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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 129(8): 1507-17, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27160855

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SNP markers were developed for the OWBM resistance gene Sm1 that will be useful for MAS. The wheat Sm1 region is collinear with an inverted syntenic interval in B. distachyon. Orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM, Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin) is an important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many growing regions. Sm1 is the only described OWBM resistance gene and is the foundation of managing OWBM through host genetics. Sm1 was previously mapped to wheat chromosome arm 2BS relative to simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the dominant, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker WM1. The objectives of this research were to saturate the Sm1 region with markers, develop improved markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS), and examine the synteny between wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, and rice (Oryza sativa) in the Sm1 region. The present study mapped Sm1 in four populations relative to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), SSRs, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers, single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs), and the SCAR WM1. Numerous high quality SNP assays were designed that mapped near Sm1. BLAST delineated the syntenic intervals in B. distachyon and rice using gene-based SNPs as query sequences. The Sm1 region in wheat was inverted relative to B. distachyon and rice, which suggests a chromosomal rearrangement within the Triticeae lineage. Seven SNPs were tested on a collection of wheat lines known to carry Sm1 and not to carry Sm1. Sm1-flanking SNPs were identified that were useful for predicting the presence or absence of Sm1 based upon haplotype. These SNPs will be a major improvement for MAS of Sm1 in wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sintenia , Triticum/genética , Animais , Brachypodium/genética , Chironomidae , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(40): 12923-8, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26352187

RESUMO

The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller.

3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 68(3): 657-70, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23632031

RESUMO

We reconstruct range-wide phylogeographies of two widespread and largely co-occurring Western Palearctic frogs, Rana temporaria and R. dalmatina. Based on tissue or saliva samples of over 1000 individuals, we compare a variety of genetic marker systems, including mitochondrial DNA, single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes, microsatellite loci, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of transcriptomes of both species. The two focal species differ radically in their phylogeographic structure, with R. temporaria being strongly variable among and within populations, and R. dalmatina homogeneous across Europe with a single strongly differentiated population in southern Italy. These differences were observed across the various markers studied, including microsatellites and SNP density, but especially in protein-coding nuclear genes where R. dalmatina had extremely low heterozygosity values across its range, including potential refugial areas. On the contrary, R. temporaria had comparably high range-wide values, including many areas of probable postglacial colonization. A phylogeny of R. temporaria based on various concatenated mtDNA genes revealed that two haplotype clades endemic to Iberia form a paraphyletic group at the base of the cladogram, and all other haplotypes form a monophyletic group, in agreement with an Iberian origin of the species. Demographic analysis suggests that R. temporaria and R. dalmatina have genealogies of roughly the same time to coalescence (TMRCA ~3.5 mya for both species), but R. temporaria might have been characterized by larger ancestral and current effective population sizes than R. dalmatina. The high genetic variation in R. temporaria can therefore be explained by its early range expansion out of Iberia, with subsequent cycles of differentiation in cryptic glacial refugial areas followed by admixture, while the range expansion of R. dalmatina into central Europe is a probably more recent event.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Meio Ambiente , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transcriptoma
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