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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Doppler echocardiographic methods, such as the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method, are used to quantify mitral regurgitations (MRs). However, their accuracy and reproducibility are still being discussed, especially in the case of MR of complex geometry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the PISA method depending on the shape and number of regurgitant flows. METHODS: First, various MR shapes and severities (central, oblong, and multiple-jet MR) were mimicked in a left heart simulator. The effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) was calculated using the standard and modified PISA methods and was compared to a reference value obtained from an electromagnetic flowmeter. Second, in order to clinically validate the in vitro findings, 16 patients were examined with two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. The results were analyzed by comparing the PISA method and the echocardiographic 2D quantitative volumetric method. RESULTS: Both hemicylindrical and hemiellipsoidal PISA assumptions improved the quantification of the EROA for oblong MR compared with the traditional PISA method (hemispherical PISA assumption: 11 ± 4.6 mm2, P < .01; hemicylindrical PISA assumption: 2 ± 0.8 mm2, P = .83; hemiellipsoidal PISA assumption: 6 ± 3.7 mm2, P = .05). In the case of multiple jets of different sizes, an improved EROA calculation was measured when both jets were considered (single hemispherical PISA assumption: 4.5 ± 0.7 mm2, P < .01; double hemispherical PISA assumption: 2 ± 1.1 mm2, P = .64). CONCLUSION: For a correct diagnosis of MR, the PISA geometry must be considered. A measurement of both PISA radius and PISA width is necessary for an accurate quantification of an oblong MR. In the case of a double-jet MR, a measurement of the two radii is recommended.

2.
Heart ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to assess the characteristics and prognosis of pyogenic spondylodiscitis (PS) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The secondary objectives were to assess the factors associated with occurrence of PS. METHODS: Prospective case-control bi-centre study of 1755 patients with definite IE with (n=150) or without (n=1605) PS. Clinical, microbiological and prognostic variables were recorded. RESULTS: Patients with PS were older (mean age 69.7±18 vs 66.2±14; p=0.004) and had more arterial hypertension (48% vs 34.5%; p<0.001) and autoimmune disease (5% vs 2%; p=0.03) than patients without PS. The lumbar vertebrae were the most frequently involved (84 patients, 66%), especially L4-L5. Neurological symptoms were observed in 59% of patients. Enterococci and Streptococcus gallolyticus were more frequent (24% vs 12% and 24% vs 11%; p<0001, respectively) in the PS group. The diagnosis of PS was based on contrast-enhanced MRI in 92 patients, bone CT in 88 patients and 18F-FDG PET/CT in 56 patients. In-hospital (16% vs 13.5%, p=0.38) and 1-year (21% vs 22%, p=0.82) mortalities did not differ between patients with or without PS. CONCLUSIONS: PS is a frequent complication of IE (8.5% of IE), is observed in older hypertensive patients with enterococcal or S. gallolyticus IE, and has a similar prognosis than other forms of IE. Since PS is associated with specific management, multimodality imaging including MRI, CT and PET/CT should be used for early diagnosis of this complication of endocarditis.

3.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(5): 321-331, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is challenging, and different imaging techniques propose different criteria. AIM: To compare the value of two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) criteria in diagnosing LVNC, and to test a new trabecular quantification method obtained by 2D-TTE, exploring its relationship with CMR non-compacted mass quantification. METHODS: From a multicentre French study, we selected 48 patients with LVNC and 20 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) who underwent 2D-TTE and CMR. Current 2D-TTE (Jenni et al.) and CMR criteria (Petersen et al., Jacquier et al.), were tested. A new 2D-TTE method of trabecular quantification (percentage of trabecular area) was also proposed, and compared with current criteria. RESULTS: The best cut-off values for the diagnosis of LVNC were a non-compacted/compacted ratio≥2.3 (Petersen et al.), a trabeculated left ventricular mass≥20% (Jacquier et al.) and a non-compacted/compacted ratio≥1.8 (Jenni et al.). Lowering the threshold for the criterion of Jenni et al. from>2 to ≥1.8 improved its sensitivity from 69% to 98%. The 2D-TTE percentage of trabecular area was 25.9±8% in the LVNC group vs. 9.9±4.4% in the DCM group (P<0.05), and was well correlated with CMR non-compacted mass (r=0.65; P<0.05). A 15.8% threshold value for 2D-TTE percentage of trabecular area predicted LVNC diagnosis with a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 92%; its sensitivity was better than that for the criteria of Jenni et al. (P<0.01) and Petersen et al. (P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Revision of the current threshold for the criterion of Jenni et al. from>2 to ≥1.8 is necessary to improve LVNC diagnosis in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. A new 2D-TTE trabecular quantification method improves TTE diagnosis of LVNC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187352

RESUMO

AIMS: Fifteen to thirty percentage of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and a discordant AS pattern at Doppler echocardiography, which is characterized by a small (<1 cm2) aortic area and low mean aortic gradient (<40 mmHg). The 'Randomized study for the Optimal Treatment of symptomatic patients with low-gradient severe Aortic Stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction' (ROTAS trial) aims at demonstrating the superiority of aortic valve replacement vs. a 'watchful waiting strategy' in symptomatic patients with low-gradient (LS), severe AS, and preserved LVEF, stratified according to indexed stroke volume, in terms of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular-related hospitalization during follow-up (FU). METHODS AND RESULTS: The ROTAS trial will be a multicentre randomized non-blinded study involving 16 reference centres. AS severity will be confirmed by a multimodality approach (rest and stress echocardiography, calcium scoring, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for optimally characterize the population), which could provide important inputs to improve the pathophysiological understanding of this complex disease. Well-characterized patients will be randomized according to the management strategy. The primary endpoint will be the occurrence of all-cause mortality or cardiac related-hospitalizations during 2-year FU. One hundred and eighty subjects per group will be included. CONCLUSION: The management of patients with LS severe AS and preserved LVEF is largely debated. ROTAS trial will allow a comprehensive evaluation of this particular pattern of AS and will establish which is the most appropriate management of these patients.

5.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(3): 105890, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923572

RESUMO

The involvement of platelets in anti-infectious immunity has been widely demonstrated. Molecules secreted mainly by α-granules are involved in reducing the growth of certain bacterial species. However, the effect of antiplatelet treatments on the platelet antibacterial ability remains poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the platelet antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and to evaluate the influence of antiplatelet drugs on this effect. Blood samples were collected from healthy donors or patients treated with antiplatelet therapy. Six S. aureus strains were included. Bacteria were incubated with platelets for 4 h. Colonies were counted on blood agar. The supernatant's effect was evaluated. The effect of in vitro antiplatelet agents and salicylic acid was also tested. The CD62P expression rate was evaluated under different conditions of infection and platelet treatment. Platelets slowed the growth of the six S. aureus strains (P = 0.006 for P6134, P = 0.001 for P6170 and P6138, and P = 0.003 for the other strains versus bacteria alone). The supernatant of platelets pre-infected with bacteria and that of platelets pre-treated with TRAP retained this antibacterial effect (platelet-bacteria supernatant, P = 0.018; TRAP, P = 0.011 versus bacteria alone). Treatment of platelets by antiplatelet drugs significantly decreased this antibacterial effect (aspirin, P = 0.027; ticagrelor, P = 0.0263; combination, P = 0.0092 versus untreated platelets). Salicylic acid also induced inhibition of this antibacterial effect (P = 0.042 versus untreated platelets). This study showed that antiplatelet agents decreased the antibacterial effect of platelets against S. aureus.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/sangue , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/imunologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico
6.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 176(1-2): 53-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs), recent trials and meta-analyses have shown that transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces stroke recurrence risk in young and middle-aged adults with an otherwise unexplained PFO-associated ischaemic stroke. AIM: To produce an expert consensus on the role of transcatheter PFO closure and antithrombotic drugs for secondary stroke prevention in patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke. METHODS: Five neurologists and five cardiologists with extensive experience in the relevant field were nominated by the French Neurovascular Society and the French Society of Cardiology to make recommendations based on evidence from RCTs and meta-analyses. RESULTS: The experts recommend that any decision concerning treatment of patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke should be taken after neurological and cardiological evaluation, bringing together the necessary neurovascular, echocardiography and interventional cardiology expertise. Transcatheter PFO closure is recommended in patients fulfilling all the following criteria: age 16-60 years; recent (≤6 months) ischaemic stroke; PFO associated with atrial septal aneurysm (>10mm) or with a right-to-left shunt>20 microbubbles or with a diameter≥2mm; PFO felt to be the most likely cause of stroke after thorough aetiological evaluation by a stroke specialist. Long-term oral anticoagulation may be considered in the event of contraindication to or patient refusal of PFO closure, in the absence of a high bleeding risk. After PFO closure, dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin (75mg/day) and clopidogrel (75mg/day) is recommended for 3 months, followed by monotherapy with aspirin or clopidogrel for≥5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Although a big step forward that will benefit many patients has been taken with recent trials, many questions remain unanswered. Pending results from further studies, decision-making regarding management of patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke should be based on a close coordination between neurologists/stroke specialists and cardiologists.

7.
Platelets ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856631

RESUMO

Bacteria induce platelet aggregation triggered by several mechanisms. The goal of this work was to characterize platelet aggregates induced by different bacterial strains and to quantify the effect of aspirin treatment using aggregation tests, as well as a novel approach based on confocal analysis. Blood samples were obtained from either healthy donors (n = 27) or patients treated with long-term aspirin (n = 15). The bacterial species included were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus sanguinis. The different aggregate's ultrastructures depending on the bacterial strain were analyzed using Scanning electron microscopy. Quantification of the size of the platelet aggregates, their mean number as well as the bacterial impregnation within the aggregates was performed using confocal laser scanning light microscopy. Light Transmission Aggregometry was also performed. Our results reported distinct characteristics of platelet aggregates depending on the bacterial strain. Using confocal analysis, we have shown that aspirin significantly reduced platelet aggregation induced by S. aureus (p = .003) and E. faecalis (p = .006) with no effect in the case of S. sanguinis (p = .529). The results of the aggregometry were concordant with those of the confocal technique in the case of S. aureus and S. sanguinis. Interestingly, aggregation induced by E. faecalis was detected only with confocal analysis. In conclusion, our confocal scanning microscopy allowed a detailed study of the platelet aggregation induced by bacteria. We showed that aspirin acts on bacterial-induced platelet aggregation depending on the species. These results are in favor of the use of aspirin considering the species and the bacterial strain involved.

8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681776

RESUMO

Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a rare disease associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. The platelet-bacterial interaction presents the cornerstone of the development of endocardial vegetation. The epidemiology of IE has undergone profound changes between the last and the new decade, with Staphylococcus aureus becoming the main incriminated species. Despite improvements in antibiotic and surgical therapies, embolic disorders remain highly associated with IE that can be fatal. Antiplatelet drugs have been widely proposed to overcome embolic events associated with IE. This proposal has been supported by numerous in vitro, experimental, and clinical studies. However, other studies have yielded conflicting results. In this review, we focus on the effect of aspirin on the genesis of S. aureus endocarditic vegetation, as well as on the management of embolic and hemorrhagic events related to it, starting by its influence on the platelet-bacteria interaction.

9.
Circulation ; 140(21): 1753-1765, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738598

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a complex disease with cardiac involvement and multiorgan complications. Its prognosis depends on prompt diagnosis that leads to an aggressive therapeutic management combining antibiotic therapy and early cardiac surgery when indicated. However, IE diagnosis always poses a challenge, and echocardiography remains diagnostically imperfect in cases of prosthetic valve IE or cardiac implantable electronic device infection. In recent years, other imaging modalities (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging) have experienced significant technical improvements, and their application to the detection of cardiac and extracardiac IE-related lesions seems to be a strategic way forward in the management of patients with suspected IE. However, the scientific evidence in the literature remains limited; current guidelines address the use of the multimodality imaging in the field of IE with caution; the incremental value of each technique and their combinations is debated; and their use varies across countries. Despite these limitations, healthcare providers and surgeons should be aware of the possibilities offered by the multimodal imaging approach when appropriate. Here, we emphasize the value of a multidisciplinary heart valve team, the endocarditis team, underlining the importance of cardiac and extracardiac imaging experts in playing a key role in informing the diagnosis and management of patients with IE. Illustrative cases, critical appraisal of contemporary data, and conceptual and practical suggestions for clinicians that may help to improve the prognosis of patients with IE are provided in this review article.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572688

RESUMO

Blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) remains a diagnostic challenge. In our center, despite a systematic and exhaustive microbiological diagnostics strategy, 22% of patients with BCNE remain without an identified etiology. In an effort to determine the relevance of using Western blot (WB) for the etiological diagnosis of BCNE in patients with early antibiotic use, we developed specific assays for the major infective endocarditis (IE) causative agents, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus gallolyticus. Our technique was effective to identify the antigenic profiles of the four tested agents, but cross-reactions with S. aureus and S. anginosus antigens were frequent. A scoring method was developed for the diagnosis of E. faecalis and S. gallolyticus IE using the presence of reactivity to at least two antigenic bands for each bacterium and the positivity to at least one of the Ef300, Ef72, or Ef36 proteic bands for E. faecalis, and positivity for the two Sg75 and Sg97 proteic bands for S. gallolyticus. We tested these diagnostic criteria in a prospective cohort of 363 patients with suspected IE. Immunoblotting for the diagnosis of E. faecalis IE showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99%. The positive and negative predictive values were 73 and 100%, respectively. Regarding S. gallolyticus infection, immunoblot had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95%. However, the positive predictive value was 22%, whereas the predictive negative value was 100%. Using WB, we identified a potential etiological agent in 4 of 14 BCNE cases with no identified pathogen. In conclusion, WB constitutes a promising and helpful method to diagnose E. faecalis or S. gallolyticus IE in patients with early antibiotic uptake and negative blood cultures.

11.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(10): 1075-1093, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504368

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by the presence of left ventricular or biventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease sufficient to explain these changes. This is a heterogeneous disease frequently having a genetic background. Imaging is important for the diagnosis, the prognostic assessment and for guiding therapy. A multimodality imaging approach provides a comprehensive evaluation of all the issues related to this disease. The present document aims to provide recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging according to the clinical question. Selection of one or another imaging technique should be based on the clinical condition and context. Techniques are presented with the aim to underscore what is 'clinically relevant' and what are the tools that 'can be used'. There remain some gaps in evidence on the impact of multimodality imaging on the management and the treatment of DCM patients where ongoing research is important.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(39): 3222-3232, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504413

RESUMO

AIMS: The EURO-ENDO registry aimed to study the management and outcomes of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort of 3116 adult patients (2470 from Europe, 646 from non-ESC countries), admitted to 156 hospitals in 40 countries between January 2016 and March 2018 with a diagnosis of IE based on ESC 2015 diagnostic criteria. Clinical, biological, microbiological, and imaging [echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) scan, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT)] data were collected. Infective endocarditis was native (NVE) in 1764 (56.6%) patients, prosthetic (PVIE) in 939 (30.1%), and device-related (CDRIE) in 308 (9.9%). Infective endocarditis was community-acquired in 2046 (65.66%) patients. Microorganisms involved were staphylococci in 1085 (44.1%) patients, oral streptococci in 304 (12.3%), enterococci in 390 (15.8%), and Streptococcus gallolyticus in 162 (6.6%). 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed in 518 (16.6%) patients and presented with cardiac uptake (major criterion) in 222 (42.9%) patients, with a better sensitivity in PVIE (66.8%) than in NVE (28.0%) and CDRIE (16.3%). Embolic events occurred in 20.6% of patients, and were significantly associated with tricuspid or pulmonary IE, presence of a vegetation and Staphylococcus aureus IE. According to ESC guidelines, cardiac surgery was indicated in 2160 (69.3%) patients, but finally performed in only 1596 (73.9%) of them. In-hospital death occurred in 532 (17.1%) patients and was more frequent in PVIE. Independent predictors of mortality were Charlson index, creatinine > 2 mg/dL, congestive heart failure, vegetation length > 10 mm, cerebral complications, abscess, and failure to undertake surgery when indicated. CONCLUSION: Infective endocarditis is still a life-threatening disease with frequent lethal outcome despite profound changes in its clinical, microbiological, imaging, and therapeutic profiles.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(12): 1619-1627, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476260

RESUMO

AIMS: The MITRA-FR trial showed that among symptomatic patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, percutaneous repair did not reduce the risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months compared with guideline-directed medical treatment alone. We report the 24-month outcome from this trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: At 37 centres, we randomly assigned 304 symptomatic heart failure patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice area >20 mm2 or regurgitant volume >30 mL), and left ventricular ejection fraction between 15% and 40% to undergo percutaneous valve repair plus medical treatment (intervention group, n = 152) or medical treatment alone (control group, n = 152). The primary efficacy outcome was the composite of all-cause death and unplanned hospitalization for heart failure at 12 months. At 24 months, all-cause death and unplanned hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 63.8% of patients (97/152) in the intervention group and 67.1% (102/152) in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.34]. All-cause mortality occurred in 34.9% of patients (53/152) in the intervention group and 34.2% (52/152) in the control group (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.70-1.50). Unplanned hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 55.9% of patients (85/152) in the intervention group and 61.8% (94/152) in the control group (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.72-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe secondary mitral regurgitation, percutaneous repair added to medical treatment did not significantly reduce the risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure at 2 years compared with medical treatment alone.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(8): 1031-1040, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is commonly used for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE), but its prognostic value remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and native valve endocarditis (NVE). METHODS: This study prospectively included 173 consecutive patients (109 PVE and 64 NVE) with definite left-sided IE who had an 18F-FDG PET/CT and were followed-up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was a composite of major cardiac events: death, recurrence of IE, acute cardiac failure, nonscheduled hospitalization for cardiovascular indication, and new embolic event. RESULTS: 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 100 (58%) patients, 83% (n = 90 of 109) in the PVE, and 16% (n = 10 of 64) in the NVE group. At a mean follow-up of 225 days (interquartile range: 199 to 251 days), the primary endpoint occurred in 94 (54%) patients: 63 (58%) in the PVE group and 31 (48%) in the NVE group. In the PVE group, positive 18F-FDG PET/CT was significantly associated with a higher rate of primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 6.7; p = 0.04). Moderate to intense 18F-FDG valvular uptake was also associated with worse outcome (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.5; p = 0.03) and to new embolic events in PVE (HR: 7.5; 95% CI: 1.24 to 45.2; p = 0.03) and in NVE (HR: 8.8; 95% CI: 1.1 to 69.5; p = 0.02). In the NVE group, 18F-FDG PET/CT was not associated with occurrence of the primary endpoint CONCLUSIONS: In addition to its good diagnostic performance, 18F-FDG PET/CT is predictive of major cardiac events in PVE and new embolic events within the first year following IE.

15.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(8-9): 532-542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs), recent trials and meta-analyses have shown that transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces stroke recurrence risk in young and middle-aged adults with an otherwise unexplained PFO-associated ischaemic stroke. AIM: To produce an expert consensus on the role of transcatheter PFO closure and antithrombotic drugs for secondary stroke prevention in patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke. METHODS: Five neurologists and five cardiologists with extensive experience in the relevant field were nominated by the French Neurovascular Society and the French Society of Cardiology to make recommendations based on evidence from RCTs and meta-analyses. RESULTS: The experts recommend that any decision concerning treatment of patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke should be taken after neurological and cardiological evaluation, bringing together the necessary neurovascular, echocardiography and interventional cardiology expertise. Transcatheter PFO closure is recommended in patients fulfilling all the following criteria: age 16-60 years; recent (≤6 months) ischaemic stroke; PFO associated with atrial septal aneurysm (>10mm) or with a right-to-left shunt>20 microbubbles or with a diameter≥2mm; PFO felt to be the most likely cause of stroke after thorough aetiological evaluation by a stroke specialist. Long-term oral anticoagulation may be considered in the event of contraindication to or patient refusal of PFO closure, in the absence of a high bleeding risk. After PFO closure, dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin (75mg/day) and clopidogrel (75mg/day) is recommended for 3 months, followed by monotherapy with aspirin or clopidogrel for≥5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Although a big step forward that will benefit many patients has been taken with recent trials, many questions remain unanswered. Pending results from further studies, decision-making regarding management of patients with PFO-associated ischaemic stroke should be based on a close coordination between neurologists/stroke specialists and cardiologists.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Cardíaco/normas , Cardiologia/normas , Forame Oval Patente/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Consenso , Feminino , Forame Oval Patente/diagnóstico , Forame Oval Patente/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cardiology ; 143(1): 52-61, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Left ventricular (LV) mechanics are impaired in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a widespread technique for patients with severe AS considered inoperable or high risk for open surgery. This procedure could have a positive impact in LV mechanics. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of TAVR on LV function recovery, as assessed by myocardial deformation parameters, both immediately and in the long term. METHODS: One-hundred nineteen consecutive patients (81.2 ± 6.9 years, 50.4% female) from 10 centres in Europe with severe AS who successfully underwent TAVR with either a self-expanding CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) or a mechanically expanded Lotus valve (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) were enrolled in a prospective observational study. A complete echocardiographic examination was performed prior to device implantation, before discharge and 1 year after the procedure, including the assessment of LV strain using standard 2D images. RESULTS: Between baseline and discharge, only a modest but statistically significant improvement in GLS (global longitudinal strain) could be seen (GLS% -14.6 ± 5.0 at baseline; -15.7 ± 5.1 at discharge, p = 0.0116), although restricted to patients in the CoreValve group; 1 year after the procedure, a greater improvement in GLS was observed (GLS% -17.1 ± 4.9, p < 0.001), both in the CoreValve and the Lotus groups. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate and sustained improvement in GLS was appreciated after the TAVR procedure. Whether this finding continues to be noted in a more prolonged follow-up and its clinical implications need to be assessed in further studies.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
17.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(2): 143-148, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rate for Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis remains as high as 20-30% despite improvements in medical and surgical treatment. This study evaluated the efficiency and tolerance of a combination of intravenous trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin (T&C) +/- rifampicin and gentamicin, with a rapid switch to oral administration of T&C. METHODS: This before-after intervention study compared the outcomes of 170 control patients before introduction of the T&C protocol (2001-2011) with the outcomes of 171 patients in the T&C group (2012-2016). All patients diagnosed with S. aureus infective endocarditis and referred to the study centre between 2001 and 2016 were included. Between 2001 and 2011, the patients received a standardized antibiotic treatment: oxacillin or vancomycin for 6 weeks, plus gentamicin for 5 days. Since February 2012, the antibiotic protocol has included a high dose of T&C (intravenous, switched to oral administration on day 7). Rifampicin and gentamicin are also given in cases of cardiac abscess or persistent bacteraemia. RESULTS: The two groups were slightly different. On intention-to-treat analysis, global mortality (19% vs 30%, P=0.024), in-hospital mortality (10% vs 18%, P=0.03) and 30-day mortality (7% vs 14%, P=0.05) were lower in the T&C group. The mean duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the T&C group (30 vs 39 days; P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The management of S. aureus infective endocarditis using a rapid shift to oral administration of T&C reduced the length of hospital stay and the mortality rate.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Rifampina/administração & dosagem , Rifampina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 5(3): 202-207, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957862

RESUMO

AIMS: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) EURObservational Research Programme (EORP) European Endocarditis (EURO-ENDO) registry aims to study the care and outcomes of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) and compare findings with recommendations from the 2015 ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of IE and data from the 2001 Euro Heart Survey. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n = 3116) aged over 18 years with a diagnosis of IE based on the ESC 2015 IE diagnostic criteria were prospectively identified between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2018. Individual patient data were collected across 156 centres and 40 countries. The primary endpoint is all-cause mortality in hospital and at 1 year. Secondary endpoints are 1-year morbidity (all-cause hospitalization, any cardiac surgery, and IE relapse), the clinical, epidemiological, microbiological, and therapeutic characteristics of patients, the number and timing of non-invasive imaging techniques, and adherence to recommendations as stated in the 2015 ESC Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of IE. CONCLUSION: EURO-ENDO is an international registry of care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with IE which will provide insights into the contemporary profile and management of patients with this challenging disease.

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