomotor signs, and dystonia, previously not described in the published 9 cases of this rare disorder. The 3T-MRI data from our 3 patients and review of the neuroimaging data in the literature showed unspecific brain MRI changes. LINS1 protein is a known modulating factor of the Wnt signaling pathway, with important roles in organogenesis including of the cerebral cortex. More research is warranted to disentangle the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, leading to cognitive impairment and the complex phenotype of LINS1-associated disorder.

9.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104046, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ECHS1 encodes the mitochondrial short chain enoyl CoA hydratase 1 (SCEH). Biallelic ECHS1 variants have been associated with Leigh-like presentations and milder phenotypes with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. PATIENTS/METHODS: We used exome sequencing to investigate molecular bases of paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal dystonia in three patients and performed functional studies in fibroblasts. Disease presentation and response upon dietary interventions were documented. RESULTS: We identified compound heterozygous ECHS1 missense variants in all individuals; all of them harbouring an c.518C > T (p.Ala173Val) variant. SCEH activity was impaired in patients' fibroblasts, respiratory chain-, and pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex activities were normal in one individual. Patient 1 presented from the age of 2.5 years on with paroxysmal opisthotonic posturing. Patient 2 had a first metabolic crisis at the age 20 months developing recurrent exercise-induced dystonic episodes. Disease history of patient 3 was unremarkable for neurological findings until he first presented at the age of 20 years with persistent dystonia. Ketogenic diet had beneficial effects in patient 1. Neither ketogenic nor low protein diets led to milder symptoms in patient 2. Patient 3 benefits from low protein diet with improvement of his torticollis. CONCLUSIONS: In line with literature, our findings corroborate that the pathogenic ECHS1 variant c.518C > T (p.Ala173Val) is associated with milder phenotypes characterized by paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal dystonia. Because of the potentially treatable defect, especially in milder affected patients, it is important to consider SCEH deficiency not only in patients with Leigh-like syndrome but also in patients with paroxysmal dystonia and normal neurological findings between episodes.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(2): 364-373, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707086

RESUMO

We report bi-allelic pathogenic HPDL variants as a cause of a progressive, pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder with variable clinical presentation. The single-exon gene HPDL encodes a protein of unknown function with sequence similarity to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Exome sequencing studies in 13 families revealed bi-allelic HPDL variants in each of the 17 individuals affected with this clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive neurological disorder. HPDL levels were significantly reduced in fibroblast cell lines derived from more severely affected individuals, indicating the identified HPDL variants resulted in the loss of HPDL protein. Clinical presentation ranged from severe, neonatal-onset neurodevelopmental delay with neuroimaging findings resembling mitochondrial encephalopathy to milder manifestation of adolescent-onset, isolated hereditary spastic paraplegia. All affected individuals developed spasticity predominantly of the lower limbs over the course of the disease. We demonstrated through bioinformatic and cellular studies that HPDL has a mitochondrial localization signal and consequently localizes to mitochondria suggesting a putative role in mitochondrial metabolism. Taken together, these genetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies demonstrate HPDL is a mitochondrial protein, the loss of which causes a clinically variable form of pediatric-onset spastic movement disorder.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1863-1873, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic variants in LARS1, coding for the cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase, cause infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1). Since its description in 2012, there has been no systematic analysis of the clinical spectrum and genetic findings. METHODS: Individuals with biallelic variants in LARS1 were included through an international, multicenter collaboration including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed and functional studies were performed in patient-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: Twenty-five individuals from 15 families were ascertained including 12 novel patients with eight previously unreported variants. The most prominent clinical findings are recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure and encephalopathic episodes, both triggered by febrile illness. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) changes during an encephalopathic episode can be consistent with metabolic stroke. Furthermore, growth retardation, microcytic anemia, neurodevelopmental delay, muscular hypotonia, and infection-related seizures are prevalent. Aminoacylation activity is significantly decreased in all patient cells studied upon temperature elevation in vitro. CONCLUSION: ILFS1 is characterized by recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure in conjunction with abnormalities of growth, blood, nervous system, and musculature. Encephalopathic episodes with seizures can occur independently from liver crises and may present with metabolic stroke.

12.
Neurol Genet ; 6(3): e425, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582862

RESUMO

Objective: To expand the phenotypic spectrum of severity of POLR3-related leukodystrophy and identify genotype-phenotype correlations through study of patients with extremely severe phenotypes. Methods: We performed an international cross-sectional study on patients with genetically proven POLR3-related leukodystrophy and atypical phenotypes to identify 6 children, 3 males and 3 females, with an extremely severe phenotype compared with that typically reported. Clinical, radiologic, and molecular features were evaluated for all patients, and functional and neuropathologic studies were performed on 1 patient. Results: Each patient presented between 1 and 3 months of age with failure to thrive, severe dysphagia, and developmental delay. Four of the 6 children died before age 3 years. MRI of all patients revealed a novel pattern with atypical characteristics, including progressive basal ganglia and thalami abnormalities. Neuropathologic studies revealed patchy areas of decreased myelin in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, with astrocytic gliosis in the white matter and microglial activation. Cellular vacuolization was observed in the thalamus and basal ganglia, and neuronal loss was evident in the putamen and caudate. Genotypic similarities were also present between all 6 patients, with one allele containing a POLR3A variant causing a premature stop codon and the other containing a specific intronic splicing variant (c.1771-7C>G), which produces 2 aberrant transcripts along with some wild-type transcript. Conclusions: We describe genotype-phenotype correlations at the extreme end of severity of the POLR3-related leukodystrophy spectrum and shed light on the complex disease pathophysiology.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants in genes belonging to the tubulin superfamily account for a heterogeneous spectrum of brain malformations referred to as tubulinopathies. Variants in TUBB2A have been reported in 10 patients with a broad spectrum of brain imaging features, ranging from a normal cortex to polymicrogyria, while one patient has been reported with progressive atrophy of the cerebellar vermis. METHODS: In order to further refine the phenotypical spectrum associated with TUBB2A, clinical and imaging features of 12 patients with pathogenic TUBB2A variants, recruited via the international network of the authors, were reviewed. RESULTS: We report 12 patients with eight novel and one recurrent variants spread throughout the TUBB2A gene but encoding for amino acids clustering at the protein surface. Eleven patients (91.7%) developed seizures in early life. All patients suffered from intellectual disability, and 11 patients had severe motor developmental delay, with 4 patients (36.4 %) being non-ambulatory. The cerebral cortex was normal in five individuals and showed dysgyria of variable severity in seven patients. Associated brain malformations were less frequent in TUBB2A patients compared with other tubulinopathies. None of the patients had progressive cerebellar atrophy. CONCLUSION: The imaging phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in TUBB2A is highly variable, ranging from a normal cortex to extensive dysgyria with associated brain malformations. For recurrent variants, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations could be established, suggesting the role of additional modifiers.

15.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(7): 103938, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360255

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypoplasia and degeneration of the cerebellum and ventral pons. To date at least 18 different clinical subtypes of PCH associated with pathogenic variants in 19 different genes have been described. Only recently, bi-allelic variants in TBC1D23 have been reported as the underlying molecular defect in seven index cases with a suspected non-degenerative form of PCH, PCH type 11 (PCH11). We used exome sequencing to investigate an individual with global developmental delay, ataxia, seizures, and progressive PCH. Brain volume was evaluated over a disease course of 14 years using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volume alterations were compared to age-matched controls as well as data from children with PCH2. We identified a homozygous frameshift variant in exon 9 of 18 of TBC1D23 predicting a loss of protein function. Brain morphometry revealed a pattern of pontine, brain stem, and supratentorial volume loss similar to PCH2 patients although less pronounced. Intriguingly, cerebral MRI findings at the age of 1 and 15 years clearly showed progressive atrophy of the cerebellum, especially the hemispheres. In four of the cases reported in the literature cerebellar hemispheres could be evaluated on the MRIs displayed, they also showed atrophic foliae. While pontine hypoplasia and pronounced microcephaly are in line with previous reports on PCH11, our observations of clearly postnatal atrophy of the cerebellum argues for a different pathomechanism than in the other forms of PCH and supports the hypothesis that TBC1D23 deficiency predominantly interferes with postnatal rather than with prenatal cerebellar development.

17.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1024-1036, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160317

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling molecule formed mainly from cysteine, is catabolized by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (gene SQOR). Toxic hydrogen sulfide exposure inhibits complex IV. We describe children of two families with pathogenic variants in SQOR. Exome sequencing identified variants; SQOR enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically, protein levels evaluated by western blotting, and mitochondrial function was assayed. In family A, following a brief illness, a 4-year-old girl presented comatose with lactic acidosis and multiorgan failure. After stabilization, she remained comatose, hypotonic, had neurostorming episodes, elevated lactate, and Leigh-like lesions on brain imaging. She died shortly after. Her 8-year-old sister presented with a rapidly fatal episode of coma with lactic acidosis, and lesions in the basal ganglia and left cortex. Muscle and liver tissue had isolated decreased complex IV activity, but normal complex IV protein levels and complex formation. Both patients were homozygous for c.637G > A, which we identified as a founder mutation in the Lehrerleut Hutterite with a carrier frequency of 1 in 13. The resulting p.Glu213Lys change disrupts hydrogen bonding with neighboring residues, resulting in severely reduced SQOR protein and enzyme activity, whereas sulfide generating enzyme levels were unchanged. In family B, a boy had episodes of encephalopathy and basal ganglia lesions. He was homozygous for c.446delT and had severely reduced fibroblast SQOR enzyme activity and protein levels. SQOR dysfunction can result in hydrogen sulfide accumulation, which, consistent with its known toxicity, inhibits complex IV resulting in energy failure. In conclusion, SQOR deficiency represents a new, potentially treatable, cause of Leigh disease.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(8): 1034-1043, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214227

RESUMO

A high rate of consanguinity leads to a high prevalence of autosomal recessive disorders in inbred populations. One example of inbred populations is the Arab communities in Israel and the Palestinian Authority. In the Palestinian Authority in particular, due to limited access to specialized medical care, most patients do not receive a genetic diagnosis and can therefore neither receive genetic counseling nor possibly specific treatment. We used whole-exome sequencing as a first-line diagnostic tool in 83 Palestinian and Israeli Arab families with suspected neurogenetic disorders and were able to establish a probable genetic diagnosis in 51% of the families (42 families). Pathogenic, likely pathogenic or highly suggestive candidate variants were found in the following genes extending and refining the mutational and phenotypic spectrum of these rare disorders: ACO2, ADAT3, ALS2, AMPD2, APTX, B4GALNT1, CAPN1, CLCN1, CNTNAP1, DNAJC6, GAMT, GPT2, KCNQ2, KIF11, LCA5, MCOLN1, MECP2, MFN2, MTMR2, NT5C2, NTRK1, PEX1, POLR3A, PRICKLE1, PRKN, PRX, SCAPER, SEPSECS, SGCG, SLC25A15, SPG11, SYNJ1, TMCO1, and TSEN54. Further, this cohort has proven to be ideal for prioritization of new disease genes. Two separately published candidate genes (WWOX and PAX7) were identified in this study. Analyzing the runs of homozygosity (ROHs) derived from the Exome sequencing data as a marker for the rate of inbreeding, revealed significantly longer ROHs in the included families compared with a German control cohort. The total length of ROHs correlated with the detection rate of recessive disease-causing variants. Identification of the disease-causing gene led to new therapeutic options in four families.

19.
Neurol Genet ; 6(1): e393, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042921

RESUMO

Objective: To delineate the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum in carriers of mitochondrial MT-ATP6 mutations in a large international cohort. Methods: We analyzed in detail the clinical, genetical, and neuroimaging data from 132 mutation carriers from national registries and local databases from Europe, USA, Japan, and China. Results: We identified 113 clinically affected and 19 asymptomatic individuals with a known pathogenic MT-ATP6 mutation. The most frequent mutations were m.8993 T > G (53/132, 40%), m.8993 T > C (30/132, 23%), m.9176 T > C (30/132, 23%), and m.9185 T > C (12/132, 9%). The degree of heteroplasmy was high both in affected (mean 95%, range 20%-100%) and unaffected individuals (mean 73%, range 20%-100%). Age at onset ranged from prenatal to the age of 75 years, but almost half of the patients (49/103, 48%) became symptomatic before their first birthday. In 28 deceased patients, the median age of death was 14 months. The most frequent symptoms were ataxia (81%), cognitive dysfunction (49%), neuropathy (48%), seizures (37%), and retinopathy (14%). A diagnosis of Leigh syndrome was made in 55% of patients, whereas the classic syndrome of neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) was rare (8%). Conclusions: In this currently largest series of patients with mitochondrial MT-ATP6 mutations, the phenotypic spectrum ranged from asymptomatic to early onset multisystemic neurodegeneration. The degree of mutation heteroplasmy did not reliably predict disease severity. Leigh syndrome was found in more than half of the patients, whereas classic NARP syndrome was rare. Oligosymptomatic presentations were rather frequent in adult-onset patients, indicating the need to include MT-ATP6 mutations in the differential diagnosis of both ataxias and neuropathies.

20.
Clin Genet ; 97(4): 621-627, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056211

RESUMO

We recruited 103 families from Jordan with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) and patterns of inheritance mostly suggestive of autosomal recessive inheritance. In each family, we investigated at least one affected individual using exome sequencing and an in-house diagnostic variant interpretation pipeline including a search for copy number variation. This approach led us to identify the likely molecular defect in established disease genes in 37 families. We could identify 25 pathogenic nonsense and 11 missense variants as well as 3 pathogenic copy number variants and 1 repeat expansion. Notably, 11 of the disease-causal variants occurred de novo. In addition, we prioritized a homozygous frameshift variant in PUS3 in two sisters with intellectual disability. To our knowledge, PUS3 has been postulated only recently as a candidate disease gene for intellectual disability in a single family with three affected siblings. Our findings provide additional evidence to establish loss of PUS3 function as a cause of intellectual disability.

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