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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

2.
Water Environ Res ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570384

RESUMO

In this current work, the performance of an aerobic granular sludge (AGS) for real textile wastewater was investigated based on system operational parameters evaluation. The study was performed for 90 days, and sampling was done once a week in which textile dyeing effluent from the textile mill was collected and subjected to laboratory-scale treatment. The samples from the inlet, the outlet of the wastewater plant, and within the bioreactor were collected at various concentrations of mixed liquid suspended solids (MLSS), and hydraulic retention remained the same in the investigated period of 53 h. The objective of this study was to analyze the AGS system performance assessment by evaluating the effect of different MLSS concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and oil/grease removal from real-based textile water. The results showed that removal of organic material from the process water increases with an increase in MLSS concentration in the bioreactor and gradually shifts removal of COD from 91.2% to 94.5%. As the concentration of microorganisms in the reactor (aeration tank) increases, the degradation of waste organics in the wastewater increases as well. Moreover, the % removal of TSS (83.5% to 98%) and removal of oil/grease (62.5% to 76.4%) were also increased. These results ultimately suggest that the utilization of an activated sludge system can effectively treat complex and highly polluted denim textile wastewater to avoid secondary pollution posed by this industry. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The effectiveness of aerobic granular sludge was investigated for industrial textile effluent. The increase in MLSS results in increase of % COD removal efficiency to 94.5%. The AGS system can efficiently treat complicated and highly contaminated textile wastewater.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161428

RESUMO

For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015005

RESUMO

A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for the matchsticks industry in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan to quantify environmental footprint, water footprint, cumulative energy use, and to identify improvement opportunities in the matchsticks manufacturing process. One carton of matchsticks was used as reference unit for this study. Foreground data was collected from the matchsticks industry through questionnaire surveys, personal meetings, and field measurements. The collected data was transformed into potential environmental impacts through the Centre for Environment Studies (CML) 2000 v.2.05 method present by default in the SimaPro v.9.1 software. Water footprint was calculated using methodology developed by Hoekstra et al., 2012 (water scarcity index) V1.02 and cumulative energy demand by SimaPro v.9.1 software. The results showed that transport of primary material (wood logs), sawn wood for matchsticks, red phosphorous, acrylic varnish, and kerosene fuel oil contributed to the overall environmental impacts. Transport of primary materials and sawn timber for matchsticks contributed significantly to abiotic depletion, global warming, eutrophication potential, ozone depletion, corrosion, human toxicity, and aquatic ecotoxicity effects. The total water footprint for manufacturing one carton of matchsticks was 0.265332 m3, whereas the total cumulative energy demand was 715.860 Mega Joules (MJ), mainly sourced from non-renewable fossil fuels (708.979 MJ). Scenario analysis was also conducted for 20% and 30% reduction in the primary material distance covered by trucks and revealed that reducing direct material transport distances could diminish environmental impacts and energy consumption. Therefore, environmental footprint could be minimized through diverting matchsticks industries freight from indigenous routes to high mobility highways and by promoting industrial forestry close to industrial zones in Pakistan. Many industries did not have emissions control systems, exceeding the permissible limit for emissions established by the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan. Thus, installation of emissions control system could also diminish emissions from match industry in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Combustíveis Fósseis , Indústrias/normas , Água/química , Eutrofização , Aquecimento Global , Humanos , Perda de Ozônio , Paquistão , Madeira/efeitos adversos
5.
Dose Response ; 19(1): 1559325821992239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628155

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are gaining popularity over synthetic medicines because antibiotic resistance demands the alternative source of medication. In the present research, the crude protein extraction of 4 medicinal plants Cassia fistula, Saccharum officinarum, Albizia lebbeck and Cymbopogon citrates was carried out. Crude protein extraction was done by 2 different buffers i.e. Tris NaCl buffer and PBS buffer. Protein confirmation was done by Bradford assay in the spectrophotometer. Antibacterial potential was checked and compared against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Bacillus cereus and Proteus mirabilis. Antibacterial assay was performed by disc diffusion method, agar well method and zones of inhibition were calculated. The study results indicated that Tris NaCl extracts' antimicrobial potential is higher than that of the PBS buffer. On disc diffusion method the Tris NaCl buffer extracts of Cymbopogon citrates showed maximum zone of inhibition 11 mm and 9 mm against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus respectively and control chloramphenicol showed maximum zone of inhibition 26 mm against Bacillus subtilis. Cassia fistula showed maximum zone of inhibition of 7 mm against Bacillus cereus while Saccharum officinarum and Albizia lebbeck didn't show the any antibacterial activity. On the other hand, Protein extracts from PBS buffer didn't show zone of inhibition against any bacteria. Only Albizia lebbeck showed minute zone of inhibition against Neisseria gonorrhea. On well diffusion method, Cassia fistula Tris NaCl protein extract showed the maximum zone of inhibition 20 mm and 18 mm against Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis respectively. While Albizia lebbeck PBS protein extract showed the maximum zone of inhibition 19 mm and 17 mm against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The results revealed that the protein extract of Albizia lebbeck, Cymbopogon citrates and Cassia fistula can be used tosynthesize antimicrobial drugs to treat the bacterial infections.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245279, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450743

RESUMO

Northern red muntjac (Muntiacus vaginalis; "barking deer") is a shy and small-sized cervid mammal, limited to the outer Himalayan foothill forests in Pakistan. Habitat characteristics were measured by locating direct and indirect signs. To quantify habitat utilization of barking deer, 80 field surveys were conducted in the study area along transects. 1200 Quadrats at 50 m intervals were deployed along these transect lines to determine microhabitat factors associated with seasonal distribution. The food composition of the barking deer was determined through fecal droppings analysis by micro-histological technique. Forty-five fecal samples of barking deer were collected from the study area (Murree-Kotli Sattian-Kahuta National Pak); summer (28) and winter (17). The micro-histological analysis revealed that more plant species are available in its habitat during the summer season (27) as compared to winter (19). Due to browsing nature barking deer mostly feed on trees in both seasons. While shrubs are slightly higher in winters. In summer barking deer consumed 10 Trees, 6 Shrubs, 5 Herbs, and 6 kinds of grass species. Dominant tree species were Phyllanthus emblica and Acacia modesta. Dominant shrub species were Ziziphus nummularia and Justicia adhatoda. In winter barking deer consumed 8 Trees, 7 Shrubs, 3 Herbs, and 1 Grass. Dominant tree species were Bauhinia variegata and Acacia modesta while shrubs included Ziziphus nummularia and Carissa opaca.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ecossistema , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Cervo Muntjac , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(5(Supplementary)): 2355-2360, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832912

RESUMO

To determine the prevalence of prenatal depression and explore its association with socio-demographic risk factors, stressful life events and women autonomy/decision-making. The recognition of these problems would play a substantial role in the strategic development of interventions for those Pakistani women who have been suffering from prenatal depression. Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Allied hospital Faisalabad during a period of 18 months (1st Jan 2019 to 30 June 2020). Data was collected by using simple random sampling technique. EPDS was used to measure prenatal depression. A modified kuppuswamy scale, Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) and women autonomy/decision making scale was used to assess the risk factors. A total of 380 women were included in the study. The mean age (in years) ± SD was 29.37±5.27. According to cut-off score >10 on Edinburg postnatal depression scale the prevalence of depression was found as 51.6%. The findings revealed that women education, socio-economic class, BMI, pregnancy duration, history of miscarriage, contraception, stressful life events and women autonomy had significant association with prenatal depression (P<0.05). Socio-demographic factors, stressful life events in previous life and women autonomy are significant predictors of prenatal depression that need to be addressed in order to sustain safe motherhood.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Materna , Saúde Mental , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(5): 5111-5121, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607836

RESUMO

A pot experiment was performed to examine the role of foliar applied mannitol (M) in chromium (Cr) stress alleviation in different maize cultivars. Two maize cultivars, one tolerant (6103) and one sensitive (9108) to chromium stress, were grown in soil treated with three concentrations of Cr (0, 5, and 10 mg kg-1) and three levels of mannitol (0, 50, and 100 mg L-1). Chromium stress decreased the overall growth of plants by reducing the plant height, root/shoot dry weight, chlorophyll contents, and enzymatic activities, while exacerbated the severity of reactive oxygen species in both maize cultivars. Chromium-induced reduction in growth attributes of maize plants was relatively higher in sensitive cultivar than that of tolerant one. Uptake of Cr by the plants and its translocation from roots to shoots increased with increasing concentration in the soil. However, foliar application of mannitol significantly alleviated the Cr stress and improved growth, biomass, and photosynthetic pigments of maize plants. Mannitol also considerably reduced Cr contents in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Hence, it is concluded that mannitol can be helpful for crops grown on heavy metal, especially Cr, contaminated soils for remediation purpose.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Manitol/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Manitol/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(6 (Supplementary): 2733-2736, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587487

RESUMO

An antifungal compound 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene - 2 - carboxylic acid was isolated from a marine derived bacterium Pseudomonas putida isolated from surface water samples of Karachi fish harbor coast line. The structure was explored using extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The compound was found to be active against fungal strains obtained from clinical samples whereas strong activity was noted against Candida albicans with a MIC value of 20µg/ml, as the purified compound showed promising anticandidal activity a multidisciplinary approach is needed to explore further this compound as potential pharmacological lead compound against Candida spp and will add in the global hunt for clinically functional antifungal agents.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Pseudomonas putida , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas putida/isolamento & purificação
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 6147380, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568759

RESUMO

The use of microbial technologies in agriculture is currently expanding quite rapidly with the identification of new bacterial strains, which are more effective in promoting plant growth. In the present study 18 strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from soil sample of Balochistan coastline. Among isolated Pseudomonas strains four designated as SP19, SP22, PS24, and SP25 exhibited biocontrol activities against phytopathogenic fungi, that is, Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, and Penicillium digitatum; PS24 identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa by 16srRNA gene bank accession number EU081518 was selected on the basis of its antifungal activity to explore its potential as plant growth promotion. PS24 showed multiple plant growth promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and HCN production. In order to determine the basis for antifungal properties, antibiotics were extracted from King B broth of PS24 and analyzed by TLC. Pyrrolnitrin antibiotic was detected in the culture of strain PS24. PS24 exhibited antifungal activities found to be positive for hydrogen cyanide synthase Hcn BC gene. Sequencing of gene of Hcn BC gene of strain PS24 revealed 99% homology with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA01. The sequence of PS24 had been submitted in gene bank accession number KR605499. Ps. aeruginosa PS24 with its multifunctional biocontrol possessions can be used to bioprotect the crop plants from phytopathogens.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol ; 7(1): 28-33, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Teachers' perspectives on eye health can be limited, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess teachers' knowledge and practices associated with eye health of primary students in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of primary school teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 443 participants from 34 private and 17 public schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Teachers' knowledge ranged from "high" (35.89%), "moderate" (49.89%), and "low" (14.22%). Teachers' practices associated with students' eye health ranged from "high" (10.16%), "moderate" (23.02%), and "low" (66.82%). The teachers' knowledge index scores increased 4.28 points with successive age groups and increased 2.41 points with each successive level of education. For teachers whose close relatives experienced eye disease, their knowledge index score was 4.51 points higher than those teachers whose relatives never had any eye disease. Teachers' age, education level, and their close relatives experiencing eye disease were significant predictors of their knowledge (R2 = 0.087, P < 0.001). Female teachers' practices index score was 10.35 points higher than the male teachers and public school teachers had 10.13 points higher than the private school teachers. Teachers' gender and type of school were significant predictors of their practices (R2 = 0.06, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant gap among primary school teachers' knowledge and practices related to students' eye health. Innovative strategies are needed to improve how teachers address students' eye health issues in the classroom.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(2): 1534-44, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25163559

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland's nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 µM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/farmacocinética , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Análise de Variância , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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