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1.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reoperation rates following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) range from 10 to 40%, with marked surgeon and institutional variation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intraoperative margin re-excision, evaluate for any differences in local recurrence based on margin re-excision and determine reoperation rates with use of intraoperative margin analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer who underwent BCS at our institution between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2016. Routine intraoperative frozen section margin analysis was performed and positive or close margins were re-excised intraoperatively. Univariate analysis was used to compare margin status and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare recurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to analyze factors associated with re-excision. RESULTS: We identified 3201 patients who underwent BCS-688 for DCIS and 2513 for invasive carcinoma. Overall, 1513 (60.2%) patients with invasive cancer and 434 (63.1%) patients with DCIS had close or positive margins that underwent intraoperative re-excision. Margin re-excision was associated with larger tumor size in both groups. The permanent pathology positive margin rate among all patients was 1.2%, and the 30-day reoperation rate for positive margins was 1.1%. Five-year local recurrence rates were 0.6% and 1.2% for patients with DCIS and invasive cancer, respectively. There was no difference in recurrence between patients with and without intraoperative margin re-excision (p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: Both DCIS and invasive carcinoma had similar rates of intraoperative margin re-excision. Although intraoperative margin re-excision was common, the reoperation rate was extremely low and there was no difference in recurrence between those with or without intraoperative re-excision.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e208974, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584410

RESUMO

Importance: Prolonged prescribing of opioids after spine surgery is often perceived as a negative outcome, but successful opioid reduction may occur despite continued prescribing. Improved characterization of opioid availability before and after surgery is necessary to identify these successes. Objective: To evaluate the association between spine surgery and modification of opioid availability postoperatively by using consistent definitions to classify opioid availability before and after surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study included 2223 adults (age ≥18 years) who underwent spine surgery in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2016. Data were analyzed from April 1, 2019, to December 1, 2019. Exposures: Preoperative opioid availability based on prescription data in the 180 days before surgery in accordance with Consortium to Study Opioid Risks and Trends (CONSORT) definitions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Successful modification of opioid availability, defined as an improvement in CONSORT status postoperatively (assessed from 181 to 365 days after surgery) compared with preoperative status, or continued absence of opioid availability for patients with no preoperative availability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between preoperative opioid availability and successful modification by 1 year after undergoing surgery. Results: Of 2223 patients included in the study, 1214 were male (54.6%), with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range, 43-68) years. Patients were classified as having no (778 [35.0%]), short-term (1118 [50.3%]), episodic (227 [10.2%]), or long-term (100 [4.5%]) preoperative opioid availability. Of the 2148 patients (96.6%) who were alive at 1 year, postoperative opioid availability was classified as no (1583 [73.7%]), short-term (398 [18.5%]), episodic (104 [4.8%]), and long-term (63 [2.9%]). A total of 1672 patients (77.8%) had successful modification of opioid availability, with success of 83.0% for those with no preoperative availability, 74.9% for those with short-term preoperative availability, 79.8% for those with episodic preoperative availability, and 64.4% for those with long-term preoperative opioid availability. In multivariable analysis, success was significantly associated with preoperative opioid availability (odds ratio [OR] for short term, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.48-0.77]; OR for episodic, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.64-1.40]; OR long term, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.30-0.82]; P < .001 overall vs no availability). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, when following standardized CONSORT definitions, 4 of 5 adults undergoing spine surgery in a population-based cohort met the criteria for a successful pattern of postoperative opioid prescribing. Similar methods to objectively assess changes in opioid prescribing may be clinically useful in other perioperative settings.

3.
Fertil Steril ; 114(1): 175-184, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood transfusion risks and the associated 30-day postoperative morbidity after myomectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women who underwent myomectomies for symptomatic uterine fibroids (N = 3,407). INTERVENTION(S): Blood transfusion during or within 72 hours after myomectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcomes were rate of blood transfusion with myomectomy and risk factors associated with receiving a transfusion. The secondary outcome was 30-day morbidity after myomectomy. RESULT(S): The overall rate of blood transfusion was 10% (hysteroscopy, 6.7%; laparoscopy, 2.7%; open/abdominal procedures, 16.4%). Independent risk factors for transfusion included as follows: black race (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-3.17) and other race (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.20-2.63) compared with white race; preoperative hematocrit <30% compared to ≥30% (aOR 6.41, 95% CI 4.45-9.23); preoperative blood transfusion (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.46-5.40); high fibroid burden (aOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.45-2.51); prolonged surgical time (fourth quartile vs. first quartile aOR 11.55, 95% CI 7.05-18.93); and open/abdominal approach (open/abdominal vs. laparoscopic aOR 9.06, 95% CI 6.10-13.47). Even after adjusting for confounders, women who required blood transfusions had an approximately threefold increased risk for experiencing a major postoperative complication (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.58-4.57). CONCLUSION(S): Analysis of a large multicenter database suggests that the overall risk of blood transfusion with myomectomy is 10% and is associated with an increased 30-day postoperative morbidity. Preoperative screening of women at high risk for transfusion is prudent as perioperative transfusion itself leads to increased major postoperative complications.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: We compare consensus recommendations for 5 surgical procedures to prospectively collected patient consumption data. To address local variation, we combined data from multiple hospitals across the country. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: One approach to address the opioid epidemic has been to create prescribing consensus reports for common surgical procedures. However, it is unclear how these guidelines compare to patient-reported data from multiple hospital systems. METHODS: Prospective observational studies of surgery patients were completed between 3/2017 and 12/2018. Data were collected utilizing post-discharge surveys and chart reviews from 5 hospitals (representing 3 hospital systems) in 5 states across the USA. Prescribing recommendations for 5 common surgical procedures identified in 2 recent consensus reports were compared to the prospectively collected aggregated data. Surgeries included: laparoscopic cholecystectomy, open inguinal hernia repair, laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, partial mastectomy without sentinel lymph node biopsy, and partial mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. RESULTS: Eight hundred forty-seven opioid-naïve patients who underwent 1 of the 5 studied procedures reported counts of unused opioid pills after discharge. Forty-one percent did not take any opioid medications, and across all surgeries, the median consumption was 3 5 mg oxycodone pills or less. Generally, consensus reports recommended opioid quantities that were greater than the 75th percentile of consumption, and for 2 procedures, recommendations exceeded the 90th percentile of consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Although consensus recommendations were an important first step to address opioid prescribing, our data suggests that following these recommendations would result in 47%-56% of pills prescribed remaining unused. Future multi-institutional efforts should be directed toward refining and personalizing prescribing recommendations.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe pain experience and opioid use after major head and neck reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients undergoing major head and neck surgery with microvascular free tissue transfer (free flaps) at a tertiary academic center were included. Pain scores (0-10) and demographic and clinical data were ascertained from medical records. Discharge opioid prescriptions and refills obtained within 30 days were recorded. Patient characteristics were compared with pain scores using nonparametric rank-sum tests and with likelihood of refill using logistic regression models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: The study population comprised 445 patients. Median age was 60 years (interquartile range 50-68). Most patients had cancer (N = 350, 78%). The majority of free flaps were fibula (N = 153, 34%) or radial forearm (N = 159, 36%). Older patients reported significantly lower pain scores, whereas patients with opioid tolerance, anxiety, current smokers, and those undergoing larger volume resections or boney free flaps reported significantly higher pain scores. One-quarter (N = 115, 26%) of patients obtained opioid refills. Patients aged ≥ 60 years had one-half the odds of obtaining a refill compared with patients aged < 60 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.84), whereas surgical defect volume ≥ 100 cm3 (aOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.21-3.07) and higher pain score (aOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.07-1.32 per 1 point increase) increased the odds of refill. CONCLUSION: Continued opioid use after discharge is common among patients undergoing major head and neck reconstruction, particularly for younger patients and after more extensive surgery. Older patients reported lower pain intensity and were less likely to obtain opioid refills, highlighting the wisdom of judicious opioid use for this vulnerable population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV Laryngoscope, 2020.

6.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmissions after aortic dissection (AD) admission are not well described. Using state-based administrative claims data, we sought to define readmission rates after AD and to identify factors associated with them. METHODS: State Inpatient Databases for Florida (2007-2012) and New York (2008-2012) were queried for AD index admissions. Admissions were stratified by initial treatment strategy: type A open surgery repair (TAOR), type B open surgery repair (TBOR), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), or medical management (MM). All-cause readmission rates were calculated at 30 days, 90 days, and 2 years. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with readmission at each time point for all type A admissions (TAOR) or type B admissions (TBOR, TEVAR, MM). RESULTS: We identified 4670 patients with an AD index admission. Treatment was with TAOR in 1031 (22%), TBOR in 761 (16%), TEVAR in 412 (9%), and MM in 2466 (53%). Patients were predominantly male (59.4%) and white (61.9%), with a median age of 66 years. Overall mortality during AD index admission was 14.8% (TAOR, 15.8%; TBOR, 17.1%; TEVAR, 9.0%; MM, 14.7%; P = .002 across all groups). All-cause readmission rates were similar across treatment groups at 30 days (9.6%-11%; P = .56), 90 days (15.2%-20%; P = .26), and 2 years (49.2%-54.4%; P = .15). Higher income quartile (vs lowest) was associated with lower odds of early readmission (at 30 days and 90 days) after type B admissions but not after type A admissions. At 2 years, self-pay (vs Medicare) was associated with lower odds of readmission in both type A and type B admissions, whereas higher comorbidity count and black race (vs white) were associated with higher odds of readmission. TEVAR (vs MM) was also associated with higher odds of readmission. Cardiovascular disease was the most common cause for readmission at all time points. Emergency department readmission counts were highest after MM admissions, and ambulatory surgical admissions were highest after TBOR. Both TEVAR and MM initial costs were lower than TAOR and TBOR costs, but at 2 years, costs remained significantly lower only for MM. CONCLUSIONS: In-state 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year readmission rates after AD were not associated with initial treatment type. Two-year readmissions are common. Strategies to target socioeconomic, race, and geographic factors may reduce variations in readmission patterns after AD admission.

7.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(6): 405-411, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty increases risk for complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Whether this association is influenced by anesthetic administered is unknown. We hypothesized that use of neuraxial (spinal or epidural) anesthesia is associated with better outcomes compared with general anesthesia, and that the effect of anesthesia type on outcomes differs by frailty status. METHODS: This single-institution cohort study included all patients (≥50 years) from January 2005 through December 2016 undergoing unilateral, primary and revision TJA. Using multivariable Cox regression, we assessed relationships between anesthesia type, a preoperative frailty deficit index (FI) categorized as non-frail (FI <0.11), vulnerable (FI 0.11 to 0.20), and frail (FI >0.20), and complications (mortality, infection, wound complications/hematoma, reoperation, dislocation, and periprosthetic fracture) within 1 year after surgery. Interactions between anesthesia type and frailty were tested, and stratified models were presented when an interaction (p<0.1) was observed. RESULTS: Among 18 458 patients undergoing TJA, more patients were classified as frail (21.5%) and vulnerable (36.2%) than non-frail (42.3%). Anesthesia type was not associated with complications after adjusting for age, joint, and revision type. However, in analyzes stratified by frailty, vulnerable patients under neuraxial block had less mortality (HR=0.49; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.89) and wound complications/hematoma (HR=0.71; 95% CI 0.55 to 0.90), whereas no difference in risk by anesthesia type was observed among patients found non-frail or frail. CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia use among vulnerable patients was associated with improved survival and less wound complications. Calculating preoperative frailty prior to TJA informs perioperative risk and enhances shared-decision making for selection of anesthesia type.

8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(3): 649-655, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, treatment, and outcomes in patients with invasive vulvar extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) in a national cohort of patients. METHODS: Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database with diagnoses of vulvar EMPD from 1992 to 2016 were included. Demographic, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1268 cases of invasive EMPD were identified. Of those, 69.6% had localized disease, 12.0% regional disease, 1.3% distant disease, and 17.1% were unstaged. The annual incidence of invasive vulvar EMPD was 0.36 per 100,000 person years: rates have increased >2-fold since 1992 (1992: 0.19 per 100,000 person years to 0.50 per 100,000 person years in 2016). Most patients underwent primary surgery (n = 1034; 81.5%). Five-year cancer specific survival (CSS) was 95.5% and was associated with stage. Compared to patients with localized disease, patients with distant metastases had dramatically worse CSS (HR: 85.8 (31.8-248) p < 0.0001). Synchronous cancers (diagnosed within one calendar year of EMPD diagnosis year) were observed in 35 cases (2.8%), and 195 patients (15.4%) developed a secondary malignancy (diagnosed >one year from year of EMPD diagnosis year). The most common synchronous breast, gastrointestinal tract, melanoma and the most common secondary cancers were breast, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of invasive vulvar EMPD has increased over time. CSS is excellent for localized disease, but those with metastatic disease are in need of novel therapies. Approximately 15% will develop a secondary malignancy, indicating that patients with invasive vulvar EMPD should undergo site specific preventative health screens during recurrence surveillance.

9.
Obes Surg ; 30(8): 2870-2876, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional duodenal switch (DS) typically leaves a short common channel and is infrequently performed in part due to increased risk of malnutrition. We compared nutritional deficiencies between DS with a moderate channel length and standard proximal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 61 matched pairs who underwent DS or RYGB using our institutional database; patients were matched on sex, age, race, and BMI. DS was performed with a common channel length between 120 and 150 cm. Thirty-day complications, total body weight loss (TBWL) %, and nutritional labs up to 24 months were compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. RESULTS: Weight loss was similar at each time point (all p > 0.1). DS patients had lower vitamin D levels at 6 months, lower calcium levels at 6 and 12 months, and lower hemoglobin at 12 months and otherwise equivalent (all p < 0.05). Revision was rare (1 DS; 0 RYGB). There were no differences in short-term complications (p = 0.28). CONCLUSION: DS with a moderate common channel length is safe with a low revision rate. Weight loss and nutritional outcomes appear to be comparable to RYGB, and it may be considered an effective RYGB alternative.

10.
J Am Coll Surg ; 230(4): 451-460, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are multiple definitions for malnutrition, without evidence of superiority of any one definition to assess preoperative risk. Therefore, to aid in identification of patients that might warrant prehabilitation, we aimed to determine the optimal definition of malnutrition before major oncologic resection for 6 cancer types. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons NSQIP database was queried for patients undergoing elective major oncologic operations from 2005 to 2017. Nutritional status was evaluated using the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition definitions, NSQIP's variable for >10% weight loss during the previous 6 months, and the WHO BMI classification system. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the adjusted effect of nutritional status on mortality and major morbidity. RESULTS: We identified 205,840 operations (74% colorectal, 10% pancreatic, 9% lung, 3% gastric, 3% esophageal, and 2% liver). A minority (16%) of patients met criteria for malnutrition (0.6% severe malnutrition, 1% European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 1, 2% European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2, 6% NSQIP, and 6% mild malnutrition), 31% were obese, and the remaining 54% had a normal nutrition status. Both mortality and major morbidity varied significantly between the nutrition groups (both p < 0.0001). An interaction between nutritional status and cancer type was observed in the models for mortality and major morbidity (interaction term p < 0.0001 for both), indicating the optimal definition of malnutrition varied by cancer type. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of malnutrition used to assess postoperative risk is specific to the type of cancer being treated. These findings can be used to enhance nutritional preparedness in the preoperative setting.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to describe opioid prescribing after hospitalization for elective cardiac operation, to identify factors associated with increased opioid prescriptions, and to develop procedure-specific opioid prescribing guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from all adults (≥18 years) undergoing elective cardiac operation for acquired heart disease from July 2014 to March 2017 at 3 affiliated hospitals. Opioid prescription data were abstracted and converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Multivariable logistic regression was performed with the outcome of top-quartile prescriptions. RESULTS: There were 4145 study patients after exclusion of preoperative opioid users (10.5%). Mean ± SD patient age was 63.9 ± 13.2 years, and 68.4% (n = 2835) were male. The operation was the first in 87.3% (3617); the most common operative approach was sternotomy in 91.0% (n = 3773), followed by robot-assisted operation in 4.6% (n = 192). The majority of patients, 72.7%, received an opioid prescription at hospital dismissal, with a median opioid prescription of 200 MME (interquartile range 0 to 375 MME; range 0 to 6400 MME). This varied by hospital, with medians of 150, 450, and 600 MME (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the factor with greatest association with top-quartile opioid prescription was hospital (odds ratio, 57.2, highest vs lowest; 95% confidence interval, 40.2-81.4; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in opioid prescribing practices after cardiac operation was observed. The primary driver was hospital-centric as opposed to patient specific. Opioid prescribing guidelines were established to standardize posthospital pain management.

12.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(5): 968-981, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171474

RESUMO

The opioid crisis is a major concern of most health care institutions, including our large academic center. In this article, an organized approach to managing the epidemic institutionally is discussed. An Opioid Stewardship Program was instituted at our tertiary-care center with multiple sites and states of practice, which included diverse membership and expertise. Charges of the program included reviewing current practice, workflows, and external and internal guidelines and evaluating and standardizing prescribing practices. The development of an Opioid Stewardship Program resulted in: (1) an understanding of our diverse prescribing practices and the formation of patient- and procedure-specific guidelines to manage them, (2) education tools for our patients and providers, and (3) workflows and practice advisories within the electronic health record to support appropriate prescribing and monitoring of patients. This ongoing work continues to evolve in response to the needs of our patients, changing regulatory environments, and our improved understanding of our practices.

13.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The nature of the volume-outcome relationship in cases with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear, with considerable interhospital variation in patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to understand the state of the volume-outcome relationship at different levels of trauma centers in the United States. METHODS: The authors queried the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2007-2014 for patients with severe TBI. Case volumes for each level of trauma center organized into quintiles (Q1-Q5) served as the primary predictor. Analyzed outcomes included in-hospital mortality, total hospital length of stay (LOS), and intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Multivariable regression models were performed for in-hospital mortality, overall complications, and total hospital and ICU LOSs to adjust for possible confounders. The analysis was stratified by level designation of the trauma center. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.001 to avoid a type I error due to a large sample size. RESULTS: A total of 122,445 patients were included. Adjusted analysis did not demonstrate a significant relationship between increasing hospital volume of severe TBI cases and in-hospital mortality, complications, and nonhome hospital discharge disposition among level I-IV trauma centers. However, among level II trauma centers, hospital LOS was longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted mean difference [MD] for Q5: 2.83 days, 95% CI 1.40-4.26 days, p < 0.001, reference = Q1). For level III and IV trauma centers, both hospital LOS and ICU LOS were longer for the highest volume quintile (adjusted MD for Q5: LOS 4.6 days, 95% CI 2.3-7.0 days, p < 0.001; ICU LOS 3.2 days, 95% CI 1.6-4.8 days, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher volumes of severe TBI cases at a lower level of trauma center may be associated with a longer LOS. These results may assist policymakers with target interventions for resource allocation and point to the need for careful prehospital decision-making in patients with severe TBI.

14.
World J Surg ; 44(7): 2288-2294, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to the rarity of malignant insulinoma, a lack of the literature describing factors affecting outcomes exists. Our aim was to review malignant insulinoma incidence, characteristics and survival trends. METHODS: We identified all patients with malignant insulinoma in the SEER registries from 1973 to 2015. Incidence, neoplasm characteristics and factors affecting cancer-specific survival (CSS) were described. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were identified. The crude annual overall incidence was low (range 0.0-0.27 cases per million person years). The largest proportion had localized disease (40%), while 16% had regional disease, 39% distant metastatic disease, and stage was unreported in 5%. Most neoplasms were in the body/tail of the pancreas, followed by the head of the pancreas. Grade was reported in 40% of patients; only a single patient reported as having grade IV with the remainder all grades I/II. Surgical resection was performed in 64% of patients. Within surgical patients, the median primary neoplasm size was 1.8 cm. Regional lymph nodes were examined in 57.1% of surgical patients, while 34% of examined nodes were positive. The median CSS was 183 months. On multivariable analysis, surgical resection, male sex and absence of metastatic disease were associated with superior survival. CONCLUSION: While the greatest proportion of patients with malignant insulinoma present with localized disease, regional lymph node involvement was found in 34% of whose nodes were tested. Further studies are needed to assess the role of lymph node dissection in improving survival and preventing recurrence given the observed frequency of lymph node involvement.

15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of postoperative complications in noncardiac surgery, with limited literature on cardiac surgical patients. Perioperative outcomes of patients with OSA were compared with outcomes of those without OSA undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center cohort study of adults who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2010 to April 2017. Outcomes of patients with OSA were compared with those without OSA, including length of stay, readmissions, hospital death, and short-term outcomes. RESULTS: OSA was present in 2636 of 8612 patients (30.6%) identified during the study period with OSA. Patients with OSA had a longer median length of stay (6 vs 5 days, P < .001), longer incidence of prolonged (>7 days) length of stay (26.3% vs 23.0%, P < .001), and were less likely to be discharged to home (78.2% vs 84.4%, P < .001). OSA patients also had a higher 30-day readmission rate (14.7% vs 10.4%, P < .001). Acute kidney injury was more common in OSA patients (25.2% vs 19.9%, P < .001). Our multivariable model found postoperative atrial fibrillation was associated with older age and not OSA status (age <50 years compared with >75 years; odds ratio, 4.10; 95% confidence interval, 3.39-4.96). CONCLUSIONS: OSA patients had a longer mean length of stay, were more likely to have a prolonged length of stay, more likely to be discharged to a location other than home, and had a higher 30-day readmission rate. This suggests higher resource utilization is required to care for OSA patients after cardiac surgery.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105561

RESUMO

Background: A female survival advantage in cutaneous melanoma has been long recognized. However, whether this extends across all age groups, with risk stratification using the latest prognostic staging system or in the current era of efficacious systemic therapies is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether sex-based differences in melanoma survival persisted within a recent population-based patient cohort with consideration of these factors. Materials and Methods: We identified stage II-IV cutaneous melanoma patients from 2010 to 2014 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries data. We recalculated stage per American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition guidelines. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Of 16,807 patients (39.8% female), 8,990 were stage II, 4,826 stage III, and 2,991 stage IV at diagnosis. Unadjusted 3-/5-year CSS estimates for females versus males were 64.2% versus 59.7%, and 53.5% versus 49.9%, respectively, p ≤ 0.0001. Five-year CSS varied within each stage and across age strata of <45, 45 - 59, and ≥60 years. Within each stage, females <45 had better CSS than all other sex/age groups (p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis of stage II/III patients, female sex, younger age, and lower mitotic index retained favorable CSS prognostic significance (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sex-based differences in melanoma survival persist in a contemporary patient cohort staged with the latest prognostic system. These data may guide decision marking regarding adjuvant therapy, highlight the importance of including sex as a pre-specified clinical trial variable, and suggest that investigation of underlying biologic mechanisms may drive discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic targets to improve patient care.

17.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(4): 504-513, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes after total abdominal colectomy with ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis and risk factors for requirement of a permanent ileostomy remain poorly understood, particularly in the biologic era. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine long-term ostomy-free survival after ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's colitis and potential risk factors for requirement of an ileostomy. DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was conducted at a single-institution IBD tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease and undergoing ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis between 2006 and 2018 were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Long-term ostomy-free survival and hazard ratios of potential predictors of ileostomy requirement were the primary outcomes measured. RESULTS: One hundred nine patients (56% female) underwent ileosigmoid or ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn's disease. The majority of surgical procedures were completed in 2 or 3 stages (53%). The indication for total abdominal colectomy was predominantly medically refractory disease (77%), with dysplasia the second leading indication (13%). At an overall mean follow-up of 3 years, 16 patients had undergone either proctectomy or diversion with the rectum in situ. This resulted in ostomy-free survival estimates at 5 and 10 years of 78% (95% CI, 68-90) and 58% (95% CI, 35-94). A positive distal microscopic margin was the only risk factor for later requirement of a permanent ileostomy (HR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.7-17.2). LIMITATIONS: This study is limited because it is a retrospective study at a tertiary referral center. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ostomy-free survival can be achieved in the majority of patients who undergo restoration of intestinal continuity after total abdominal colectomy for Crohn's colitis. A positive distal microscopic margin was independently associated with long-term anastomotic failure, and it should be accounted for when risk stratifying patients for postoperative prophylactic medical therapy. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B111. ¿QUÉ FACTORES ESTÁN ASOCIADOS CON LA EVENTUAL NECESIDAD DE UNA ILEOSTOMÍA DESPUÉS DE UNA COLECTOMÍA ABDOMINAL TOTAL Y UNA ANASTOMOSIS ILEOSIGMOIDEA O ILEORRECTAL PARA LA COLITIS DE CROHN EN LA ERA BIOLÓGICA?: Los resultados después de la colectomía abdominal total con anastomosis ileosigmoidea o ileorrectal para la colitis de Crohn y los factores de riesgo para el requerimiento de una ileostomía permanente siguen siendo poco conocidos, particularmente en la era biológica.Determinar la supervivencia a largo plazo sin ostomía después de una anastomosis ileosigmoidea o ileorrectal para la colitis de Crohn y los factores de riesgo potenciales para la necesidad de una ileostomía.Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo.Centro de referencia de tercel nivel para enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal de una sola institución.Pacientes diagnosticados con enfermedad de Crohn y sometidos a anastomosis ileosigmoidea o ileorrectal entre 2006 y 2018Supervivencia a largo plazo sin ostomías y cocientes de riesgo de predictores potenciales de requerimiento de ileostomía109 pacientes (56% mujeres) se sometieron a anastomosis ileosigmoidea o ileorrectal por enfermedad de Crohn. La mayoría de los procedimientos quirúrgicos se completaron en 2 o 3 etapas (53%). La indicación de colectomía abdominal total fue predominantemente enfermedad médicamente refractaria (77%), con displasia la segunda indicación principal (13%). En un seguimiento medio general de 3 años, 16 pacientes se habían sometido a una proctectomía o a una derivación con el recto in situ. Esto dio como resultado estimaciones de supervivencia sin ostomía a los 5 y 10 años de 78% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 68-90) y 58% (intervalo de confianza del 95%: 35-94), respectivamente. Un margen microscópico distal positivo fue el único factor de riesgo para el requerimiento posterior de una ileostomía permanente (razón de riesgo: 5.4; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 1.7-17.2).Estudio retrospectivo en un centro de referencia de tercer nivel.La supervivencia a largo plazo sin ostomía se puede lograr en la mayoría de los pacientes que se someten a la restauración de la continuidad intestinal después de la colectomía abdominal total por colitis de Crohn. Un margen microscópico distal positivo se asoció de forma independiente con la insuficiencia anastomótica a largo plazo, y debe tenerse en cuenta cuando se trata de pacientes con estratificación de riesgo para el tratamiento médico profiláctico postoperatorio. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B111.

18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 303-311, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors compared long-term health care use and cost in women undergoing immediate autologous breast reconstruction and implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: This study was conducted using the OptumLabs Data Warehouse, which contains deidentified retrospective administrative claims data, including medical claims and eligibility information from a large U.S. health insurance plan. Women who underwent autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction between January of 2004 and December of 2014 were included. The authors compared 2-year use rates and predicted costs of care. Comparisons were tested using the t test. RESULTS: Overall, 12,296 women with immediate breast reconstruction were identified; 4257 with autologous (35 percent) and 8039 with implant-based (65 percent) breast reconstruction. The proportion of autologous breast reconstruction decreased from 47.2 percent in 2004 to 32.7 percent in 2014. The mean predicted reconstruction cost of autologous reconstruction was higher than that of implant-based reconstruction in both unilateral and bilateral surgery. Similar results for mean predicted 2-year cost of care were seen in bilateral procedures. However, in unilateral procedures, the 2-year total costs were higher for implant-based than for autologous reconstruction. Two-year health care use rates were higher for implant-based reconstruction than for autologous reconstruction for both unilateral and bilateral procedures. Women undergoing unilateral implant-based reconstruction had higher rates of hospital admissions (30.3 versus 23.1 per 100; p < 0.01) and office visits (2445.1 versus 2283.6 per 100; p < 0.01) than those who underwent autologous reconstruction. Emergency room visit rates were similar between the two methods. Bilateral procedures yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Although implant-based breast reconstruction is a less expensive index operation than autologous breast reconstruction, it was associated with higher health care use, resulting in similar total cost of care over 2 years.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Implante Mamário/economia , Implantes de Mama/economia , Implantes de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mamoplastia/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo/economia , Transplante Autólogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Understanding demographic and opioid utilization patterns of preoperative opioid users compared with opioid-naïve patients undergoing surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) better informs opioid prescribing. METHODS: A cohort of preoperative opioid users undergoing surgery for POP from 1 January 2012 through 30 May 2017 was identified. Electronic medical records were utilized to obtain pain scores and prescription data. The cohort was organized by surgical approach, number of concomitant procedures, and patient age. These factors were then matched to pain scores, opioid quantity prescribed at discharge, and subsequent refills. Pain scores and opioid use were evaluated for correlation. Results were then compared with similar data previously published for opioid-naïve patients undergoing surgical treatment of POP. RESULTS: Preoperative opioid users were younger (55.5 [14.7] vs 59.5 [12.7]; p = 0.002), of higher body mass index (BMI; 29.2 [5.4] vs 28.6 [10.3]; p = 0.04), and less likely Caucasian (90.3% vs 95.9%; p = 0.002) than opioid-naïve patients. After matching for these differences, opioid users reported higher pain scores (3.5 [2.2] vs 2.6 [1.8]; p = <0.0001), but received similar opioid quantities (324.4 [395] vs 296 [158] oral morphine equivalents [OME]; p = 0.27; 16.8% vs 10.4% refill rates; p = 0.07). In preoperative opioid users, neither surgical approach nor the number of concomitant procedures influenced pain scores. Increasing mean pain scores (1.8 [2.0] to 4.2 [2.4]; p < 0.002) and OME prescribed (226 [170.2] to 541 [902.5] p = 0.056; 0% to 22.2% refill rates; p = 0.02), were seen with decreasing patient age. Pain scores correlated directly with the opioid amount prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: Patient age and preoperative opioid utilization should be factored into urogynecological postoperative opioid-prescribing protocols.

20.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(1): 132-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak is a feared complication after left-sided colectomy, but its risk can potentially be reduced with the use of a diverting ostomy. However, an ostomy has its own associated negative sequelae; therefore, it is critical to appropriately identify patients to divert. This is difficult in practice since many risk factors for anastomotic leak exist and outside factors bias this decision. We aimed to develop and validate a risk score to predict an individual's risk of anastomotic leak and aid in the decision. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Colectomy Targeted PUF was queried from 2012 to 2016 for patients undergoing elective left-sided resection for malignancy, benign neoplasm, or diverticular disease. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of anastomotic leak in non-diverted patients, and a risk score was developed and validated. RESULTS: 38,475 patients underwent resection with an overall anastomotic leak rate of 3%. Independent risk factors for anastomotic leak included younger age, male sex, tobacco use, and omission of combined bowel preparation. A risk score incorporating independent predictors demonstrated excellent calibration. There was strong visual correspondence between predicted and observed anastomotic leak rates. 3960 patients underwent resection with diversion, yet over half of these patients had a predicted leak rate of less than 4%. CONCLUSION: A novel risk score can be used to stratify patients according to anastomotic leak risk after elective left-sided resection. Intraoperative calculation of scores for patients can help guide surgical decision-making in both diverting the highest risk patients and avoiding diversion in low-risk patients.

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