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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696148

RESUMO

C-H/Et-Al exchange in zirconium-catalyzed reactions of saturated hydrocarbons and AlEt3 affords versatile organoaluminum compounds and ethane. The grafting of commercially available Zr(OtBu)4 on silica/alumina gives monopodal ≡SiO-Zr(OtBu)3 surface pre-catalyst sites that are activated in situ by ligand exchange with AlEt3. The catalytic C-H alumination of dodecane at 150 °C followed by quenching in air affords n-dodecanol as the major product, revealing selectivity for methyl group activation. Shorter hydrocarbon or alcohol products were not detected under these conditions. Catalytic reactions of cyclooctane and AlEt3, however, afford ring-opened products, indicating that C-C bond cleavage occurs readily in methyl group-free reactants. This selectivity for methyl group alumination enables the C-H alumination of polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, and poly-α-olefin oils without significant chain deconstruction. In addition, the smallest hydrocarbon, methane, undergoes selective mono-alumination under solvent-free catalytic conditions, providing a direct route to Al-Me species.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(12): 5323-5334, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195400

RESUMO

A catalytic architecture, comprising a mesoporous silica shell surrounding platinum nanoparticles (NPs) supported on a solid silica sphere (mSiO2/Pt-X/SiO2; X is the mean NP diameter), catalyzes hydrogenolysis of melt-phase polyethylene (PE) into a narrow C23-centered distribution of hydrocarbons in high yield using very low Pt loadings (∼10-5 g Pt/g PE). During catalysis, a polymer chain enters a pore and contacts a Pt NP where the C-C bond cleavage occurs and then the smaller fragment exits the pore. mSiO2/Pt/SiO2 resists sintering or leaching of Pt and provides high yields of liquids; however, many structural and chemical effects on catalysis are not yet resolved. Here, we report the effects of Pt NP size on activity and selectivity in PE hydrogenolysis. Time-dependent conversion and yields and a lumped kinetics model based on the competitive adsorption of long vs short chains reveal that the activity of catalytic material is highest with the smallest NPs, consistent with a structure-sensitive reaction. Remarkably, the three mSiO2/Pt-X/SiO2 catalysts give equivalent selectivity. We propose that mesoscale pores in the catalytic architecture template the C23-centered distribution, whereas the active Pt sites influence the carbon-carbon bond cleavage rate. This conclusion provides a framework for catalyst design by separating the C-C bond cleavage activity at catalytic sites from selectivity for chain lengths of the products influenced by the structure of the catalytic architecture. The increased activity, selectivity, efficiency, and lifetime obtained using this architecture highlight the benefits of localized and confined environments for isolated catalytic particles under condensed-phase reaction conditions.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Platina , Carbono/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Platina/química , Polienos , Dióxido de Silício/química
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(49): 58691-58700, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855362

RESUMO

An improved hydrothermal synthesis of shape-controlled, size-controlled 60 nm SrTiO3 nanocuboid (STO NC) supports, which facilitates the scalable creation of platinum nanoparticle catalysts supported on STO (Pt/STO) for the chemical conversion of waste polyolefins, is reported herein. This synthetic method (1) establishes that STO nucleation prior to the hydrothermal treatment favors nanocuboid formation, (2) produces STO NC supports with average sizes ranging from 25 to 80 nm with narrow size distributions, and (3) demonstrates how SrCO3 formation and variation in solution pH prevent the formation of STO NCs. The STO synthesis was scaled-up and conducted in a 4 L batch reactor, resulting in STO NCs of comparable size and morphology (m = 22.5 g, davg = 58.6 ± 16.2 nm) to those synthesized under standard hydrothermal conditions in a lab-scale 125 mL autoclave reactor. Size-controlled STO NCs, ranging in roughly 10 nm increments from 25 to 80 nm, were used to support Pt deposited through strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA), a practical and scalable solution-based method. Using SEA techniques and an STO support with an average size of 39.3 ± 6.3 nm, a Pt/STO catalyst with 3.6 wt % Pt was produced and used for high-density polyethylene hydrogenolysis under previously reported conditions (170 psi H2, 300 °C, 96 h; final product: Mw = 2400, D = 1.03). As a well-established model system for studying the behavior of heterogeneous catalysts and their supports, the Pt/STO system detailed in this work presents a unique opportunity to simultaneously convert waste plastic into commercially viable products while gaining insight into how scalable inorganic synthesis can support transformative manufacturing.

4.
ChemSusChem ; 14(19): 4181-4189, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038620

RESUMO

The energy efficiency, mechanical durability, and environmental compatibility of all moving machine components rely heavily on advanced lubricants for smooth and safe operation. Herein an alternative family of high-quality liquid (HQL) lubricants was derived by the catalytic conversion of pre- and post-consumer polyolefin waste. The plastic-derived lubricants performed comparably to synthetic base oils such as polyalphaolefins (PAOs), both with a wear scar volume (WSV) of 7.5×10-5  mm-3 . HQLs also performed superior to petroleum-based lubricants such as Group III mineral oil with a WSV of 1.7×10-4  mm-3 , showcasing a 44 % reduction in wear. Furthermore, a synergistic reduction in friction and wear was observed when combining the upcycled plastic lubricant with synthetic oils. Life cycle and techno-economic analyses also showed this process to be energetically efficient and economically feasible. This novel technology offers a cost-effective opportunity to reduce the harmful environmental impact of plastic waste on our planet and to save energy through reduction of friction and wear-related degradations in transportation applications akin to synthetic oils.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201702

RESUMO

Various metal oxide clusters upward of 8 atoms (Cu, Cd, Co, Fe, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sn, W, Zn, In, and Al) were incorporated into the pores of the metal-organic framework (MOF) NU-1000 via atomic layer deposition (ALD) and tested via high-throughput screening for catalytic isomerization and selective hydrogenation of propyne. Cu and Co were found to be the most active for propyne hydrogenation to propylene, and synergistic bimetallic combinations of Co and Zn, along with standalone Zn and Cd, were established as the most active for conversion to the isomerized product, propadiene. The combination of Co and Zn in NU-1000 diminished the propensity for full hydrogenation to propane as well as coking compared to its individual components. This study highlights the potential for high-throughput screening to survey monometallic and bimetallic cluster combinations that best affect the efficient transformation of small molecules, while discerning mechanistic differences in isomerization and hydrogenation by different metals.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 5(11): 1795-1803, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807681

RESUMO

Our civilization relies on synthetic polymers for all aspects of modern life; yet, inefficient recycling and extremely slow environmental degradation of plastics are causing increasing concern about their widespread use. After a single use, many of these materials are currently treated as waste, underutilizing their inherent chemical and energy value. In this study, energy-rich polyethylene (PE) macromolecules are catalytically transformed into value-added products by hydrogenolysis using well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on SrTiO3 perovskite nanocuboids by atomic layer deposition. Pt/SrTiO3 completely converts PE (M n = 8000-158,000 Da) or a single-use plastic bag (M n = 31,000 Da) into high-quality liquid products, such as lubricants and waxes, characterized by a narrow distribution of oligomeric chains, at 170 psi H2 and 300 °C under solvent-free conditions for reaction durations up to 96 h. The binding of PE onto the catalyst surface contributes to the number averaged molecular weight (M n) and the narrow polydispersity (D) of the final liquid product. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C-enriched PE adsorption studies and density functional theory computations suggest that PE adsorption is more favorable on Pt sites than that on the SrTiO3 support. Smaller Pt NPs with higher concentrations of undercoordinated Pt sites over-hydrogenolyzed PE to undesired light hydrocarbons.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 414-422, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537819

RESUMO

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 was performed in tandem with in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to monitor changes in the transient surface species across multiple ALD cycles. A self-assembled monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid was used as a capture agent to ensure that nucleation of the titanium precursor (titanium tetraisopropoxide [TTIP]) occurs. Comparisons between the Raman spectra of the neat precursor and the SER spectra of the first ALD cycle of TiO2 reveal typical ligand exchange chemistry taking place, with self-limiting behavior and intact isopropoxide ligands. However, subsequent cycles show drastically different chemistry, with no isopropoxide ligands remaining at any point during the second and third cycles. Continuous exposure of either TTIP or isopropyl alcohol after the first cycle shows unlimited chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-type growth. Comparisons with alternative precursors (aluminum isopropoxide, titanium tert-butoxide, and titanium propoxide) and DFT calculations reveal that, for the TTIP precursor, isolated TiO2 sites play a role in the dehydration of off-gassing isopropyl alcohol. The resulting propene then undergoes oligomerization into six-carbon olefins before polymerizing into indistinguishable carbon products that accumulate on the surface. The emergence of the dehydration chemistry is expected to be exclusively the result of these isolated TiO2 sites and, as such, is expected to occur on other surfaces where TiO2 ALD is feasible. This work showcases how seemingly innocuous ALD can evolve into a CVD process when the products can participate in various side reactions with newly made surface sites.

8.
Chem Soc Rev ; 46(13): 3886-3903, 2017 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640313

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has evolved into a cross-disciplinary analytical technique by unveiling relevant chemical, biological, material, and structural information. The focus of this review is on two critical properties for successfully expanding applications of SERS spectroscopy: quality of the plasmonic substrate and molecule localization to the substrate. In this review, we discuss recent work on quantifying SERS distance dependence, key factors for substrate characterization and performance evaluation, expansion of SERS applications through substrate development for UV plasmonics and short-distance capture strategies for optimizing analyte-surface structures. After surveying the recent developments of these seemingly disparate fields, we suggest new research directions that may originate from a synergistic blend of all the herein discussed topics. Finally, we discuss major challenges and open questions related to the application of SERS for understanding of chemical processes at the nanoscale, with special interest on in situ catalysts and biosensing.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(6): 2456-2463, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28135417

RESUMO

Operando surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was used to successfully identify hitherto unknown dimeric methylalumina surface species during atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a silver surface. Vibrational modes associated with the bridging moieties of both trimethylaluminum (TMA) and dimethylaluminum chloride (DMACl) surface species were found during ALD. The appropriate monomer vibrational modes were found to be absent as a result of the selective nature of SERS. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to locate and identify the expected vibrational modes. An operando localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrometer was utilized to account for changes in SER signal as a function of the number of ALD cycles. DMACl surface species were unable to be measured after multiple ALD cycles as a result of a loss in SERS enhancement and shift in LSPR. This work highlights how operando optical spectroscopy by SERS and LSPR scattering are useful for probing the identity and structure of the surface species involved in ALD and, ultimately, catalytic reactions on these support materials.

10.
Nano Lett ; 16(7): 4251-9, 2016 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243108

RESUMO

We present a high-resolution distance dependence study of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enabled by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 55 and 100 °C. ALD is used to deposit monolayers of Al2O3 on bare silver film over nanospheres (AgFONs) and AgFONs functionalized with self-assembled monolayers. Operando SERS is used to measure the intensities of the Al-CH3 and C-H stretches from trimethylaluminum (TMA) as a function of distance from the AgFON surface. This study clearly demonstrates that SERS on AgFON substrates displays both a short- and long-range nanometer scale distance dependence. Excellent agreement is obtained between these experiments and theory that incorporates both short-range and long-range terms. This is a high-resolution operando SERS distance dependence study performed in one integrated experiment using ALD Al2O3 as the spacer layer and Raman label simultaneously. The long-range SERS distance dependence should make it possible to detect chemisorbed surface species located as far as ∼3 nm from the AgFON substrate and will provide new insight into the surface chemistry of ALD and catalytic reactions.

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