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1.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 391-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177907

RESUMO

The mineralocorticoid aldosterone increases in plasma in healthy pregnancy along with renin and angiotensin II and plays a key role in the physiological plasma volume expansion. In mice, aldosterone contributes to an optimal fetal development by enhancing PlGF (placental growth factor) expression and trophoblast cell proliferation. In preeclampsia, there is coincident suppression of aldosterone and impaired placental development. We hypothesized that aldosterone independently contributes to placental and birth weight in humans, and high dietary sodium and low potassium intakes affect this relationship adversely. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections and plasma samples from gestational week 29 in a subsample of 569 pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort-a Danish population-based longitudinal cohort study. Plasma and urinary aldosterone were measured by ELISA, sodium and potassium excretions by flame photometer. Predictive values of aldosterone levels and sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by multiple and Cox regression analyses. Primary outcomes were placental weight and birth weight. Secondary outcome was preeclampsia. Urinary aldosterone excretion at gestational week 29 independently contributed to placental and birth weights (adjusted ß-coefficients [95% CI], 24.50 [9.66-39.35] and 9.59 [4.57-14.61], respectively). Aldosterone levels were not associated to preeclampsia incidence. Salt intake >6 g/d was associated with development of preeclampsia (hazard ratio [95% CI], 5.68 [1.51-21.36]). At gestational week 29, urinary aldosterone excretion is an independent predictor of placental and birth weights. High salt intake is a risk factor for preeclampsia. In perspective, suppression of aldosterone in pregnancy has adverse trophic effects.

2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 1462-1476, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136991

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk later in life. Anti-GPCR autoantibodies have been shown to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether anti-GPCR autoantibodies are elevated in women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia 8-11 years postpartum, and whether they correlate with clinical outcomes. We investigated data from the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales cohort, a retrospective matched case-control study. Anti AT1R-, beta1AR-, ETAR-, PAR1- and CXCR3- autoantibodies were determined in 485 samples by using commercially available ELISA. Women with the lowest combined levels of autoantibodies and a history of early preeclampsia had significantly higher SBP, DBP and MAP (all p<0.001) compared to the controls. The individual titer levels of autoantibodies were not different between controls and former early PE groups 8-11 years postpartum. In conclusion, regulatory autoantibodies alone are not sufficient to explain hypertension or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions, but together with other risk factors such as a previous hypertensive pregnancy, lower levels of autoantibodies are associated with increased blood pressure.

3.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

4.
Circulation ; 139(11): 1407-1421, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension and its organ sequelae show characteristics of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Experimental anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to ameliorate hypertensive end-organ damage. Recently, the CANTOS study (Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study) targeting interleukin-1ß demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy reduces cardiovascular risk. The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced from dietary fiber by gut bacteria and affect host immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated effects of the SCFA propionate in 2 different mouse models of hypertensive cardiovascular damage. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SCFAs on hypertensive cardiac damage and atherosclerosis, wild-type NMRI or apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice received propionate (200 mmol/L) or control in the drinking water. To induce hypertension, wild-type NMRI mice were infused with angiotensin II (1.44 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 14 days. To accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice were infused with angiotensin II (0.72 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 28 days. Cardiac damage and atherosclerosis were assessed using histology, echocardiography, in vivo electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Regulatory T cell depletion using PC61 antibody was used to examine the mode of action of propionate. RESULTS: Propionate significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, vascular dysfunction, and hypertension in both models. Susceptibility to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias was significantly reduced in propionate-treated angiotensin II-infused wild-type NMRI mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly decreased in propionate-treated apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice. Systemic inflammation was mitigated by propionate treatment, quantified as a reduction in splenic effector memory T cell frequencies and splenic T helper 17 cells in both models, and a decrease in local cardiac immune cell infiltration in wild-type NMRI mice. Cardioprotective effects of propionate were abrogated in regulatory T cell-depleted angiotensin II-infused mice, suggesting the effect is regulatory T cell-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our data emphasize an immune-modulatory role of SCFAs and their importance for cardiovascular health. The data suggest that lifestyle modifications leading to augmented SCFA production could be a beneficial nonpharmacological preventive strategy for patients with hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896157

RESUMO

Aim: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats. We wanted to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring in pregnant rats to decipher the influence of pregnancy on blood glucose in diabetic and normoglycemic status. Methods: We used the transgenic Tet29 diabetes rat model with an inducible knock down of the insulin receptor via RNA interference upon application of doxycycline (DOX) leading to insulin resistant type II diabetes. All Tet29 rats received a HD-XG telemetry implant (Data Sciences International, USA) that measured blood glucose and activity continuously. Rats were divided into four groups and blood glucose was monitored until end of pregnancy or the corresponding period: Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) non-pregnant, Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) non-pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) pregnant. Results: All analyzed rats displayed a circadian variation in blood glucose concentration. Circadian variability was much more pronounced in pregnant diabetic rats than in normoglycemic pregnant rats. Pregnancy ameliorated variation in blood glucose in diabetic situation. Pregnancy continuously decreased blood glucose during normoglycemic pregnancy. Diabetic rats were less active than normoglycemic rats. We performed a calculation showing that application of continuous blood glucose measurement reduces animal numbers needed to detect a given effect in experimental setting by decreasing variability and SD. Interpretation: Continuous blood glucose monitoring via a telemetry device in pregnant rats provides a more informative picture of the glycemic situation in comparison to single measurements. This could improve diagnosis and therapy of diabetes, decrease animal numbers within experimental settings, and add another physiological parameter (activity) to the analysis that could be helpful in testing therapeutic concepts targeting blood glucose levels and peripheral muscle function. We propose continuous glucose monitoring as a new tool for the evaluation of pregnant diabetic rats.

6.
Hypertension ; 71(5): 911-920, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610268

RESUMO

Diabetic pregnancy is correlated with increased risk of metabolic and neurological disorders in the offspring putatively mediated epigenetically. Little is known about epigenetic changes already present in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies. We aimed at characterizing the perinatal environment after preexisting maternal diabetes mellitus and at identifying relevant epigenetic changes in the fetus. We focused on the transcription factor Srebf2 (sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2), a master gene in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. We tested whether diabetic pregnancy induces epigenetic changes in the Srebf2 promoter and if they become manifest in altered Srebf2 gene expression. We worked with a transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Tet29) in which the insulin receptor is knocked down by doxycycline-induced RNA interference. Doxycycline was administered preconceptionally to Tet29 and wild-type control rats. Only Tet29 doxycycline dams were hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperlipidemic. Gene expression was analyzed with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and CpG promoter methylation with pyrosequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on fetal brains. Fetuses from diabetic Tet29 dams were hyperglycemic and growth restricted at the end of pregnancy. They further displayed decreased liver and brain weight with concomitant decreased microglial activation in the hippocampus in comparison to fetuses of normoglycemic mothers. Importantly, diabetic pregnancy induced CpG hypermethylation of the Srebf2 promoter in the fetal liver and brain, which was associated with decreased Srebf2 gene expression. In conclusion, diabetic and hyperlipidemic pregnancy induces neurological, metabolic, and epigenetic alterations in the rat fetus. Srebf2 is a potential candidate mediating intrauterine environment-driven epigenetic changes and later diabetic offspring health.

7.
JCI Insight ; 3(4)2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467337

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) can arise from cardiac and vascular remodeling processes following long-lasting hypertension. Efficacy of common HF therapeutics is unsatisfactory in HFpEF. Evidence suggests that stimulators of the nitric oxide-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) could be of use here. We aimed to characterize the complex cardiovascular effects of NOsGC stimulation using NO-independent stimulator BAY 41-8543 in a double-transgenic rat (dTGR) model of HFpEF. We show a drastically improved survival rate of treated dTGR. We observed less cardiac fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, and gap junction remodeling in treated dTGR. Microarray analysis revealed that treatment of dTGR corrected the dysregulateion of cardiac genes associated with fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and ion channel function toward an expression profile similar to healthy controls. Treatment reduced systemic blood pressure levels and improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of resistance vessels. Further comprehensive in vivo phenotyping showed an improved diastolic cardiac function, improved hemodynamics, and less susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. Short-term BAY 41-8543 application in isolated untreated transgenic hearts with structural remodeling significantly reduced the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias, suggesting a direct nongenomic role of NOsGC stimulation on excitation. Thus, NOsGC stimulation was highly effective in improving several HFpEF facets in this animal model, underscoring its potential value for patients.

8.
Circulation ; 136(19): 1824-1839, 2017 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a complex and common human-specific pregnancy syndrome associated with placental pathology. The human specificity provides both intellectual and methodological challenges, lacking a robust model system. Given the role of imprinted genes in human placentation and the vulnerability of imprinted genes to loss of imprinting changes, there has been extensive speculation, but no robust evidence, that imprinted genes are involved in preeclampsia. Our study aims to investigate whether disturbed imprinting contributes to preeclampsia. METHODS: We first aimed to confirm that preeclampsia is a disease of the placenta by generating and analyzing genome-wide molecular data on well-characterized patient material. We performed high-throughput transcriptome analyses of multiple placenta samples from healthy controls and patients with preeclampsia. Next, we identified differentially expressed genes in preeclamptic placentas and intersected them with the list of human imprinted genes. We used bioinformatics/statistical analyses to confirm association between imprinting and preeclampsia and to predict biological processes affected in preeclampsia. Validation included epigenetic and cellular assays. In terms of human specificity, we established an in vitro invasion-differentiation trophoblast model. Our comparative phylogenetic analysis involved single-cell transcriptome data of human, macaque, and mouse preimplantation embryogenesis. RESULTS: We found disturbed placental imprinting in preeclampsia and revealed potential candidates, including GATA3 and DLX5, with poorly explored imprinted status and no prior association with preeclampsia. As a result of loss of imprinting, DLX5 was upregulated in 69% of preeclamptic placentas. Levels of DLX5 correlated with classic preeclampsia markers. DLX5 is expressed in human but not in murine trophoblast. The DLX5high phenotype resulted in reduced proliferation, increased metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-response activation in trophoblasts in vitro. The transcriptional profile of such cells mimics the transcriptome of preeclamptic placentas. Pan-mammalian comparative analysis identified DLX5 as part of the human-specific regulatory network of trophoblast differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides evidence of a true association among disturbed imprinting, gene expression, and preeclampsia. As a result of disturbed imprinting, the upregulated DLX5 affects trophoblast proliferation. Our in vitro model might fill a vital niche in preeclampsia research. Human-specific regulatory circuitry of DLX5 might help explain certain aspects of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Impressão Genômica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca , Camundongos , Filogenia , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trofoblastos/patologia , Regulação para Cima
9.
J Vasc Res ; 54(3): 131-142, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468000

RESUMO

AIM: Vascular remodeling following injury substantially accounts for restenosis and adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, we investigated the role of the giant scaffold protein Ahnak1 in vascular healing after endothelial denudation of the murine femoral artery. METHODS: The spatiotemporal expression pattern of Ahnak1 and Ahnak2 was examined using specific antibodies and real-time quantitative PCR. Following wire-mediated endothelial injury of Ahnak1-deficient mice and wild-type (WT) littermates, the processes of vascular healing were analyzed. RESULTS: Ahnak1 and Ahnak2 showed a mutually exclusive vascular expression pattern, with Ahnak1 being expressed in the endothelium and Ahnak2 in the medial cells in naïve WT arteries. After injury, a marked increase of Ahnak1- and Ahnak2-positive cells at the lesion site became evident. Both proteins showed a strong upregulation in neointimal cells 14 days after injury. Ahnak1-deficient mice showed delayed vascular healing and dramatically impaired re-endothelialization that resulted in prolonged adverse vascular remodeling, when compared to the WT littermates. CONCLUSION: The large scaffold and adaptor proteins Ahnak1 and Ahnak2 exhibit differential expression patterns and functions in naïve and injured arteries. Ahnak1 plays a nonredundant protective role in vascular healing.


Assuntos
Artéria Femoral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/patologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Genótipo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Proteínas de Neoplasias/deficiência , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Reepitelização , Fatores de Tempo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
10.
Diabetologia ; 60(1): 202-211, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704165

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Although the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its influence therein has not been systematically evaluated. Here we test the suitability of a new translational model of diabetic retinopathy, the TetO rat, for addressing the role of angiotensin-II receptor 1 (AT1) blockade in experimental diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by tetracycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the insulin receptor in rats, generating TetO rats. Systemic treatment consisted of an AT1 blocker (ARB) at the onset of diabetes, following which, 4-5 weeks later the retina was analysed in vivo and ex vivo. Retinal function was assessed by Ganzfeld electroretinography (ERG). RESULTS: Retinal vessels in TetO rats showed differences in vessel calibre, together with gliosis. The total number and the proportion of activated mononuclear phagocytes was increased. TetO rats presented with loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and ERG indicated photoreceptor malfunction. Both the inner and outer blood-retina barriers were affected. The ARB treated group showed reduced gliosis and an overall amelioration of retinal function, alongside RGC recovery, whilst no statistically significant differences in vascular and inflammatory features were detected. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The TetO rat represents a promising translational model for the early neurovascular changes associated with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. ARB treatment had an effect on the neuronal component of the retina but not on the vasculature.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Retinopatia Diabética/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ratos , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina
11.
Hypertension ; 68(4): 964-73, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550919

RESUMO

Uterine natural killer cells are important for uteroplacental development and pregnancy maintenance. Their role in pregnancy disorders, such as preeclampsia, is unknown. We reduced the number of natural killer cells by administering rabbit anti-asialo GM1 antiserum in an established rat preeclamptic model (female human angiotensinogen×male human renin) and evaluated the effects at the end of pregnancy (day 21), compared with preeclamptic control rats receiving normal rabbit serum. In 100% of the antiserum-treated, preeclamptic rats (7/7), we observed highly degenerated vessel cross sections in the mesometrial triangle at the end of pregnancy. This maternal uterine vasculopathy was characterized by a total absence of nucleated/living cells in the vessel wall and perivascularly and prominent presence of fibrosis. Furthermore, there were no endovascular trophoblast cells within the vessel lumen. In the control, normal rabbit serum-treated, preeclamptic rats, only 20% (1/5) of the animals displayed such vasculopathy. We confirmed the results in healthy pregnant wild-type rats: after anti-asialo GM1 treatment, 67% of maternal rats displayed vasculopathy at the end of pregnancy compared with 0% in rabbit serum-treated control rats. This vasculopathy was associated with a significantly lower fetal weight in wild-type rats and deterioration of fetal brain/liver weight ratio in preeclamptic rats. Anti-asialo GM1 application had no influence on maternal hypertension and albuminuria during pregnancy. Our results show a new role of natural killer cells during hypertensive pregnancy in maintaining vascular integrity. In normotensive pregnancy, this integrity seems important for fetal growth.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Circulação Placentária/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Prenhez , Trofoblastos/citologia , Análise de Variância , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/imunologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Interleucina-15/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Circulação Placentária/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
12.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 10(7): 597-607.e1, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450577

RESUMO

Maternal vitamin D deficiency is proposed as a risk factor for preeclampsia in humans. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates and high supplementation ameliorates the preeclampsia phenotype in an established transgenic rat model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated preeclampsia. Adult rat dams, transgenic for human angiotensinogen (hAGT) and mated with male rats transgenic for human renin (hREN), were fed either vitamin D-depleted chow (VDd) or enriched chow (VDh) 2 weeks before mating and during pregnancy. Mean blood pressure was recorded by tail-cuff, and 24-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at days 6 and 18 of gestation. Rats were sacrificed at day 21 of gestation. Depleted dams (VDd) had negligible serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2+3 levels (mean ± SEM; 2.95 ± 0.45 nmol/l vs. VDh 26.20 ± 2.88 nmol/l, P = .01), but in both groups, levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 remained below detection level of 25 pmol/l. Dietary vitamin D depletion did not aggravate hypertension (mean ± SEM BP, day 20 of gestation: 151.38 ± 5.65 mmHg VDd vs. 152.00 ± 4.10 mmHg VDh) or proteinuria. Fetal anthropometrics were similar between the groups, whereas VDd displayed lower placental:fetal weight ratios (0.15 vs. 0.16 g/g, P = .01) and increased sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Expression of hREN was lower in placenta of VDd dams (0.82 ± 0.44 AU vs. 1.52 ± 0.15 AU, P = .04). Expression of key vitamin D metabolizing enzymes was unchanged. Dietary vitamin D intervention did not alter key aspects of the preeclampsia phenotype using the transgenic rodent model of human renin-angiotensin system-mediated pre-eclampsia, plausibly due to altered vitamin D metabolism or excretion in the transgenic rats.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Proteinúria , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Eliminação Renal , Renina/genética , Renina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
13.
Circ Res ; 119(1): 55-68, 2016 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27199465

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We hypothesized that cluster of differentiation 74 (CD74) downregulation on placental macrophages, leading to altered macrophage-trophoblast interaction, is involved in preeclampsia. OBJECTIVE: Preeclamptic pregnancies feature hypertension, proteinuria, and placental anomalies. Feto-placental macrophages regulate villous trophoblast differentiation during placental development. Disturbance of this well-balanced regulation can lead to pathological pregnancies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed whole-genome expression analysis of placental tissue. CD74 was one of the most downregulated genes in placentas from preeclamptic women. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, we confirmed this finding in early-onset (<34 gestational week, n=26) and late-onset (≥34 gestational week, n=24) samples from preeclamptic women, compared with healthy pregnant controls (n=28). CD74 protein levels were analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. We identified placental macrophages to express CD74 by immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR. CD74-positive macrophages were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls. CD74-silenced macrophages showed that the adhesion molecules ALCAM, ICAM4, and Syndecan-2, as well as macrophage adhesion to trophoblasts were diminished. Naive and activated macrophages lacking CD74 showed a shift toward a proinflammatory signature with an increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, when cocultured with trophoblasts compared with control macrophages. Trophoblasts stimulated by these factors express more CYP2J2, sFlt1, TNFα, and IL-8. CD74-knockout mice showed disturbed placental morphology, reduced junctional zone, smaller placentas, and impaired spiral artery remodeling with fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSIONS: CD74 downregulation in placental macrophages is present in preeclampsia. CD74 downregulation leads to altered macrophage activation toward a proinflammatory signature and a disturbed crosstalk with trophoblasts.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CXCL5/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Sindecana-2/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 130(13): 1075-88, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27026533

RESUMO

Severe hypertension destroys eyesight. The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) may contribute to this. This study relied on an established angiotensin, AngII (angiotensin II)-elevated dTGR (double-transgenic rat) model and same-background SD (Sprague-Dawley) rat controls. In dTGRs, plasma levels of AngII were increased. We determined the general retinal phenotype and observed degeneration of ganglion cells that we defined as vascular degeneration. We also inspected relevant gene expression and lastly observed alterations in the outer blood-retinal barrier. We found that both scotopic a-wave and b-wave as well as oscillatory potential amplitude were significantly decreased in dTGRs, compared with SD rat controls. However, the b/a-wave ratio remained unchanged. Fluorescence angiography of the peripheral retina indicated that exudates, or fluorescein leakage, from peripheral vessels were increased in dTGRs compared with controls. Immunohistological analysis of blood vessels in retina whole-mount preparations showed structural alterations in the retina of dTGRs. We then determined the general retinal phenotype. We observed the degeneration of ganglion cells, defined vascular degenerations and finally found differential expression of RAS-related genes and angiogenic genes. We found the expression of both human angiotensinogen and human renin in the hypertensive retina. Although the renin gene expression was not altered, the AngII levels in the retina were increased 4-fold in the dTGR retina compared with that in SD rats, a finding with mechanistic implications. We suggest that alterations in the outer blood-retinal barrier could foster an area of visual-related research based on our findings. Finally, we introduce the dTGR model of retinal disease.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Hipertensiva/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retinopatia Hipertensiva/genética , Masculino , Ratos Transgênicos , Renina/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150743, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26963382

RESUMO

Relaxin is a peptide related to pregnancy that induces nitric oxide-related and gelatinase-related effects, allowing vasodilation and pregnancy-related adjustments permitting parturition to occur. Relaxin controls the hemodynamic and renovascular adaptive changes that occur during pregnancy. Interest has evolved regarding relaxin and a therapeutic principle in preeclampsia and heart failure. Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder, featuring hypertension, proteinuria and placental anomalies. We investigated relaxin in an established transgenic rat model of preeclampsia, where the phenotype is induced by angiotensin (Ang)-II production in mid pregnancy. We gave recombinant relaxin to preeclamtic rats at day 9 of gestation. Hypertension and proteinuria was not ameliorated after relaxin administration. Intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus was unaltered by relaxin. Heart-rate responses and relaxin levels documented drug effects. In this Ang-II-based model of preeclampsia, we could not show a salubrious effect on preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Angiotensinas/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Relaxina/farmacologia , Angiotensinas/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/tratamento farmacológico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 309(8): R884-91, 2015 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26290102

RESUMO

The reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia exhibits much of the pathology characterizing this disease, such as hypertension, inflammation, suppressed regulatory T cells (TRegs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and autoantibodies to the ANG II type I receptor (AT1-AA) during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementation of normal pregnant (NP) TRegs into RUPP rats would attenuate the pathophysiology associated with preeclampsia during pregnancy. CD4(+)/CD25(+) T cells were isolated from spleens of NP and RUPP rats, cultured, and injected into gestation day (GD) 12 normal pregnant rats that underwent the RUPP procedure on GD 14. On GD 1, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded, and blood and tissues were collected for analysis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. MAP increased from 99 ± 2 mmHg in NP (n = 12) to 127 ± 2 mmHg in RUPP (n = 21) but decreased to 118 ± 2 mmHg in RUPP+NP TRegs (n = 17). Circulating IL-6 and IL-10 were not significantly changed, while circulating TNF-α and IL-17 were significantly decreased after supplementation of TRegs. Placental and renal ROS were 339 ± 58.7 and 603 ± 88.1 RLU·min(-1)·mg(-1) in RUPP and significantly decreased to 178 ± 27.8 and 171 ± 55.6 RLU·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively, in RUPP+NP TRegs; AT1-AA was 17.81 ± 1.1 beats per minute (bpm) in RUPP but was attenuated to 0.50 ± 0.3 bpm with NP TRegs. This study demonstrates that NP TRegs can significantly improve inflammatory mediators, such as IL-17, TNF-α, and AT1-AA, which have been shown to increase blood pressure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Isquemia/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endotelina-1/genética , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
17.
Hypertension ; 65(6): 1298-306, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847949

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a multisystemic syndrome during pregnancy that is often associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Immunologic dysregulation, involving T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of upregulating regulatory T cells in an established transgenic rat model for preeclampsia. Application of superagonistic monoclonal antibody for CD28 has been shown to effectively upregulate regulatory T cells. In the first protocol (treatment protocol), we applied 1 mg of CD28 superagonist or control antibody on days 11 and 15 of pregnancy. In the second protocol (prevention protocol), the superagonist or control antibody was applied on days 1, 5, and 9. Superagonist increased regulatory T cells in circulation and placenta from 8.49±2.09% of CD4-positive T cells to 23.50±3.05% and from 3.85±1.45% to 23.27±7.64%, respectively. Blood pressure and albuminuria (30.6±15.1 versus 14.6±5.5 mg/d) were similar in the superagonist or control antibody-treated preeclamptic group for both protocols. Rats treated with CD28 superagonist showed increased pup weights in the prevention protocol (2.66±0.03 versus 2.37±0.05 g) and in the treatment protocol (3.04±0.04 versus 2.54±0.1 g). Intrauterine growth retardation, calculated by brain:liver weight ratio, was also decreased by the superagonist in both protocols. Further analysis of brain development revealed a 20% increase in brain volume by the superagonist. Induction of regulatory T cells in the circulation and the uteroplacental unit in an established preeclamptic rat model had no influence on maternal hypertension and proteinuria. However, it substantially improved fetal outcome by ameliorating intrauterine growth retardation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/terapia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Prenhez , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD28/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos
18.
Development ; 142(6): 1125-36, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25758223

RESUMO

Healthy placental development is essential for reproductive success; failure of the feto-maternal interface results in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. We found that grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), a CP2-type transcription factor, is highly expressed in chorionic trophoblast cells, including basal chorionic trophoblast (BCT) cells located at the chorioallantoic interface in murine placentas. Placentas from Grhl2-deficient mouse embryos displayed defects in BCT cell polarity and basement membrane integrity at the chorioallantoic interface, as well as a severe disruption of labyrinth branching morphogenesis. Selective Grhl2 inactivation only in epiblast-derived cells rescued all placental defects but phenocopied intraembryonic defects observed in global Grhl2 deficiency, implying the importance of Grhl2 activity in trophectoderm-derived cells. ChIP-seq identified 5282 GRHL2 binding sites in placental tissue. By integrating these data with placental gene expression profiles, we identified direct and indirect Grhl2 targets and found a marked enrichment of GRHL2 binding adjacent to genes downregulated in Grhl2(-/-) placentas, which encoded known regulators of placental development and epithelial morphogenesis. These genes included that encoding the serine protease inhibitor Kunitz type 1 (Spint1), which regulates BCT cell integrity and labyrinth formation. In human placenta, we found that human orthologs of murine GRHL2 and its targets displayed co-regulation and were expressed in trophoblast cells in a similar domain as in mouse placenta. Our data indicate that a conserved Grhl2-coordinated gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis, thereby facilitating development of the site of feto-maternal exchange. This might have implications for syndromes related to placental dysfunction.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Placentação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Análise em Microsséries , Microscopia Eletrônica , Gravidez , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 4(2)2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25630909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (hREN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3.8±0.29 versus 40.6±1.19 nmol/L) and had higher mean systolic BP at week 5 (158±3.5 versus 134.6±3.7 mm Hg, P<0.001), week 6 (176.6±3.3 versus 162.3±3.8 mm Hg, P<0.01), and week 7 (171.6±5.1 versus 155.9±4.3 mm Hg, P<0.05). Vitamin D depletion led to increased relative heart weights and increased serum creatinine concentrations. Furthermore, the mRNAs of natriuretic peptides, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, hREN, and rRen were increased by vitamin D depletion. Regulatory T cells in the spleen and in the circulation were not affected. Ang metabolites, including Ang II and the counter-regulatory breakdown product Ang 1 to 7, were significantly up-regulated in the vitamin D-depleted groups, while ACE-1 and ACE-2 activities were not affected. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term severe vitamin D depletion aggravated hypertension and target-organ damage in dTGR. Our data suggest that even short-term severe vitamin D deficiency may directly promote hypertension and impacts on renin-angiotensin system components that could contribute to target-organ damage. The findings add to the evidence that vitamin D deficiency could also affect human hypertension.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/genética , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Creatinina/sangue , Humanos , Lipocalinas/genética , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Renina/genética , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia
20.
Hypertension ; 64(5): 1032-9, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25185127

RESUMO

Angiotensin (Ang) II is a potent mediator of both hypertension and cardiac damage; however, the mechanisms by which this occur remain unclear. B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (Bcl10) is a member of the CBM signalosome, which links Ang II and nuclear factor-κB signaling. We hypothesized that Bcl10 is pivotal in the pathogenesis of Ang II-induced cardiac damage. Ang II infusion in mice lacking Bcl10 resulted in reduced cardiac fibrosis, less cellular infiltration, and improved arrhythmogenic electric remodeling, despite a similar degree of hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow (BM), whereby Bcl10 knockout or wildtype BM was transferred to their opposite genotype recipients, revealed the dual importance of Bcl10 within both cardiac and immune cells. Loss of Bcl10 in cardiac cells resulted in reduced expression of genes important for the adhesion and recruitment of immune cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated that adhesion of monocytes to Ang II-treated endothelial cells also required Bcl10. Additionally, Bcl10 deficiency in macrophages reduced their intrinsic migratory ability. To address the role of BM-derived fibroblasts in the formation of cardiac fibrosis, we explored whether Bcl10 is also important for the infiltration of BM-derived (myo)fibroblasts into the heart. The transfer of green fluorescent protein positive wildtype BM into Bcl10 knockout recipient mice revealed a reduced number of noncardiac (myo)fibroblasts compared with those wildtype recipients. Our results demonstrate the significant role of Bcl10 in multiple cell types important for the generation of Ang II-induced cardiac damage and electric remodeling and may provide a new avenue for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Remodelamento Atrial/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Proteína 10 de Linfoma CCL de Células B , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Fibrose , Cardiopatias/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
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