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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445223

RESUMO

Smart devices and internet-based applications are largely used in allergic rhinitis and may help to address some unmet needs. However, these new tools need to first of all be tested for privacy rules, acceptability, usability and cost-effectiveness. Secondly, they should be evaluated in the frame of the digital transformation of health, their impact on healthcare delivery and health outcomes. This review (i) summarizes some existing mHealth apps for allergic rhinitis and reviews those in which testing has been published, (ii) discusses apps that include risk factors of allergic rhinitis, (iii) examines the impact of mHealth apps in phenotype discovery, (iv) provides real-world evidence for care pathways, and finally (v) discusses mHealth tools enabling the digital transformation of health and care, empowering citizens and building a healthier society.

2.
Respir Med ; 155: 121-126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality and hospitalization due to asthma have decreased in many European countries, but asthma symptoms still cause a lot of morbidity and costs. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated prevalence trends of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adults aged 20-69 years during a 20-year period from 1996 to 2016 in the city of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. METHODS: Three cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted in random population samples 10 years apart. In 1996, 2006 and 2016, a total of 6062 (response rate 75.9%), 2449 (61.9%) and 4026 subjects (50.3%) took part, respectively. RESULTS: In all responders, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was 6.6% in 1996, 10% in 2006 and 10.9% in 2016. The prevalence increased from 1996 to 2006, but stabilized from 2006 to 2016, both in men and women and in smokers and non-smokers. The prevalence of current asthma (8.5% in 2006 and 8.8% in 2016) and of asthma with rhinoconjunctivitis (7.6% in 2006 and 7.5% in 2016) remained also at the same level. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis decreased significantly from 2006 (42.7%) to 2016 (39.0%, p = 0.004). Those with physician diagnosed asthma reported significantly less symptoms in 2016 compared to 2006 and 1996, although there was no change in smoking habits or medication use. Young asthmatics (20-29 years) without rhinoconjunctivitis reported least symptoms. CONCLUSION: Previously observed increase of physician-diagnosed asthma prevalence in adults seems to be levelling off in Helsinki, and patients have fewer symptoms than 20 years ago. In addition, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is less frequent than 10 years earlier. (247 words).

4.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 179(4): 273-280, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma, allergic conditions, and COPD overlap, but the effect of them and their combinations on disease severity, need for drugs, use of healthcare, and costs is poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To study how different allergic diseases co-occur in asthma and allergy patients and evaluate the use of medication well as drug and healthcare costs. METHODS: Nationwide Allergy Barometer Survey was carried out in the Finnish pharmacies during 1 week in September 2016. Altogether, 956 patients (5-75 years) who purchased asthma or allergy drugs with prescription participated in 351 pharmacies. RESULTS: Of the participants, 78% reported physician-diagnosed asthma, 57% allergic rhinitis, 24% atopic eczema, 21% food allergy, 20% allergic conjunctivitis, 8% anaphylaxis, and 8% COPD. One-third of the patients had at least three conditions, and multimorbidity was common across all age groups. Disease severity increased with the number of coexisting conditions, and asthma severity also with age. Patients with asthma alone used on average 3.8 drugs with the annual costs of EUR 661. This increased to 4.9 drugs and EUR 847 in asthmatics with multimorbidity. For all participants, costs of drugs and healthcare services together during the preceding year were on average EUR 1,214, of which 56% were drug costs. The costs doubled to EUR 2,714 in 65 subjects (7%) who had both asthma and COPD. CONCLUSIONS: In asthma and allergy, multimorbidity and polypharmacy are major concerns. Disease severity, drug use, and costs increased with multimorbid conditions. To reduce the burden, allergy management should be better integrated and more comprehensive.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Custos e Análise de Custo , Uso de Medicamentos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Allergy ; 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955224

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a proven therapeutic option for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Many guidelines or national practice guidelines have been produced but the evidence-based method varies, many are complex and none propose care pathways. This paper reviews care pathways for AIT using strict criteria and provides simple recommendations that can be used by all stakeholders including healthcare professionals. The decision to prescribe AIT for the patient should be individualized and based on the relevance of the allergens, the persistence of symptoms despite appropriate medications according to guidelines as well as the availability of good-quality and efficacious extracts. Allergen extracts cannot be regarded as generics. Immunotherapy is selected by specialists for stratified patients. There are no currently available validated biomarkers that can predict AIT success. In adolescents and adults, AIT should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe rhinitis or for those with moderate asthma who, despite appropriate pharmacotherapy and adherence, continue to exhibit exacerbations that appear to be related to allergen exposure, except in some specific cases. Immunotherapy may be even more advantageous in patients with multimorbidity. In children, AIT may prevent asthma onset in patients with rhinitis. mHealth tools are promising for the stratification and follow-up of patients.

6.
Allergy ; 74(8): 1445-1456, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835837

RESUMO

Biodiversity hypothesis states that contact with natural environments enriches the human microbiome, promotes immune balance and protects from allergy and inflammatory disorders. We are protected by two nested layers of biodiversity, microbiota of the outer layer (soil, natural waters, plants, animals) and inner layer (gut, skin, airways). The latter inhabits our body and is colonized from the outer layer. Explosion of human populations along with cultural evolution is profoundly changing our environment and lifestyle. Adaptive immunoregulatory circuits and dynamic homeostasis are at stake in the newly emerged urban surroundings. In allergy, and chronic inflammatory disorders in general, exploring the determinants of immunotolerance is the key for prevention and more effective treatment. Loss of immunoprotective factors, derived from nature, is a new kind of health risk poorly acknowledged until recently. The paradigm change has been implemented in the Finnish allergy programme (2008-2018), which emphasized tolerance instead of avoidance. The first results are promising, as allergy burden has started to reduce. The rapidly urbanizing world is facing serious biodiversity loss with global warming, which are interconnected. Biodiversity hypothesis of health and disease has societal impact, for example, on city planning, food and energy production and nature conservation. It has also a message for individuals for health and well-being: take nature close, to touch, eat, breathe, experience and enjoy. Biodiverse natural environments are dependent on planetary health, which should be a priority also among health professionals.

8.
Int Microbiol ; 22(3): 297-304, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811000

RESUMO

People spend a lot of time indoors and the indoor microbiome is a major part of the environment that we are exposed to. However, awareness of the exposure to the indoor microbiome and its health effects remains poor. Outdoor environment (soil and air), indoor sources (ventilation, dampness and building materials), human occupants, and pets compose the indoor microbial community. It has been estimated that up to 500-1000 different species can be present in house dust. House dust is a major source and reservoir of indoor microbiome, which influences human microbiome and determines health and disease. Herein, we review the origins and the components of the fungal and bacterial communities in house dust and their possible effect on human health, in particular on allergic disorders, intestinal microbiome, and immune responses. We expect to lay a solid foundation for the further study on the mechanisms of how the house dust microbes interact with the host microbiome and the human immune system.

9.
Allergy ; 74(7): 1219-1236, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565275

RESUMO

Pharmacists are trusted health care professionals. Many patients use over-the-counter (OTC) medications and are seen by pharmacists who are the initial point of contact for allergic rhinitis management in most countries. The role of pharmacists in integrated care pathways (ICPs) for allergic diseases is important. This paper builds on existing studies and provides tools intended to help pharmacists provide optimal advice/interventions/strategies to patients with rhinitis. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)-pharmacy ICP includes a diagnostic questionnaire specifically focusing attention on key symptoms and markers of the disease, a systematic Diagnosis Guide (including differential diagnoses), and a simple flowchart with proposed treatment for rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. Key prompts for referral within the ICP are included. The use of technology is critical to enhance the management of allergic rhinitis. However, the ARIA-pharmacy ICP should be adapted to local healthcare environments/situations as regional (national) differences exist in pharmacy care.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273709

RESUMO

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline by using the best approach to integrated care pathways using mobile technology in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. The proposed next phase of ARIA is change management, with the aim of providing an active and healthy life to patients with rhinitis and to those with asthma multimorbidity across the lifecycle irrespective of their sex or socioeconomic status to reduce health and social inequities incurred by the disease. ARIA has followed the 8-step model of Kotter to assess and implement the effect of rhinitis on asthma multimorbidity and to propose multimorbid guidelines. A second change management strategy is proposed by ARIA Phase 4 to increase self-medication and shared decision making in rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. An innovation of ARIA has been the development and validation of information technology evidence-based tools (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network [MASK]) that can inform patient decisions on the basis of a self-care plan proposed by the health care professional.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(11): 1474-1482, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns defined using principal component analysis (PCA) offer an alternative to the analysis of individual foods and nutrients and have been linked with asthma and allergic disease. However, results have not been reproducible in different settings. OBJECTIVE: To identify dietary patterns common to different European countries and examine their associations with asthma and allergic symptoms. METHODS: In sixteen study centers in nine European countries, 3206 individuals aged 15-77 years completed a common, internationally validated, food frequency questionnaire and a respiratory symptoms questionnaire. The outcomes of interest were current asthma, asthma symptoms score (derived based on responses to 5 asthma symptom-related questions), atopy (positive skin prick test). Spirometry was used to estimate forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1 /FVC, spirometric restriction (FVC below the lower limit of normal (

13.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(12): 1640-1653, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) management has changed in recent years following the switch from the concept of disease severity to the concept of disease control, publication of the AR clinical decision support system (CDSS) and development of mobile health (m-health) tools for patients (eg Allergy Diary). The Allergy Diary Companion app for healthcare providers is currently being developed and will be launched in 2018. It incorporates the AR CDSS to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations, linking all key stakeholders in AR management. OBJECTIVE: To produce an electronic version of the AR CDSS (e-CDSS) for incorporation into the Allergy Diary Companion, to describe the app interfaces used to collect information necessary to inform the e-CDSS and to summarize some key features of the Allergy Diary Companion. METHODS: The steps involved in producing the e-CDSS and incorporating it into the Allergy Diary Companion were (a) generation of treatment management scenarios; (b) expert consensus on treatment recommendations; (c) generation of electronic decisional algorithms to describe all AR CDSS scenarios; (d) digitization of these algorithms to form the e-CDSS; and (e) embedding the e-CDSS into the app to permit easy user e-CDSS interfacing. RESULTS: Key experts in the AR field agreed on the AR CDSS approach to AR management and on specific treatment recommendations provided by Allergy Diary Companion. Based on this consensus, decision processes were developed and programmed into the Allergy Diary Companion using Titanium Appcelerator (JavaScript) for IOS tablets. To our knowledge, this is the first time the development of any m-health tool has been described in this transparent and detailed way, providing confidence, not only in the app, but also in the provided management recommendations. CONCLUSION: The Allergy Diary Companion for providers provides guideline and expert-endorsed AR management recommendations. [MASK paper No 32].

14.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 37(1): 15, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866162

RESUMO

In 1980, Jonas Salk (1914-1995) encouraged professionals in anthropology and related disciplines to consider the interconnections between "planetary health," sociocultural changes associated with technological advances, and the biology of human health. The concept of planetary health emphasizes that human health is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; experts in physiological anthropology have illuminated some of the mechanisms by which experiences in natural environments (or the built environment) can promote or detract from health. For example, shinrin-yoku and related research (which first emerged from Japan in the 1990s) helped set in motion international studies that have since examined physiological responses to time spent in natural and/or urban environments. However, in order to advance such findings into planetary health discourse, it will be necessary to further understand how these biological responses (inflammation and the collective of allostatic load) are connected to psychological constructs such as nature relatedness, and pro-social/environmental attitudes and behaviors. The exposome refers to total environmental exposures-detrimental and beneficial-that can help predict biological responses of the organism to environment over time. Advances in "omics" techniques-metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics-and systems biology are allowing researchers to gain unprecedented insight into the physiological ramifications of human behavior. Objective markers of stress physiology and microbiome research may help illuminate the personal, public, and planetary health consequences of "extinction of experience." At the same time, planetary health as an emerging multidisciplinary concept will be strengthened by input from the perspectives of physiological anthropology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Disbiose , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Exposição Ocupacional , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
World Allergy Organ J ; 11(1): 6, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568342

RESUMO

Background: Allergic and non-allergic rhinitis cause a lot of symptoms in everyday life. To decrease the burden more information of the preventable risk factors is needed. We assessed prevalence and risk factors for chronic nasal symptoms, exploring the effects of smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, exposure to occupational irritants, and their combinations. Methods: In 2016, a postal survey was conducted among a random population sample of 8000 adults in Helsinki, Finland with a 50.5% response rate. Results: Smoking was associated with a significant increase in occurrence of chronic rhinitis (longstanding nasal congestion or runny nose), but not with self-reported or physician diagnosed allergic rhinitis. The highest prevalence estimates of nasal symptoms, 55.1% for chronic rhinitis, 49.1% for nasal congestion, and 40.7% for runny nose, were found among smokers with occupational exposure to gases, fumes or dusts.Besides active smoking, also exposure to environmental tobacco smoke combined with occupational exposure increased the risk of nasal symptoms. Conclusions: Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and occupational irritants are significant risk factors for nasal symptoms with an additive pattern. The findings suggest that these factors should be systematically inquired in patients with nasal symptoms for appropriate preventive measures. (192 words).

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 627: 1018-1038, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426121

RESUMO

Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems. These include immune system development and regulation, metabolic and endocrine pathways, brain function and epigenetic modification of the genome. Importantly, parental microbiotas have transgenerational impacts on the health of progeny. Humans, animals and plants share similar relationships with microbes. Research paradigms from humans and other mammals, amphibians, insects, planktonic crustaceans and plants demonstrate the influence of environmental microbial ecosystems on the microbiota and health of organisms, and indicate links between environmental and internal microbial diversity and good health. Therefore, overlapping compositions, and interconnected roles of microbes in human, animal and plant health should be considered within the broader context of terrestrial and aquatic microbial ecosystems that are challenged by the human lifestyle and by agricultural and industrial activities. Here, we propose research priorities and organizational, educational and administrative measures that will help to identify safe microbe-associated health-promoting modalities and practices. In the spirit of an expanding version of "One health" that includes environmental health and its relation to human cultures and habits (EcoHealth), we urge that the lifestyle-microbiota-human health nexus be taken into account in societal decision making.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiologia Ambiental , Atividades Humanas , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Microbiota , Plantas
19.
Nutrients ; 10(1)2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. METHODS: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA²LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FVC (FEV1/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV1/FVC < LLN were calculated. Intake of the six main subclasses of flavonoids was estimated using the GA²LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted associations between outcomes and each subclass of flavonoids were examined with multivariate regressions. Simes' procedure was used to test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 2599 subjects had valid lung function and dietary data. A lower prevalence of FVC < LLN (airway restriction) was observed in those with higher total flavonoid (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), higher vs. lowest quintile intake 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 0.94), and pro-anthocyanidin intakes (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.27, 0.81). A higher FEV1/FVC was associated with higher intakes of total flavonoids and pro-anthocyanidins (adjusted correlation coefficient (a ß-coeff 0.33; 0.10, 0.57 and a ß-coeff 0.44; 95% CI 0.19, 0.69, respectively). After Simes' procedure, the statistical significance of each of these associations was attenuated but remained below 0.05, with the exception of total flavonoids and airway restriction. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study in European adults provides cross-sectional evidence of a positive association of total flavonoid intake and pro-anthocyanidins and ventilatory function, and a negative association with spirometric restriction in European adults.


Assuntos
Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Ventilação Pulmonar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prevalência , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(4): 1274-1286.e9, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is increasingly acknowledged as having a substantial socioeconomic impact associated with impaired work productivity, although available information remains fragmented. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarizes recently available information to provide a quantitative estimate of the burden of AR on work productivity including lost work time (ie, absenteeism) and reduced performance while working (ie, presenteeism). METHODS: A Medline search retrieved original studies from 2005 to 2015 pertaining to the impact of AR on work productivity. A pooled analysis of results was carried out with studies reporting data collected through the validated Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. RESULTS: The search identified 19 observational surveys and 9 interventional studies. Six studies reported economic evaluations. Pooled analysis of WPAI-based studies found an estimated 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4; 4.8%) missed work time and 35.9% (95% CI, 29.7; 42.1%) had impairment in at-work performance due to AR. Economic evaluations indicated that indirect costs associated with lost work productivity are the principal contributor to the total AR costs and result mainly from impaired presenteeism. The severity of AR symptoms was the most consistent disease-related factor associated with a greater impact of AR on work productivity, although ocular symptoms and sleep disturbances may independently affect work productivity. Overall, the pharmacologic treatment of AR showed a beneficial effect on work productivity. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides summary estimates of the magnitude of work productivity impairment due to AR and identifies its main determinant factors. This information may help guide both clinicians and health policy makers.

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