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1.
Br J Cancer ; 124(9): 1556-1565, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is known as a tumour-specific personalised biomarker, but the mutation-selection criteria from heterogeneous tumours remain a challenge. METHODS: We conducted multiregional sequencing of 42 specimens from 14 colorectal tumours of 12 patients, including two double-cancer cases, to identify mutational heterogeneity to develop personalised ctDNA assays using 175 plasma samples. RESULTS: "Founder" mutations, defined as a mutation that is present in all regions of the tumour in a binary manner (i.e., present or absent), were identified in 12/14 tumours. In contrast, "truncal" mutations, which are the first mutation that occurs prior to the divergence of branches in the phylogenetic tree using variant allele frequency (VAF) as continuous variables, were identified in 12/14 tumours. Two tumours without founder and truncal mutations were hypermutators. Most founder and truncal mutations exhibited higher VAFs than "non-founder" and "branch" mutations, resulting in a high chance to be detected in ctDNA. In post-operative long-term observation for 10/12 patients, early relapse prediction, treatment efficacy and non-relapse corroboration were achievable from frequent ctDNA monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: A single biopsy is sufficient to develop custom dPCR probes for monitoring tumour burden in most CRC patients. However, it may not be effective for those with hypermutated tumours.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3769, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580176

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) in leukocytes has attracted much attention as an emerging biomarker of aging and aging-related diseases. We evaluated the usefulness of saliva for mLOY analysis and showed that saliva-derived mLOY is significantly associated with aging and increased physical activity, but not with smoking. While these data support the robust association between saliva-derived mLOY and aging, caution is required when comparing data from saliva-derived and blood-derived mLOY.

3.
Cancer Sci ; 112(4): 1579-1588, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506574

RESUMO

Traditional observational studies have reported a positive association between higher body mass index (BMI) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from other approaches to pursue the causal relationship between BMI and CRC is sparse. A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was undertaken using 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Japanese genome-wide association study (GWAS) and 654 SNPs from the GWAS catalogue for BMI as sets of instrumental variables. For the analysis of SNP-BMI associations, we undertook a meta-analysis with 36 303 participants in the Japanese Consortium of Genetic Epidemiology studies (J-CGE), comprising normal populations. For the analysis of SNP-CRC associations, we utilized 7636 CRC cases and 37 141 controls from five studies in Japan, and undertook a meta-analysis. Mendelian randomization analysis of inverse-variance weighted method indicated that a one-unit (kg/m2 ) increase in genetically predicted BMI was associated with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.20; P value <.001) for CRC using the set of 68 SNPs, and an odds ratio of 1.07 (1.03-1.11, 0.001) for CRC using the set of 654 SNPs. Sensitivity analyses robustly showed increased odds ratios for CRC for every one-unit increase in genetically predicted BMI. Our MR analyses strongly support the evidence that higher BMI influences the risk of CRC. Although Asians are generally leaner than Europeans and North Americans, avoiding higher BMI seems to be important for the prevention of CRC in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
4.
Pathol Int ; 71(2): 135-140, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333623

RESUMO

Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are promising biological resources for genetic research. Recent improvements in DNA extraction from FFPE samples allowed the use of these tissues for multiple sequencing methods. However, fundamental research addressing the application of FFPE-derived DNA for targeted-bisulfite sequencing (TB-seq) is lacking. Here, we evaluated the suitability of FFPE-derived DNA for TB-seq. We conducted TB-seq using FFPE-derived DNA and corresponding fresh frozen (FF) tissues of patients with kidney cancer and compared the quality of DNA, libraries, and TB-seq statistics between the two preservation methods. The approximately 600-bp average fragment size of the FFPE-derived DNA was significantly shorter than that of the FF-derived DNA. The sequencing libraries constructed using FFPE-derived DNA and the mapping ratio were approximately 10 times and 10% lower, respectively, than those constructed using FF-derived DNA. In the mapped data of FFPE-derived DNA, duplicated reads accounted for > 60% of the obtained sequence reads, with lower mean on-target coverage. Therefore, the standard TB-seq protocol is inadequate for obtaining high-quality data for epigenetic analysis from FFPE-derived DNA, and technical improvements are necessary for enabling the use of archived FFPE resources.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 329: 186-191, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is released into the bloodstream due to cardiomyocyte damage and is associated with a high CVD risk. This study aimed to investigate hs-cTnT-related genetic variation and to examine whether this is an associated risk factor for CVD in the Japanese general population. METHODS: This was a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on a cohort from the 2013 Tohoku Medical Megabank Project community study. The GWAS was performed using a HumanOmniExpressExome BeadChip array with 914,035 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The Framingham Risk Score and the Suita score were used to evaluate the future risk of CVD. RESULTS: The GWAS identified 10 loci reaching suggestive significance in the discovery cohort. A replication analysis confirmed that one of the 10 loci, rs7798496, is associated with elevated hs-cTnT levels. The combined P value in the discovery and replication cohorts for the association between the rs7798496 and hs-cTnT levels was 3.4 × 10-8, which indicates that the novel variant reached genome-wide significance. The rs7798496 loci was located at an intergenic region between the retinoblastoma gene product (RB)-associated Krüppell-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger, zinc finger protein 890, and pseudogene (ZNF890P). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of the rs7798496 T allele was strongly associated with a high risk for CVD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into a link between a novel genetic variant, T allele of rs7798269, and elevated hs-cTnT levels as a future risk for CVD in the general Japanese population.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16227, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004991

RESUMO

Liver tests (LT), especially to measure AST, ALT and GGT levels, are widely used to evaluate the risk of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). In this study, we investigated the potential genetic factors that modulate the association between LTs and alcohol consumption. We conducted a genome-wide interaction meta-analysis in 7856 Japanese subjects from Tohoku Medical Megabank Community-Based Cohort (TMM CommCohort) study recruited in 2013, and identified 2 loci (12q24 and 2p16) with genome-wide significance (P > 5 × 10-8). The significant variants in the 12q24 included rs671, a variant associated with alcohol intolerance and located at a coding exon of ALDH2. We found that the amount of alcohol consumption was associated with increased level AST/ALT ratio among the subjects with the rs671 GA genotype. The elevated AST/ALT ratio among subjects with moderate-to-high levels of drinking behavior and the rs671 GA genotype was due to decreased levels of ALT, which was not accompanied with significant differences in AST levels. Although the interaction effect was significant in both men and women, the effect was much larger in men. Our results suggest that the impact of alcohol consumption on LT varies according to the ALDH2 genotype, providing an insight for the accurate screening of ALD in drinkers with the rs671 GA genotype.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239966, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027286

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is released from tumor cells into blood in advanced cancer patients. Although gene mutations in individual tumors can be diverse and heterogenous, ctDNA has the potential to provide comprehensive biomarker information. Here, we performed multi-region sampling (three sites) per resected specimen from 10 gastric cancer patients followed by targeted sequencing and proteomic profiling using reverse-phase protein arrays. A total of 126 non-synonymous mutations were identified from 30 samples from 10 tumors. Of these, 16 (12.7%) were present in all three regions and were designated as founder mutations. Variant allele frequencies (VAFs) of founder mutations were significantly higher than those of non-founder mutations. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a good concordance between founder and truncal mutations, defined as mutations shared by all simulated clones at the trunk of the tumor phylogenetic tree. These findings led us to prioritize founder mutations for quantitative ctDNA monitoring by digital PCR with individually-designed primer/probe sets. In preoperative plasma, the average ctDNA VAF of founder mutations was significantly higher than that of non-founder mutations (p = 0.039). Proteomic heterogeneity was present across the tumor regions both within and between patients independent of mutational status. Our results suggest that, in practice, mutations having high VAF identified without multi-regional sequencing may be immediately useful for quantitative ctDNA monitoring but do not provide sufficient information to predict the proteomic composition of tumors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas , Carga Tumoral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteômica , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
8.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080986

RESUMO

Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported the association between genetic variants and the habitual consumption of foods and drinks; however, no association data are available regarding the consumption of black tea. The present study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with black tea consumption in 12,258 Japanese participants. Data on black tea consumption were collected by a self-administered questionnaire, and genotype data were obtained from a single nucleotide polymorphism array. In the discovery GWAS, two loci met suggestive significance (p < 1.0 × 10-6). Three genetic variants (rs2074356, rs144504271, and rs12231737) at 12q24 locus were also significantly associated with black tea consumption in the replication stage (p < 0.05) and during the meta-analysis (p < 5.0 × 10-8). The association of rs2074356 with black tea consumption was slightly attenuated by the additional adjustment for alcohol drinking frequency. In conclusion, genetic variants at the 12q24 locus were associated with black tea consumption in Japanese populations, and the association is at least partly mediated by alcohol drinking frequency.

9.
J Hum Genet ; 65(11): 939-947, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572145

RESUMO

The sweet taste preference of humans is an important adaptation to ensure the acquisition of carbohydrate nutrition; however, overconsumption of sweet foods can potentially lead to diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Although previous studies have suggested that interindividual variation of human sweet taste preference is heritable, genetic loci associated with the trait have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we genotyped 12,312 Japanese participants using the HumanCore-12+ Custom BeadChip or the HumanCore-24 Custom BeadChip microarrays. The sweet taste preference of the participants was surveyed via an internet-based questionnaire, resulting in a five-point scale of sweet taste preference. The genome-wide meta-analysis of the Japanese participants revealed a strong association between the 12q24 locus and sweet taste preference scale (P = 2.8 × 10-70). The lead variant rs671 is monoallelic in non-East Asian populations and is located in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene, encoding an enzyme involved in alcohol metabolism. The association between the minor allele of rs671 and sweet taste preference was attenuated by adjusting for alcohol drinking. The subgroup analysis showed that the effect of rs671 on sweet taste preference was greater in males than in females. In conclusion, we found an association between the 12q24 locus and sweet taste preference in the Japanese population, and showed that the adjustment for drinking habits attenuated the association. This novel genetic association may provide new clues to elucidate mechanisms determining sweet taste preferences.

10.
Stroke ; 51(3): 759-765, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000589

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of ischemic stroke (IS). We recently developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) for IS using case-control datasets from 4 large-scale observational studies conducted in Japan. Our objective in the present study was to confirm the association between the PRS and the risk of IS with data from an independent prospective cohort recruited from the general Japanese population. Methods- A total of 3038 subjects aged ≥40 years were followed up for 10 years (2002-2012). The genome-wide PRS was calculated using genotype data from >350 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The PRS levels were divided into quintiles. High and low genetic risk groups were defined as top 60% and bottom 40% of PRS, respectively. The hazard ratio (HR) for the development of IS was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results- During the follow-up period, 91 cases developed first-ever IS. The age- and sex-adjusted HR for IS increased with higher PRS levels (P for trend, 0.03). Subjects with the highest quintile level of PRS had a 2.44-fold (95% CI, 1.16-5.12) greater risk for IS than those with the lowest quintile level after adjusting for age and sex. A similar association was observed after adjusting for environmental risk factors (P for trend, 0.03). As compared with low genetic risk group, the age- and sex-adjusted HR in high genetic risk group was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.04-2.55), which was comparable to the HR of hypertension (HR, 1.41), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.72), and smoking (HR, 1.54). The age- and sex-adjusted HR increased with the number of environmental risk factors in both high and low genetic risk groups without significant interaction. Conclusions- A high genome-wide PRS was a significant risk factor for IS independent of environmental risk factors in a general Japanese population. This finding suggests that PRS may be useful to identify individuals at a high risk of IS.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
11.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

12.
Genes Nutr ; 14: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320941

RESUMO

Background: Japan is traditionally a country with one of the highest levels of fish consumption worldwide, although the westernization of the Japanese diet has resulted in the reduction of fish consumption. A recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on Western populations has identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with fish intake frequency. Here, we examined the genetic basis for fish intake frequency among Japanese individuals. Results: We conducted a meta-analysis of a GWAS including 12,603 Japanese individuals and identified a susceptibility locus for fish intake frequency at 12q24 (lead variant was rs11066015, P = 5.4 × 10-11). rs11066015 was in a strong linkage disequilibrium with rs671, a well-known SNP related to alcohol metabolism. When adjusted for alcohol drinking, the association between rs11066015 and fish intake frequency was substantially attenuated. Subgroup analysis revealed that the effect of the 12q24 variant on fish intake frequency was stronger in males than in females (P for interaction = 0.007) and stronger in the older subgroup than in the younger subgroup (P for interaction = 0.006). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the 12q24 locus is associated with fish intake frequency via alcohol drinking. This study can help contribute to personalized nutrition information, suggesting that fish intake should be promoted to consumers who have the rs11066015 minor allele, which is genetically linked to low fish intake frequency, especially in male and older individuals.

13.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 61, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on genetic effects of coffee consumption are scarce for Asian populations. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of habitual coffee consumption in Japan using a self-reporting online survey. RESULTS: Candidate genetic loci associated with habitual coffee consumption were searched within a discovery cohort (N = 6,264) and confirmed in a replication cohort (N = 5,975). Two loci achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10- 8) in a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts: an Asian population-specific 12q24 (rs79105258; P = 9.5 × 10- 15), which harbors CUX2, and 7p21 (rs10252701; P = 1.0 × 10- 14), in the upstream region of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene, involved in caffeine metabolism. Subgroup analysis revealed a stronger genetic effect of the 12q24 locus in males (P for interaction = 8.2 × 10- 5). Further, rs79105258 at the 12q24 locus exerted pleiotropic effects on body mass index (P = 3.5 × 10- 4) and serum triglyceride levels (P = 8.7 × 10- 3). CONCLUSIONS: Our results consolidate the association of habitual coffee consumption with the 12q24 and 7p21 loci. The different effects of the 12q24 locus between males and females are a novel finding that improves our understanding of genetic influences on habitual coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Café , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
14.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(6): 690-696, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272833

RESUMO

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γPGA) production by Bacillus subtilis is regulated by the quorum sensing system where DegQ transmits the cell density signal to a DNA-binding protein DegU. A mutation suppressing the γPGA-negative phenotype of degQ gene knock-out mutant (ΔdegQ) was identified through whole genome sequencing. The mutation conferred an amino acid substitution of Ser103 to phenylalanine (S103F) in yabJ that belongs to the highly conserved YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family. Genetic experiments including LacZ-fusion assay of γPGA synthetic operon confirmed that the suppressor mutation (yabJS103F) was responsible for the recovery of γPGA production. The yabJ itself was not essential for the γPGA production and the mutant allele enabled γPGA production of the ΔdegQ strain even in the presence of wild type yabJ. Thus, yabJS103F was a dominant positive allele. degU-lacZ fusion gene was hyper-expressed in cells carrying the yabJS103F, but disruption of yabJ did not affect the transcription level of the degU-lacZ. These observations suggested that YabJ acquired a function to stimulate expression of degU by the S103F mutation which is involved in the regulation of γPGA synthesis.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Óperon , Ácido Poliglutâmico/biossíntese , Percepção de Quorum , Supressão Genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
15.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Sono/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Café/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Autorrelato
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1908: 229-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649732

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a promising biomarker for cancer diagnosis. However, the system to detect gene mutations with very low frequencies from plasma remains to be established in terms of technical aspects of sequencing technologies and cost for universal use. One strategy is to employ a cancer sequencing panel to detect mutations in a primary tumor in a time- and cost-effective manner, and subsequently assess these mutations with a digital PCR technology from plasma ctDNA. This strategy enables the accurate detection of low frequency mutations (i.e., less than 1% allele frequency) from ctDNA, since both comprehensive coverage of genes and quantitative mutation detection with very low frequencies are required for cancer diagnosis from plasma samples. Here, we present a pipeline can be used to detect mutations from plasma ctDNA with very low allele frequencies using a next-generation sequencing technology for comprehensive coverage of primary tumors and droplet digital PCR for sensitive detection from plasma ctDNA.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
17.
J Biochem ; 165(2): 139-158, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452759

RESUMO

Personalized healthcare (PHC) based on an individual's genetic make-up is one of the most advanced, yet feasible, forms of medical care. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) Project aims to combine population genomics, medical genetics and prospective cohort studies to develop a critical infrastructure for the establishment of PHC. To date, a TMM CommCohort (adult general population) and a TMM BirThree Cohort (birth+three-generation families) have conducted recruitments and baseline surveys. Genome analyses as part of the TMM Project will aid in the development of a high-fidelity whole-genome Japanese reference panel, in designing custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays specific to Japanese, and in estimation of the biological significance of genetic variations through linked investigations of the cohorts. Whole-genome sequencing from >3,500 unrelated Japanese and establishment of a Japanese reference genome sequence from long-read data have been done. We next aim to obtain genotype data for all TMM cohort participants (>150,000) using our custom SNP arrays. These data will help identify disease-associated genomic signatures in the Japanese population, while genomic data from TMM BirThree Cohort participants will be used to improve the reference genome panel. Follow-up of the cohort participants will allow us to test the genetic markers and, consequently, contribute to the realization of PHC.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Genética Médica/tendências , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Padrões de Referência
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14162, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242241

RESUMO

Excessive sodium intake is a global risk factor for hypertension. Sodium effects on blood pressure vary from person to person; hence, high-risk group targeting based on personal genetic information can play a complementary role to ongoing population preventive approaches to reduce sodium consumption. To identify genetic factors that modulate sodium effects on blood pressure, we conducted a population-based genome-wide interaction analysis in 8,768 Japanese subjects, which was >3 times larger than a similar previous study. We tested 7,135,436 polymorphisms in the discovery cohort, and loci that met suggestive significance were further examined in an independent replication cohort. We found that an interaction between a novel 3'-BCL11B gene desert locus and daily sodium consumption was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure in both discovery and replication cohorts under the recessive model. Further statistical analysis of rs8022678, the sentinel variant of the 3'-BCL11B gene desert locus, showed that differences in mean systolic blood pressure between high and low sodium consumption subgroups were 5.9 mm Hg (P = 8.8 × 10-12) in rs8022678 A carriers and -0.3 mm Hg (P = 0.27) in rs8022678 A non-carriers, suggesting that the rs8022678 genotype can classify persons into sodium-sensitive (A carriers) and sodium-insensitive (A non-carriers) subgroups. Our results implied that rs8022678 A carriers may receive a greater benefit from sodium-lowering interventions than non-carriers.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12994, 2018 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158594

RESUMO

Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in understanding tumor heterogeneity and the process of tumor progression; however, the entire process of the transition of tumors from a benign to metastatic state remains poorly understood. In the present study, we performed a prospective cancer genome-sequencing analysis by employing an experimental carcinogenesis mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma to systematically understand the evolutionary process of tumors. We surgically collected a part of a lesion of each tumor and followed the progression of these tumors in vivo over time. Comparative time-series analysis of the genomes of tumors with different fates, i.e., those that eventually metastasized and regressed, suggested that these tumors acquired and inherited different mutations. These findings suggest that despite the occurrence of an intra-tumor selection event for malignant alteration during the transformation from early- to late-stage papilloma, the fate determination of tumors might be determined at an even earlier stage.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Genômica , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos Longitudinais , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(12): 2433-2441, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genomewide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage genomewide association study and candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about the type, frequency and duration of exercise. Participants with ≥4 MET·h·wk of leisure-time physical activity were defined as exhibiting leisure-time exercise behavior. Association testing using mixed linear regression models was performed on the discovery and replication samples, after which the results were combined in a meta-analysis. In addition, we tested six candidate genetic variants derived from previous genomewide association study. RESULTS: We found that one novel SNP (rs10252228) located in the intergenic region between NPSR1 and DPY19L1 was significantly associated with leisure-time exercise behavior in discovery samples. This association was also significant in replication samples (combined P value by meta-analysis = 2.2 × 10). Several SNP linked with rs10252228 were significantly associated with gene expression of DPY19L1 and DP19L2P1 in skeletal muscle, heart, whole blood, and the nervous system. Among the candidate SNP, rs12612420 in DNAPTP6 demonstrated nominal significance in discovery samples but not in replication samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic variant associated with regular leisure-time exercise behavior. Further functional studies are required to validate the role of these variants in exercise behavior.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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