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1.
Nature ; 591(7848): 37-39, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654298
2.
Kidney Int ; 99(3): 498-510, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637194

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common, heterogeneous, and morbid diseases. Mechanistic characterization of CKD and AKI in patients may facilitate a precision-medicine approach to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. The Kidney Precision Medicine Project aims to ethically and safely obtain kidney biopsies from participants with CKD or AKI, create a reference kidney atlas, and characterize disease subgroups to stratify patients based on molecular features of disease, clinical characteristics, and associated outcomes. An additional aim is to identify critical cells, pathways, and targets for novel therapies and preventive strategies. This project is a multicenter prospective cohort study of adults with CKD or AKI who undergo a protocol kidney biopsy for research purposes. This investigation focuses on kidney diseases that are most prevalent and therefore substantially burden the public health, including CKD attributed to diabetes or hypertension and AKI attributed to ischemic and toxic injuries. Reference kidney tissues (for example, living-donor kidney biopsies) will also be evaluated. Traditional and digital pathology will be combined with transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analysis of the kidney tissue as well as deep clinical phenotyping for supervised and unsupervised subgroup analysis and systems biology analysis. Participants will be followed prospectively for 10 years to ascertain clinical outcomes. Cell types, locations, and functions will be characterized in health and disease in an open, searchable, online kidney tissue atlas. All data from the Kidney Precision Medicine Project will be made readily available for broad use by scientists, clinicians, and patients.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(581)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597266

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), can deliver durable antitumor effects, most patients with cancer fail to respond. Recent studies suggest that ICI efficacy correlates with a higher load of tumor-specific neoantigens and development of vitiligo in patients with melanoma. Here, we report that patients with low melanoma neoantigen burdens who responded to ICI had tumors with higher expression of pigmentation-related genes. Moreover, expansion of peripheral blood CD8+ T cell populations specific for melanocyte antigens was observed only in patients who responded to anti-PD-1 therapy, suggesting that ICI can promote breakdown of tolerance toward tumor-lineage self-antigens. In a mouse model of poorly immunogenic melanomas, spreading of epitope recognition toward wild-type melanocyte antigens was associated with markedly improved anti-PD-1 efficacy in two independent approaches: introduction of neoantigens by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation mutagenesis or the therapeutic combination of ablative fractional photothermolysis plus imiquimod. Complete responses against UV mutation-bearing tumors after anti-PD-1 resulted in protection from subsequent engraftment of melanomas lacking any shared neoantigens, as well as pancreatic adenocarcinomas forcibly overexpressing melanocyte-lineage antigens. Our data demonstrate that somatic mutations are sufficient to provoke strong antitumor responses after checkpoint blockade, but long-term responses are not restricted to these putative neoantigens. Epitope spreading toward T cell recognition of wild-type tumor-lineage self-antigens represents a common pathway for successful response to ICI, which can be evoked in neoantigen-deficient tumors by combination therapy with ablative fractional photothermolysis and imiquimod.

4.
Nat Metab ; 3(2): 182-195, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619381

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains among the most aggressive human cancers. Tumour progression and aggressiveness in SCC are largely driven by tumour-propagating cells (TPCs). Aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect, is a characteristic of many cancers; however, whether this adaptation is functionally important in SCC, and at which stage, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase sirtuin 6 is a robust tumour suppressor in SCC, acting as a modulator of glycolysis in these tumours. Remarkably, rather than a late adaptation, we find enhanced glycolysis specifically in TPCs. More importantly, using single-cell RNA sequencing of TPCs, we identify a subset of TPCs with higher glycolysis and enhanced pentose phosphate pathway and glutathione metabolism, characteristics that are strongly associated with a better antioxidant response. Together, our studies uncover enhanced glycolysis as a main driver in SCC, and, more importantly, identify a subset of TPCs as the cell of origin for the Warburg effect, defining metabolism as a key feature of intra-tumour heterogeneity.

5.
Nat Med ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479501

RESUMO

Personal neoantigen vaccines have been envisioned as an effective approach to induce, amplify and diversify antitumor T cell responses. To define the long-term effects of such a vaccine, we evaluated the clinical outcome and circulating immune responses of eight patients with surgically resected stage IIIB/C or IVM1a/b melanoma, at a median of almost 4 years after treatment with NeoVax, a long-peptide vaccine targeting up to 20 personal neoantigens per patient ( NCT01970358 ). All patients were alive and six were without evidence of active disease. We observed long-term persistence of neoantigen-specific T cell responses following vaccination, with ex vivo detection of neoantigen-specific T cells exhibiting a memory phenotype. We also found diversification of neoantigen-specific T cell clones over time, with emergence of multiple T cell receptor clonotypes exhibiting distinct functional avidities. Furthermore, we detected evidence of tumor infiltration by neoantigen-specific T cell clones after vaccination and epitope spreading, suggesting on-target vaccine-induced tumor cell killing. Personal neoantigen peptide vaccines thus induce T cell responses that persist over years and broaden the spectrum of tumor-specific cytotoxicity in patients with melanoma.

6.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(12): 1465-1469, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262163

RESUMO

Personal neoantigen-based cancer vaccines are designed to target antigens arising from tumor-specific mutations within individual cancers and present a tremendous opportunity to capitalize on their favorable and intrinsic properties of escape from central tolerance and exquisite tumor specificity. With the endpoint of creating an optimal T-cell army to attack a tumor, neoantigen-based vaccines have demonstrated the ability to coax naïve T-cell recruits against epitopes that do not induce spontaneous immunity to raise long-lasting T-cell responses against multiple tumor-specific epitopes and subsequently to extend the breadth of responses, as immunity begets immunity via epitope spreading. Importantly, on both preclinical and clinical fronts, the association of T-cell responses to neoantigens and favorable outcomes has been demonstrated time and time again. We recognize, however, that the path forward remains long and winding and requires the field to address several key challenges, particularly overcoming evolved tumor escape mechanisms and optimizing vaccine-induced immunity. Some challenges stem from gaps in science that enable in silico prediction of antigen presentation and recognition by T-cell receptors, whereas others stem from the logistical obstacles and cost of personalization. Nevertheless, with perseverance and innovative solutions, we have little doubt that the ability of neoantigen vaccination to induce potent cancer-specific T cells will fundamentally succeed in enabling greater effectiveness of a broad array of immunotherapies. We provide our perspective on the progress and the remaining challenges to realizing the opportunity of personal neoantigen cancer vaccines.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6319, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298930

RESUMO

The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary infection and severity of disease is not fully understood. Here we show analysis of autopsy specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection using a combination of different RNA and protein analytical platforms to characterize inter-patient and intra-patient heterogeneity of pulmonary virus infection. There is a spectrum of high and low virus cases associated with duration of disease. High viral cases have high activation of interferon pathway genes and a predominant M1-like macrophage infiltrate. Low viral cases are more heterogeneous likely reflecting inherent patient differences in the evolution of host response, but there is consistent indication of pulmonary epithelial cell recovery based on napsin A immunohistochemistry and RNA expression of surfactant and mucin genes. Using a digital spatial profiling platform, we find the virus corresponds to distinct spatial expression of interferon response genes demonstrating the intra-pulmonary heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

8.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203734

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed by cancer into the bloodstream, where a viable subset overcomes oxidative stress to initiate metastasis. We show that single CTCs from melanoma patients coordinately upregulate lipogenesis and iron homeostasis pathways. These are correlated with both intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors across clonal cultures of BRAF-mutant CTCs. The lipogenesis regulator SREBF2 directly induces transcription of the iron carrier Transferrin (TF), reducing intracellular iron pools, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, thereby conferring resistance to inducers of ferroptosis. Knockdown of endogenous TF impairs tumor formation by melanoma CTCs, and their tumorigenic defects are partially rescued by the lipophilic anti-oxidants Ferrostatin-1 and Vitamin E. In a prospective melanoma cohort, presence of CTCs with high lipogenic and iron metabolic RNA signatures is correlated with adverse clinical outcome, irrespective of treatment regimen. Thus, SREBF2-driven iron homeostatic pathways contribute to cancer progression, drug resistance and metastasis.

9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140055

RESUMO

Antibody engineering technologies face increasing demands for speed, reliability and scale. We developed CeVICA, a cell-free antibody engineering platform that integrates a novel generation method and design for camelid heavy-chain antibody VHH domain-based synthetic libraries, optimized in vitro selection based on ribosome display and a computational pipeline for binder prediction based on CDR-directed clustering. We applied CeVICA to engineer antibodies against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and identified >800 predicted binder families. Among 14 experimentally-tested binders, 6 showed inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection. Antibody affinity maturation further increased binding affinity and potency of inhibition. Additionally, the unique capability of CeVICA for efficient and comprehensive binder prediction allowed retrospective validation of the fitness of our synthetic VHH library design and revealed direction for future refinement. CeVICA offers an integrated solution to rapid generation of divergent synthetic antibodies with tunable affinities in vitro and may serve as the basis for automated and highly parallel antibody generation.

10.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173871

RESUMO

COVID-19 has caused over 1 million deaths globally, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying severe disease remain poorly understood. By analyzing several thousand plasma proteins in 306 COVID-19 patients and 78 symptomatic controls over serial timepoints using two complementary approaches, we uncover COVID-19 host immune and non-immune proteins not previously linked to this disease. Integration of plasma proteomics with nine published scRNAseq datasets shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection upregulates monocyte/macrophage, plasmablast, and T cell effector proteins. By comparing patients who died to severely ill patients who survived, we identify dynamic immunomodulatory and tissue-associated proteins associated with survival, providing insights into which host responses are beneficial and which are detrimental to survival. We identify intracellular death signatures from specific tissues and cell types, and by associating these with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, we map tissue damage associated with severe disease and propose which damage results from direct viral infection rather than from indirect effects of illness. We find that disease severity in lung tissue is driven by myeloid cell phenotypes and cell-cell interactions with lung epithelial cells and T cells. Based on these results, we propose a model of immune and epithelial cell interactions that drive cell-type specific and tissue-specific damage in severe COVID-19.

11.
Cell ; 183(3): 818-834.e13, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038342

RESUMO

Many approaches to identify therapeutically relevant neoantigens couple tumor sequencing with bioinformatic algorithms and inferred rules of tumor epitope immunogenicity. However, there are no reference data to compare these approaches, and the parameters governing tumor epitope immunogenicity remain unclear. Here, we assembled a global consortium wherein each participant predicted immunogenic epitopes from shared tumor sequencing data. 608 epitopes were subsequently assessed for T cell binding in patient-matched samples. By integrating peptide features associated with presentation and recognition, we developed a model of tumor epitope immunogenicity that filtered out 98% of non-immunogenic peptides with a precision above 0.70. Pipelines prioritizing model features had superior performance, and pipeline alterations leveraging them improved prediction performance. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 310 epitopes prioritized from tumor sequencing data and assessed for T cell binding. This data resource enables identification of parameters underlying effective anti-tumor immunity and is available to the research community.

12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024965

RESUMO

T cell-mediated immunity may play a critical role in controlling and establishing protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection; yet the repertoire of viral epitopes responsible for T cell response activation remains mostly unknown. Identification of viral peptides presented on class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA-I) can reveal epitopes for recognition by cytotoxic T cells and potential incorporation into vaccines. Here, we report the first HLA-I immunopeptidome of SARS-CoV-2 in two human cell lines at different times post-infection using mass spectrometry. We found HLA-I peptides derived not only from canonical ORFs, but also from internal out-of-frame ORFs in Spike and Nucleoprotein not captured by current vaccines. Proteomics analyses of infected cells revealed that SARS-CoV-2 may interfere with antigen processing and immune signaling pathways. Based on the endogenously processed and presented viral peptides that we identified, we estimate that a pool of 24 peptides would provide one or more peptides for presentation by at least one HLA allele in 99% of the human population. These biological insights and the list of naturally presented SARS-CoV-2 peptides will facilitate data-driven selection of peptides for immune monitoring and vaccine development.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional cytotoxic therapies increase the risk of clonal hematopoiesis and select for TP53-mutant clones, which carry a high risk for transformation to therapy-related myelodysplastic neoplasms. In contrast, the effect of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) on clonal hematopoiesis is unknown. METHODS: Paired peripheral-blood samples taken before and after treatment with ICB were obtained for 91 patients with either cutaneous melanoma or basal cell carcinoma. Error-corrected sequencing of a targeted panel of genes recurrently mutated in clonal hematopoiesis was performed on peripheral-blood genomic DNA. RESULTS: The average interval between acquisition of the paired samples was 180 days. Forty-one percent of the patients had clonal hematopoiesis at a variant allele frequency (VAF) > 0.01 in the pretreatment sample. There was near-complete agreement in the distribution and burden of clonal hematopoiesis mutations in the paired blood samples, with 87 of 88 mutations identified across the cohort present in paired samples, regardless of the duration between sample collection. The VAF in the paired samples also showed a high correlation, with an R 2 = 0.95 (P < .0001). In contrast to cytotoxic therapy, exposure to ICB did not lead to selection of TP53- or PPM1D-mutant clones. However, consistent with the known effects of DNA-damaging therapy, we identified one patient who had eight unique TP53 mutations in the posttreatment blood sample after receiving two courses of radiation therapy. CONCLUSION: There was no expansion of hematopoietic clones or selection for clones at high risk for malignant transformation in patients who received ICB, observations that warrant further validation in larger cohorts. These findings highlight an important difference between ICB and conventional cytotoxic therapies and their respective impacts on premalignant genetic lesions.

14.
J Virol ; 94(22)2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878895

RESUMO

While hundreds of genes are induced by type I interferons, their roles in restricting the influenza virus life cycle remain mostly unknown. Using a loss-of-function CRISPR screen in cells prestimulated with interferon beta (IFN-ß), we identified a small number of factors required for restricting influenza A virus replication. In addition to known components of the interferon signaling pathway, we found that replication termination factor 2 (RTF2) restricts influenza virus at the nuclear stage (and perhaps other stages) of the viral life cycle, based on several lines of evidence. First, a deficiency in RTF2 leads to higher levels of viral primary transcription, even in the presence of cycloheximide to block genome replication and secondary transcription. Second, cells that lack RTF2 have enhanced activity of a viral reporter that depends solely on four viral proteins that carry out replication and transcription in the nucleus. Third, when the RTF2 protein is mislocalized outside the nucleus, it is not able to restrict replication. Finally, the absence of RTF2 leads not only to enhanced viral transcription but also to reduced expression of antiviral factors in response to interferon. RTF2 thus inhibits primary influenza virus transcription, likely acts in the nucleus, and contributes to the upregulation of antiviral effectors in response to type I interferons.IMPORTANCE Viral infection triggers the secretion of type I interferons, which in turn induce the expression of hundreds of antiviral genes. However, the roles of these induced genes in controlling viral infections remain largely unknown, limiting our ability to develop host-based antiviral therapeutics against pathogenic viruses, such as influenza virus. Here, we performed a loss-of-function genetic CRISPR screen in cells prestimulated with type I interferon to identify antiviral genes that restrict influenza A virus replication. Besides finding key components of the interferon signaling pathway, we discovered a new restriction factor, RTF2, which acts in the nucleus, restricts influenza virus transcription, and contributes to the interferon-induced upregulation of known restriction factors. Our work contributes to the field of antiviral immunology by discovering and characterizing a novel restriction factor of influenza virus and may ultimately be useful for understanding how to control a virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.

15.
Science ; 370(6520)2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994364

RESUMO

Understanding humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Deep serological profiling of 232 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 190 pre-COVID-19 era controls using VirScan revealed more than 800 epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, including 10 epitopes likely recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Preexisting antibodies in controls recognized SARS-CoV-2 ORF1, whereas only COVID-19 patient antibodies primarily recognized spike protein and nucleoprotein. A machine learning model trained on VirScan data predicted SARS-CoV-2 exposure history with 99% sensitivity and 98% specificity; a rapid Luminex-based diagnostic was developed from the most discriminatory SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Individuals with more severe COVID-19 exhibited stronger and broader SARS-CoV-2 responses, weaker antibody responses to prior infections, and higher incidence of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1, possibly influenced by demographic covariates. Among hospitalized patients, males produce stronger SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses than females.

16.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908980

RESUMO

A recent estimate suggests that one in five deaths globally are associated with sepsis 1 . To date, no targeted treatment is available for this syndrome, likely due to substantial patient heterogeneity 2,3 and our lack of insight into sepsis immunopathology 4 . These issues are highlighted by the current COVID-19 pandemic, wherein many clinical manifestations of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection parallel bacterial sepsis 5-8 . We previously reported an expanded CD14+ monocyte state, MS1, in patients with bacterial sepsis or non-infectious critical illness, and validated its expansion in sepsis across thousands of patients using public transcriptomic data 9 . Despite its marked expansion in the circulation of bacterial sepsis patients, its relevance to viral sepsis and association with disease outcomes have not been examined. In addition, the ontogeny and function of this monocyte state remain poorly characterized. Using public transcriptomic data, we show that the expression of the MS1 program is associated with sepsis mortality and is up-regulated in monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19. We found that blood plasma from bacterial sepsis or COVID-19 patients with severe disease induces emergency myelopoiesis and expression of the MS1 program, which are dependent on the cytokines IL-6 and IL-10. Finally, we demonstrate that MS1 cells are broadly immunosuppressive, similar to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and have decreased responsiveness to stimulation. Our findings highlight the utility of regulatory myeloid cells in sepsis prognosis, and the role of systemic cytokines in inducing emergency myelopoiesis during severe bacterial and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

17.
Cell ; 182(6): 1474-1489.e23, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841603

RESUMO

Widespread changes to DNA methylation and chromatin are well documented in cancer, but the fate of higher-order chromosomal structure remains obscure. Here we integrated topological maps for colon tumors and normal colons with epigenetic, transcriptional, and imaging data to characterize alterations to chromatin loops, topologically associated domains, and large-scale compartments. We found that spatial partitioning of the open and closed genome compartments is profoundly compromised in tumors. This reorganization is accompanied by compartment-specific hypomethylation and chromatin changes. Additionally, we identify a compartment at the interface between the canonical A and B compartments that is reorganized in tumors. Remarkably, similar shifts were evident in non-malignant cells that have accumulated excess divisions. Our analyses suggest that these topological changes repress stemness and invasion programs while inducing anti-tumor immunity genes and may therefore restrain malignant progression. Our findings call into question the conventional view that tumor-associated epigenomic alterations are primarily oncogenic.

18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788668

RESUMO

Natural mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations enable the inference of clonal relationships among cells. mtDNA can be profiled along with measures of cell state, but has not yet been combined with the massively parallel approaches needed to tackle the complexity of human tissue. Here, we introduce a high-throughput, droplet-based mitochondrial single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (scATAC-seq), a method that combines high-confidence mtDNA mutation calling in thousands of single cells with their concomitant high-quality accessible chromatin profile. This enables the inference of mtDNA heteroplasmy, clonal relationships, cell state and accessible chromatin variation in individual cells. We reveal single-cell variation in heteroplasmy of a pathologic mtDNA variant, which we associate with intra-individual chromatin variability and clonal evolution. We clonally trace thousands of cells from cancers, linking epigenomic variability to subclonal evolution, and infer cellular dynamics of differentiating hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our approach enables the study of cellular population dynamics and clonal properties in vivo.

19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766600

RESUMO

The relationship of SARS-CoV-2 lung infection and severity of pulmonary disease is not fully understood. We analyzed autopsy specimens from 24 patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection using a combination of different RNA and protein analytical platforms to characterize inter- and intra- patient heterogeneity of pulmonary virus infection. There was a spectrum of high and low virus cases that was associated with duration of disease and activation of interferon pathway genes. Using a digital spatial profiling platform, the virus corresponded to distinct spatial expression of interferon response genes and immune checkpoint genes demonstrating the intra-pulmonary heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

20.
Nat Methods ; 17(8): 793-798, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719530

RESUMO

Massively parallel single-cell and single-nucleus RNA sequencing has opened the way to systematic tissue atlases in health and disease, but as the scale of data generation is growing, so is the need for computational pipelines for scaled analysis. Here we developed Cumulus-a cloud-based framework for analyzing large-scale single-cell and single-nucleus RNA sequencing datasets. Cumulus combines the power of cloud computing with improvements in algorithm and implementation to achieve high scalability, low cost, user-friendliness and integrated support for a comprehensive set of features. We benchmark Cumulus on the Human Cell Atlas Census of Immune Cells dataset of bone marrow cells and show that it substantially improves efficiency over conventional frameworks, while maintaining or improving the quality of results, enabling large-scale studies.


Assuntos
Computação em Nuvem/economia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Biologia Computacional/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/economia
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