Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 144
Filtrar
1.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e14608, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927798

RESUMO

Biomarkers which better match anticancer drugs with cancer driver genes hold the promise of improved clinical responses and cure rates. We developed a precision medicine platform of rapid high-throughput drug screening (HTS) and patient-derived xenografting (PDX) of primary tumor tissue, and evaluated its potential for treatment identification among 56 consecutively enrolled high-risk pediatric cancer patients, compared with conventional molecular genomics and transcriptomics. Drug hits were seen in the majority of HTS and PDX screens, which identified therapeutic options for 10 patients for whom no targetable molecular lesions could be found. Screens also provided orthogonal proof of drug efficacy suggested by molecular analyses and negative results for some molecular findings. We identified treatment options across the whole testing platform for 70% of patients. Only molecular therapeutic recommendations were provided to treating oncologists and led to a change in therapy in 53% of patients, of whom 29% had clinical benefit. These data indicate that in vitro and in vivo drug screening of tumor cells could increase therapeutic options and improve clinical outcomes for high-risk pediatric cancer patients.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944614

RESUMO

Despite aggressive surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, survival of children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with sarcoma has not improved significantly in the past four decades. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an exciting type of immunotherapy that offer new opportunities for the treatment of paediatric and AYA sarcomas. However, to date, most children do not derive a benefit from this type of treatment as a monotherapy. The immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment is a major barrier limiting their efficacy. Combinations of ICIs, such as anti-PD-1 therapy, with targeted molecular therapies that have immunomodulatory properties may be the key to breaking through immunosuppressive barriers and improving patient outcomes. Preclinical studies have indicated that several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKi) can alter the tumour microenvironment and boost the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. A number of these combinations have entered phase-1/2 clinical trials, mostly in adults, and in most instances have shown efficacy with manageable side-effects. In this review, we discuss the status of ICI therapy in paediatric and AYA sarcomas and the rationale for co-treatment with RTKis. We highlight new opportunities for the integration of ICI therapy with RTK inhibitors, to improve outcomes for children with sarcoma.

3.
Curr Protoc ; 1(11): e310, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826366

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in young children, arises from the sympathetic nervous system. Our understanding of neuroblastoma has been improved by the development of both genetically engineered and xenograft mouse models of the disease. Anatomical pathology is an essential component of the phenotyping of mouse models of cancer, characterizing the morphologic effects of genetic manipulation and drug treatment. The Th-MYCN model, the most widely used of several genetically engineered mouse models of neuroblastoma, was established by targeted expression of the human MYCN gene to murine neural crest cells under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. Neuroblastoma development in Th-MYCN mice is preceded by neuroblast hyperplasia-the persistence and proliferation of neural crest-derived neuroblasts within the sympathetic autonomic ganglia. The neuroblastomas that subsequently develop morphologically resemble human neuroblastoma and carry chromosomal gains and losses in regions syntenic with those observed in human tumors. In this overview, we describe the essential pathologic features for investigators when assessing mouse models of neuroblastoma. We outline human neuroblastoma as the foundation for understanding the murine disease, followed by details of the murine sympathetic ganglia from which neuroblastoma arises. Sympathetic ganglia, both with and without neuroblast hyperplasia, are described. The macroscopic and microscopic features of murine neuroblastoma are explained, including assessment of xenografts and tumors following drug treatment. An approach to experimental design is also detailed. Increased understanding of the pathology of murine neuroblastoma should improve reproducibility and comparability of research findings and assist investigators working with mouse models of neuroblastoma. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807782

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that causes up to 15% of cancer-related deaths among children. Among the ~1,000 newly diagnosed cases per year in Europe, more than half are classified as high-risk, with a 5-year survival rate <50%. Current multimodal treatments have improved survival among these patients, but relapsed and refractory tumors remain a major therapeutic challenge. A number of new methodologies are paving the way for the development of more effective and safer therapies to ultimately improve outcomes for high-risk patients. AREAS COVERED: The authors provide a critical review on methodological advances aimed at providing new therapeutic opportunities for neuroblastoma patients, including preclinical models of human disease, generation of omics data to discover new therapeutic targets, and artificial intelligence-based technologies to implement personalized treatments. EXPERT OPINION: While survival of childhood cancer has improved over the past decades, progress has been uneven. Still, survival is dismal for some cancers, including high-risk neuroblastoma. Embracing new technologies (e.g. molecular profiling of tumors, 3D in vitro models, etc.), international collaborative efforts and the incorporation of new therapies (e.g. RNA-based therapies, epigenetic therapies, immunotherapy) will ultimately lead to more effective and safer therapies for these subgroups of neuroblastoma patients.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572932

RESUMO

Sarcomas are a diverse group of bone and soft tissue tumors that account for over 10% of childhood cancers. Outcomes are particularly poor for children with refractory, relapsed, or metastatic disease. Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells are an exciting form of adoptive cell therapy that potentially offers new hope for these children. In early trials, promising outcomes have been achieved in some pediatric patients with sarcoma. However, many children do not derive benefit despite significant expression of the targeted tumor antigen. The success of CAR T cell therapy in sarcomas and other solid tumors is limited by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this review, we provide an update of the CAR T cell therapies that are currently being tested in pediatric sarcoma clinical trials, including those targeting tumors that express HER2, NY-ESO, GD2, EGFR, GPC3, B7-H3, and MAGE-A4. We also outline promising new CAR T cells that are in pre-clinical development. Finally, we discuss strategies that are being used to overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression in solid tumors; these strategies have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of CAR T cell therapy for children with sarcoma.

6.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimal residual disease (MRD) measurement is a cornerstone of contemporary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treatment. The presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombinations in leukaemic clones allows widespread use of patient-specific, DNA-based MRD assays. In contrast, paediatric solid tumour MRD remains experimental and has focussed on generic assays targeting tumour-specific messenger RNA, methylated DNA or microRNA. METHODS: We examined the feasibility of using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data to design tumour-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based MRD tests (WGS-MRD) in 18 children with high-risk relapsed cancer, including ALL, high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) (n = 6 each). RESULTS: Sensitive WGS-MRD assays were generated for each patient and allowed quantitation of 1 tumour cell per 10-4 (0.01%)-10-5 (0.001%) mononuclear cells. In ALL, WGS-MRD and Ig/TCR-MRD were highly concordant. WGS-MRD assays also showed good concordance between quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR formats. In serial clinical samples, WGS-MRD correlated with disease course. In solid tumours, WGS-MRD assays were more sensitive than RNA-MRD assays. CONCLUSIONS: WGS facilitated the development of patient-specific MRD tests in ALL, HR-NB and EWS with potential clinical utility in monitoring treatment response. WGS data could be used to design patient-specific MRD assays in a broad range of tumours.

7.
Trends Cancer ; 7(8): 751-777, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183305

RESUMO

Despite the success of immunotherapies in adult solid cancers and pediatric hematological malignancies, limited progress has been made towards implementing these strategies in pediatric solid tumors. These tumors exhibit a high potential to escape antitumor immunity, making them difficult to target by current immunotherapies. This review highlights the altered metabolic pathways in pediatric solid tumors that promote immune escape, and discusses current novel strategies targeting these pathways. We further explore how these strategies could be applied to potentiate immunotherapies for pediatric solid cancers and pose key questions yet to be addressed. Translational challenges to facilitate clinical application of antimetabolic strategies through personalized medicine are identified. We propose preclinical testing of antimetabolic approaches in combination with immunotherapies for pediatric solid cancers.

8.
Immunotargets Ther ; 10: 123-140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954150

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite the success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in clinical studies, a significant proportion of responding patients eventually relapsed, with the latter correlating with low CAR T cell expansion and persistence. Methods and Results: Using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models of CD19+ B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), we show that priming leukemia-bearing mice with 5-azacytidine (AZA) enhances CAR T cell therapy. AZA given 1 day prior to CAR T cell infusion delayed leukemia growth and promoted CAR T cell expansion and effector function. Priming leukemia cells with AZA increased CAR T cell/target cell conjugation and target cell killing, promoted CAR T cell divisions and expanded IFNγ+ effector T cells in co-cultures with CD19+ leukemia Nalm-6 and Raji cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed activation of diverse immune pathways in leukemia cells isolated from mice treated with AZA. We propose that epigenetic priming with AZA induces transcriptional changes that sensitize tumor cells to subsequent CAR T cell treatment. Among the candidate genes up-regulated by AZA is TNFSF4 which encodes OX40L, one of the strongest T cell co-stimulatory ligands. OX40L binds OX40, the TNF receptor superfamily member highly specific for activated T cells. TNFSF4 is heterogeneously expressed in a panel of pediatric PDXs, and high TNFSF4 expression correlated with increased CAR T cell numbers identified in co-cultures with individual PDXs. High OX40L expression in Nalm-6 cells increased their susceptibility to CAR T cell killing while OX40L blockade reduced leukemia cell killing. Conclusion: We propose that treatment with AZA activates OX40L/OX40 co-stimulatory signaling in CAR T cells. Our data suggest that the clinical use of AZA before CAR T cells could be considered.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(15): 4338-4352, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated whether targeting chromatin stability through a combination of the curaxin CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, panobinostat, constitutes an effective multimodal treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effects of the drug combination on cancer growth were examined in vitro and in animal models of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. The molecular mechanisms of action were analyzed by multiple techniques including whole transcriptome profiling, immune deconvolution analysis, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, assays to assess cell growth and apoptosis, and a range of cell-based reporter systems to examine histone eviction, heterochromatin transcription, and chromatin compaction. RESULTS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat enhanced nucleosome destabilization, induced an IFN response, inhibited DNA damage repair, and synergistically suppressed cancer cell growth. Similar synergistic effects were observed when combining CBL0137 with other HDAC inhibitors. The CBL0137/panobinostat combination significantly delayed cancer progression in xenograft models of poor outcome high-risk neuroblastoma. Complete tumor regression was achieved in the transgenic Th-MYCN neuroblastoma model which was accompanied by induction of a type I IFN and immune response. Tumor transplantation experiments further confirmed that the presence of a competent adaptive immune system component allowed the exploitation of the full potential of the drug combination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat is effective and well-tolerated in preclinical models of aggressive high-risk neuroblastoma, warranting further preclinical and clinical investigation in other pediatric cancers. On the basis of its potential to boost IFN and immune responses in cancer models, the drug combination holds promising potential for addition to immunotherapies.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2318: 337-346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019301

RESUMO

Oncoproteins encoded by dominant oncogenes have long been considered as targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. However, oncogenic transcription factors have often been dismissed as "undruggable." Members of the Myc family of transcription factors have been identified as promising targets for cancer chemotherapy in multiple publications reporting the requirement of Myc proteins for maintenance of almost every type of tumor. Here, we describe cell-based approaches to identify c-Myc small molecule inhibitors by screening complex libraries of diverse small molecules based on Myc functionality and specificity.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Genes myc/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Genes myc/genética , Genes myc/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas Oncogênicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 129(10): 805-818, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of high-throughput drug screening (HTS) using primary cultures provides a promising, clinically translatable approach to tailoring treatment strategies for patients with cancer. However, this has been challenging for solid tumors because of often limited amounts of tissue available. In most cases, in vitro expansion is required before HTS, which may lead to overgrowth and contamination by non-neoplastic cells. METHODS: In this study, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining were performed on 129 cytopathology cases from 95 patients. These cytopathology cases comprised cell block preparations derived from primary tumor specimens or patient-derived xenografts as part of a pediatric precision oncology trial. Cytopathology cases were compared with the morphology and immunohistochemical staining profile of the original tumor. Cases were reported as tumor cells present, equivocal, or tumor cells absent. The HTS results from cytopathologically validated cultures were incorporated into a multidisciplinary tumor board report issued to the treating clinician to guide clinical decision making. RESULTS: On cytopathologic examination, tumor cells were present in 77 of 129 cases (60%) and were absent in 38 of 129 cases (29%), whereas 14 of 129 cases (11%) were equivocal. Cultures that contained tumor cells resembled the tumors from which they were derived. CONCLUSIONS: Cytopathologic examination of tumor cell block preparations is feasible and provides detailed morphologic characterization. Cytopathologic examination is essential for ensuring that samples submitted for HTS contain representative tumor cells and that in vitro drug sensitivity data are clinically translatable.

12.
Br J Cancer ; 125(1): 55-64, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis for high-risk childhood acute leukaemias remains dismal and established treatment protocols often cause long-term side effects in survivors. This study aims to identify more effective and safer therapeutics for these patients. METHODS: A high-throughput phenotypic screen of a library of 3707 approved drugs and pharmacologically active compounds was performed to identify compounds with selective cytotoxicity against leukaemia cells followed by further preclinical evaluation in patient-derived xenograft models. RESULTS: Auranofin, an FDA-approved agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, was identified as exerting selective anti-cancer activity against leukaemia cells, including patient-derived xenograft cells from children with high-risk ALL, versus solid tumour and non-cancerous cells. It induced apoptosis in leukaemia cells by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potentiated the activity of the chemotherapeutic cytarabine against highly aggressive models of infant MLL-rearranged ALL by enhancing DNA damage accumulation. The enhanced sensitivity of leukaemia cells towards auranofin was associated with lower basal levels of the antioxidant glutathione and higher baseline ROS levels compared to solid tumour cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights auranofin as a well-tolerated drug candidate for high-risk paediatric leukaemias that warrants further preclinical investigation for application in high-risk paediatric and adult acute leukaemias.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918978

RESUMO

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), a critical regulatory enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is a direct transcriptional target of MYCN, amplification of which is a powerful marker of aggressive neuroblastoma. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), G316A, within the first intron of ODC1, results in genotypes wildtype GG, and variants AG/AA. CRISPR-cas9 technology was used to investigate the effects of AG clones from wildtype MYCN-amplified SK-N-BE(2)-C cells and the effect of the SNP on MYCN binding, and promoter activity was investigated using EMSA and luciferase assays. AG clones exhibited decreased ODC1 expression, growth rates, and histone acetylation and increased sensitivity to ODC1 inhibition. MYCN was a stronger transcriptional regulator of the ODC1 promoter containing the G allele, and preferentially bound the G allele over the A. Two neuroblastoma cohorts were used to investigate the clinical impact of the SNP. In the study cohort, the minor AA genotype was associated with improved survival, while poor prognosis was associated with the GG genotype and AG/GG genotypes in MYCN-amplified and non-amplified patients, respectively. These effects were lost in the GWAS cohort. We have demonstrated that the ODC1 G316A polymorphism has functional significance in neuroblastoma and is subject to allele-specific regulation by the MYCN oncoprotein.

14.
Leukemia ; 35(11): 3101-3112, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895784

RESUMO

Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is a high-risk ALL subtype with high rates of relapse and poor patient outcome. Activating mutations affecting components of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway occur in the majority of Ph-like ALL cases. The use of JAK inhibitors represents a potential treatment option for Ph-like ALL, although we and others have shown that CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL responds poorly to single-agent JAK inhibitors in the preclinical setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify effective combination treatments against CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of synergy. We carried out a series of high-throughput combination drug screenings and found that ruxolitinib exerted synergy with standard-of-care drugs used in the treatment of ALL. In addition, we investigated the molecular effects of ruxolitinib on Ph-like ALL by combining mass spectrometry phosphoproteomics with gene expression analysis. Based on these findings, we conducted preclinical in vivo drug testing and demonstrated that ruxolitinib enhanced the in vivo efficacy of an induction-type regimen consisting of vincristine, dexamethasone, and L-asparaginase in 2/3 CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL xenografts. Overall, our findings support evaluating the addition of ruxolitinib to conventional induction regimens for the treatment of CRLF2-rearranged Ph-like ALL.

15.
Cell Rep ; 35(2): 108994, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852836

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive and incurable childhood brain tumor for which new treatments are needed. CBL0137 is an anti-cancer compound developed from quinacrine that targets facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT), a chromatin remodeling complex involved in transcription, replication, and DNA repair. We show that CBL0137 displays profound cytotoxic activity against a panel of patient-derived DIPG cultures by restoring tumor suppressor TP53 and Rb activity. Moreover, in an orthotopic model of DIPG, treatment with CBL0137 significantly extends animal survival. The FACT subunit SPT16 is found to directly interact with H3.3K27M, and treatment with CBL0137 restores both histone H3 acetylation and trimethylation. Combined treatment of CBL0137 with the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat leads to inhibition of the Rb/E2F1 pathway and induction of apoptosis. The combination of CBL0137 and panobinostat significantly prolongs the survival of mice bearing DIPG orthografts, suggesting a potential treatment strategy for DIPG.

16.
Oncogene ; 40(13): 2367-2381, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658627

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective in MYCN-driven cancers, because of a unique need for HDAC recruitment by the MYCN oncogenic signal. However, HDAC inhibitors are much more effective in combination with other anti-cancer agents. To identify novel compounds which act synergistically with HDAC inhibitor, such as suberanoyl hydroxamic acid (SAHA), we performed a cell-based, high-throughput drug screen of 10,560 small molecule compounds from a drug-like diversity library and identified a small molecule compound (SE486-11) which synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effects of SAHA. Effects of drug combinations on cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis and colony forming were assessed in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines. Treatment with SAHA and SE486-11 increased MYCN ubiquitination and degradation, and markedly inhibited tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma xenografts, and, MYCN transgenic zebrafish and mice. The combination reduced ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5) levels and increased unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Overexpression of USP5 rescued neuroblastoma cells from the cytopathic effects of the combination and reduced unanchored polyubiquitin, suggesting USP5 is a therapeutic target of the combination. SAHA and SE486-11 directly bound to USP5 and the drug combination exhibited a 100-fold higher binding to USP5 than individual drugs alone in microscale thermophoresis assays. MYCN bound to the USP5 promoter and induced USP5 gene expression suggesting that USP5 and MYCN expression created a forward positive feedback loop in neuroblastoma cells. Thus, USP5 acts as an oncogenic cofactor with MYCN in neuroblastoma and the novel combination of HDAC inhibitor with SE486-11 represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vorinostat/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(3): 268, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712556

RESUMO

Targeting cell division by chemotherapy is a highly effective strategy to treat a wide range of cancers. However, there are limitations of many standard-of-care chemotherapies: undesirable drug toxicity, side-effects, resistance and high cost. New small molecules which kill a wide range of cancer subtypes, with good therapeutic window in vivo, have the potential to complement the current arsenal of anti-cancer agents and deliver improved safety profiles for cancer patients. We describe results with a new anti-cancer small molecule, WEHI-7326, which causes cell cycle arrest in G2/M, cell death in vitro, and displays efficacious anti-tumor activity in vivo. WEHI-7326 induces cell death in a broad range of cancer cell lines, including taxane-resistant cells, and inhibits growth of human colon, brain, lung, prostate and breast tumors in mice xenografts. Importantly, the compound elicits tumor responses as a single agent in patient-derived xenografts of clinically aggressive, treatment-refractory neuroblastoma, breast, lung and ovarian cancer. In combination with standard-of-care, WEHI-7326 induces a remarkable complete response in a mouse model of high-risk neuroblastoma. WEHI-7326 is mechanistically distinct from known microtubule-targeting agents and blocks cells early in mitosis to inhibit cell division, ultimately leading to apoptotic cell death. The compound is simple to produce and possesses favorable pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles in rodents. It represents a novel class of anti-cancer therapeutics with excellent potential for further development due to the ease of synthesis, simple formulation, moderate side effects and potent in vivo activity. WEHI-7326 has the potential to complement current frontline anti-cancer drugs and to overcome drug resistance in a wide range of cancers.


Assuntos
Antimitóticos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antimitóticos/farmacocinética , Antimitóticos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/patologia , Células PC-3 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 971, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579942

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an incurable malignant childhood brain tumor, with no active systemic therapies and a 5-year survival of less than 1%. Polyamines are small organic polycations that are essential for DNA replication, translation and cell proliferation. Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis, is irreversibly inhibited by difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Herein we show that polyamine synthesis is upregulated in DIPG, leading to sensitivity to DFMO. DIPG cells compensate for ODC1 inhibition by upregulation of the polyamine transporter SLC3A2. Treatment with the polyamine transporter inhibitor AMXT 1501 reduces uptake of polyamines in DIPG cells, and co-administration of AMXT 1501 and DFMO leads to potent in vitro activity, and significant extension of survival in three aggressive DIPG orthotopic animal models. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of dual targeting of polyamine synthesis and uptake as a therapeutic strategy for incurable DIPG.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/tratamento farmacológico , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Ácidos Dicarboxílicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Eflornitina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial , Ornitina Descarboxilase/efeitos dos fármacos , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Poliaminas/uso terapêutico
19.
Mol Oncol ; 15(4): 1162-1179, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497018

RESUMO

Approximately 25% of human neuroblastoma is caused by amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which leads to overexpression of N-Myc oncoprotein. The survival rate for this patient subtype is <50%. Here, we show that N-Myc protein bound to the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 gene promoter and upregulated DDX21 mRNA and protein expression. Genome-wide differential gene expression studies identified centrosomal protein CEP55 as one of the genes most dramatically downregulated after DDX21 knockdown in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. Knocking down DDX21 or CEP55 reduced neuroblastoma cell cytoskeleton stability and cell proliferation and all but abolished clonogenic capacity. Importantly, DDX21 knockdown initially induced tumor regression in neuroblastoma-bearing mice and suppressed tumor progression. In human neuroblastoma tissues, a high level of DDX21 expression correlated with a high level of N-Myc expression and with CEP55 expression, and independently predicted poor patient prognosis. Taken together, our data show that DDX21 induces CEP55 expression, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis, and that DDX21 and CEP55 are valid therapeutic targets for the treatment of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(5): 1438-1451, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310889

RESUMO

PURPOSE: TERT gene rearrangement with transcriptional superenhancers leads to TERT overexpression and neuroblastoma. No targeted therapy is available for clinical trials in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Anticancer agents exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors were identified by screening an FDA-approved oncology drug library. The synergistic effects of the BET bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 and the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib were examined by immunoblot and flow cytometry analysis. The anticancer efficacy of OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy was investigated in mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor cells, and the role of TERT reduction in the anticancer efficacy was examined through rescue experiments in mice. RESULTS: The BET bromodomain protein BRD4 promoted TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell proliferation through upregulating TERT expression. Screening of an approved oncology drug library identified the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib as the agent exerting the best synergistic anticancer effects with BET bromodomain inhibitors including OTX015. OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically reduced TERT protein expression, induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and induced TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell apoptosis which was blocked by TERT overexpression and endoplasmic reticulum stress antagonists. In mice xenografted with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma cell lines or PDX tumor cells, OTX015 and carfilzomib synergistically blocked TERT expression, induced tumor cell apoptosis, suppressed tumor progression, and improved mouse survival, which was largely reversed by forced TERT overexpression. CONCLUSIONS: OTX015 and carfilzomib combination therapy is likely to be translated into the first clinical trial of a targeted therapy in patients with TERT-rearranged neuroblastoma.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...