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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2580, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787975

RESUMO

The safe utilization of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derivatives in clinical use is attributed to the complete elimination of the risk of forming teratomas after transplantation. The extent by which such a risk exists in immune-competent hosts is mostly unknown. Here, using humanized mice reconstituted with fetal hematopoietic stem cells and autologous thymus tissue (bone-liver-thymus humanized mice [Hu-BLT]) or following the adoptive transfer of peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (Hu-AT), we evaluated the capacity of immune cells to prevent or eliminate teratomas derived from human iPSCs (hiPSCs). Our results showed that the injection of hiPSCs failed to form teratomas in Hu-AT mice reconstituted with allogeneic or autologous PBMCs or purified natural killer (NK) cells alone. However, teratomas were observed in Hu-AT mice reconstituted with autologous PBMCs depleted from NK cells. In line with these results, Hu-BLT, which do not have functional NK cells, could not prevent the growth of teratomas. Finally, we found that established teratomas were not targeted by NK cells and instead were efficiently rejected by allogeneic but not autologous T cells in Hu-AT mice. Overall, our findings suggest that autologous hiPSC-derived therapies are unlikely to form teratomas in the presence of NK cells.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18366, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797897

RESUMO

The Caprini and Padua venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment models (RAMs) are used to assess VTE risk in surgical and in medical patients respectively. This study aims to compare the proportion of medical inpatients eligible for VTE prophylaxis using the hospital Caprini-based RAM to using the Caprini and Padua RAMs and to assess the associated clinical outcomes. In a prospective observational study, we assessed 297 adult medical inpatients for whom VTE thromboprophylaxis was initiated according to the hospital Caprini-based RAM, referred to as the Lebanese American University Medical Center RAM (LAUMC-RAM). The Padua, Caprini and IMPROVE bleeding risk scores were also assessed for all patients. Bleeding and thromboembolism were evaluated at 14 and 30 days post VTE risk assessment. Pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis was warranted in 97.6%, 99.7%, and 52.9% of patients using the Caprini-based, Caprini, and Padua RAMs respectively. The Caprini-based and Caprini RAMs were highly correlated (r = 0.873 p < 0.001) and were significantly less correlated with the Padua RAM. Major and overall bleeding occurred in 1.4% and 9.2% respectively. VTE was reported in 0.4% with no VTE related mortality. In hospitalized medical patients, the Caprini-based RAM can accurately distinguish low and high VTE risk without resulting in increased risk of bleeding.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814328

RESUMO

Flexible dosing of IgPro20 (Hizentra®, CSL Behring, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania) maintains normal serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Until now, clinical trials testing the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics of serum IgG of weekly and biweekly subcutaneous IgG therapy were not published. This is the first study assessing PK characteristics following weekly and biweekly IgPro20 in patients with PID. The PK study was conducted in 2 parts: weekly dosing (12 weeks) and biweekly dosing (up to 12 months). Serum IgG concentration-time data were analyzed using noncompartmental methods to generate PK parameters. Fifteen patients provided PK samples for both dosing regimens. For weekly and biweekly regimens, mean doses per infusion were 109 and 213 mg/kg, respectively, and median tmax was 2.0 and 3.02 days, respectively. The mean Ctrough values were similar in weekly and biweekly regimens (10.21 and 10.13 g/dL, respectively). The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) with 90% confidence intervals of biweekly to weekly Cmax and Ctrough were 1.10 (1.06-1.13) and 0.98 (0.95-1.01), respectively. The GMR of dAUC was 1.07 (1.03-1.10). This PK analysis demonstrated similar systemic IgG exposure after weekly and biweekly IgPro20 dosing with an equivalent monthly dose in patients with PID.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 106005, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgPro20 (Hizentra®), a 20% subcutaneous immunoglobulin G (IgG), is an effective treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiencies with impaired IgG production. Flexible dosing regimens of IgPro20 have been supported by pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling and simulation. This study further describes the PK characteristics of serum IgG concentrations after weekly and biweekly administration of IgPro20 and compares predicted and actual serum IgG data using a previously-developed population PK (popPK) model. METHODS: A popPK model was developed by combining data from a previously-published model with data from a Phase 4 study (IgPro20_4005). An external validation of the original model using dosing, demographics, and historic endogenous serum IgG concentrations from patients enrolled in study IgPro20_4005 was performed. This dataset was then simulated 300 times and predicted serum IgG PK characteristics compared with the observed data. RESULTS: A total of 173 patients (156 unique patients from original model and 17 patients from study IgPro20_4005) provided 4078 observations of serum IgG concentrations. The popPK estimates obtained demonstrated a clearance (% inter-individual variability) of 0.138 L/day (35%), volume of central compartment of 3.95 L (78.6%), inter-compartmental clearance of 0.260 L/day (56%), and volume of peripheral compartment of 4.44 L. Validation results indicated that observed serum IgG concentration vs time data fell within the 90% prediction intervals for median, 25th, and 75th percentiles of the simulated IgG concentration time courses. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis validated the ability of the previously published popPK model to predict serum IgG concentration time profiles after biweekly subcutaneous IgPro20 administration.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 481, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803700

RESUMO

Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a heterogeneous group of monogenetic diseases. We describe the typical clinical presentation of patients with SCID as well as basic principles in diagnosis and therapy by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therapeutic strategies may differ between subtypes and the inherent reduced capacity or inablility to reject a graft have to be considered.

6.
Cell Rep ; 29(9): 2770-2782.e5, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775044

RESUMO

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (plasmacytoid DC, pDC) are major IFN-I producers and have been shown to be affected by HIV through ill-defined mechanisms. In this study, we directly assess the role of pDC in early infection, evaluating whether modulating their abundance can alter viral replication. First, HIV infection of humanized mice induces systemic depletion of pDC, and in the presence of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), pDC levels remain elevated. Flt3L significantly delays the onset of viremia and reduces viral replication via a process that is dependent on pDC and mediated through an enhanced early IFN-I response. pDC from Flt3L-treated mice are more prone to express IFN-α following TLR7 stimulation, but this propensity is gradually decreased during infection. In conclusion, maintaining pDC levels and function is key to effective early viral control, and in this context, these findings provide practical insights for anti-HIV strategies and vaccine design.

7.
Blood Adv ; 3(21): 3307-3321, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698461

RESUMO

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) represents ∼10% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia cases and typically affects young children (<3 years of age). It remains plagued with extremely poor treatment outcomes (<40% cure rates), mostly due to primary chemotherapy refractory disease and/or early relapse. Recurrent and mutually exclusive chimeric fusion oncogenes have been detected in 60% to 70% of cases and include nucleoporin 98 (NUP98) gene rearrangements, most commonly NUP98-KDM5A. Human models of NUP98-KDM5A-driven AMKL capable of faithfully recapitulating the disease have been lacking, and patient samples are rare, further limiting biomarkers and drug discovery. To overcome these impediments, we overexpressed NUP98-KDM5A in human cord blood hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells using a lentiviral-based approach to create physiopathologically relevant disease models. The NUP98-KDM5A fusion oncogene was a potent inducer of maturation arrest, sustaining long-term proliferative and progenitor capacities of engineered cells in optimized culture conditions. Adoptive transfer of NUP98-KDM5A-transformed cells into immunodeficient mice led to multiple subtypes of leukemia, including AMKL, that phenocopy human disease phenotypically and molecularly. The integrative molecular characterization of synthetic and patient NUP98-KDM5A AMKL samples revealed SELP, MPIG6B, and NEO1 as distinctive and novel disease biomarkers. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses pointed to upregulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in the model AMKL. Both synthetic models and patient-derived xenografts of NUP98-rearranged AMKL showed in vitro therapeutic vulnerability to ruxolitinib, a clinically approved JAK2 inhibitor. Overall, synthetic human AMKL models contribute to defining functional dependencies of rare genotypes of high-fatality pediatric leukemia, which lack effective and rationally designed treatments.

8.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 95(4): 114887, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630909

RESUMO

Loiasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the filarial Loa loa (L. loa). Definitive diagnosis can be done by identifying and counting microfilariae in the peripheral blood by microscopy and with L.loa-specific PCR. An additional diagnostic method is the detection of L.loa-specific antibodies. Accurate methods are needed to automate quantification of microfilaria (mf) in peripheral blood. Indeed, the treatment procedure depends on the microfilarial L. loa load in blood. We report the first documented use of flow cytometry as a new method to count microfilaraemia in peripheral blood from a patient with L. loa infection. The diagnosis of loiasis was strongly suspected based on clinical presentation and rapidly confirmed by identifying typical features of L. loa in the peripheral blood. This diagnosis was achieved by flow cytometry using a specific fluorescence pattern for microfilaraemia count. The current report highlights the potential of flow cytometry to assess microfilarial L. loa load from a patient with loiasis infection.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1018, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is a frequent pediatric tumor associated with poor prognosis. The disregulation of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, is crucial for the tumoral development and chemoresistance. Autophagy is also implicated in tumor cell survival and chemoresistance. The aim of our study was to demonstrate therapeutic efficiency of GX 15-070, a pan-Bcl-2 family inhibitor, used alone and in combination with conventional drugs or with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an autophagy inhibitor. METHODS: Five neuroblastoma cell lines were tested for the cytotoxic activity of GX 15-070 alone or in combination with cisplatin, doxorubicin, HCQ or Z-VAD-FMK a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor. Apoptosis and autophagy levels were studied by western-blot and FACS. Orthotopic injections were performed on NOD/LtSz-scid/IL-2Rgamma null mice that were treated with either GX 15-070 alone or in combination with HCQ. RESULTS: Synergistic cytotoxicity was observed for the drug combination in all of the 5 neuroblastoma cell lines tested, including MYCN amplified lines and in cancer stem cells. GX 15-070 significantly increased apoptosis and autophagy in neuroblastoma cells as evidenced by increased levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II. Inhibition of autophagy by HCQ, further increased the cytotoxicity of this combinatorial treatment, suggesting that autophagy induced by these agent plays a cytoprotective role. In vivo, GX 15-070 combined with HCQ significantly decreased the growth of the tumor and the number of distant metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the synergistic effect of HCQ and GX 15-070 observed in this study, the combination of these two drugs may be utilized as a new therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma.

10.
J Immunol ; 203(10): 2735-2745, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578272

RESUMO

Therapeutic uses of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged over the past decade. Yet, their effect on tumor growth remains highly debated, particularly in an immune competent environment. In this study, we wanted to investigate the impact of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-MSCs) on tumor growth in humanized mice generated by the human adoptive transfer of PBMCs or the cotransplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and human thymic tissue (human BLT [Hu-BLT]). Our results showed that the growth and immune rejection of engineered human fibroblastic tumors was not altered by the injection of hUC-MSCs in immune-deficient or humanized mice, respectively. This was observed whether tumor cells were injected s.c. or i.v. and independently of the injection route of the hUC-MSCs. Moreover, only in Hu-BLT mice did hUC-MSCs have some effects on the tumor-immune infiltrate, yet without altering tumor growth. These results demonstrate that hUC-MSCs do not promote fibroblastic tumor growth and neither do they prevent tumor infiltration and rejection by immune cells in humanized mice.

11.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

12.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 29(4): 503-509, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The OrtenBodyOne scanner is a radiation-free, 3-dimensional imaging system recently developed for evaluation of the severity of pectus excavatum (PE). The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of this new imaging system compared with that of computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of the severity of PE. METHODS: Patients treated for PE from April 2015 to January 2017 with available CT and OrtenBodyOne data were included. Correlations between indexes calculated from CT and from OrtenBodyOne were determined by applying the non-parametric Spearman correlation procedure with a Bonferroni correction to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Forty men (90.9%) and 4 women (9.1%), 20 with symmetrical (45.5%) and 24 with asymmetrical PE (54.5%), were included. The median age was 16.1 years (range 4.3-63.5 years). The following measures and indexes acquired using OrtenBodyOne and CT were significantly correlated: pectus depth (r = 0.84; P = 0.002), anthropometric index (r = 0.81; P = 0.002) and asymmetry index (r = 0.67; P = 0.002). The correlation between the CT Haller index and the external Haller index was only significant for symmetrical PE (r = 0.57; P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The OrtenBodyOne imaging system can be used to evaluate the severity of symmetrical PE using the external Haller index. Asymmetry and anthropometric indexes are more reliable for the evaluation of asymmetrical PE. Measures can be repeated throughout treatment while avoiding unnecessary irradiation.

13.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(6): 1309-1324, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: FDG PET/CT is emerging as a new tool for the evaluation of acute encephalitis (AE). However, to date, there are no exclusively pediatric studies on the use of FDG PET for suspected AE. The objective of this study was to compare qualitative and quantitative brain PET to conventional brain imaging in a cohort of children, and to identify patterns of metabolic abnormalities characteristic of AE. METHODS: This retrospective study included 34 children imaged with PET/CT, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The positivity rate of all three imaging modalities was measured. Besides visual assessment, quantification of relative regional brain metabolism (RRBM) was performed and compared to a database of normal pediatric brains. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects had a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) or encephalitis of unknown origin (EX), six of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAr) encephalitis, three of Hashimoto's encephalopathy, three of neurolupus and eight had other subtypes of encephalitis. Quantitative PET was abnormal in 100% of cases, visually assessed PET in 94.1% of subjects, MRI in 41.2% and CT in 6.9%. RRBM quantification demonstrated multiple hyper and hypo metabolic cortical regions in 82.3% of subjects, exclusively hypermetabolic abnormalities in 3%, and exclusively hypometabolic abnormalities in 14.7%. The basal ganglia were hypermetabolic in 26.5% of cases on visual assessment and in 58.8% of subjects using quantification. CONCLUSION: In our pediatric population FDG PET was more sensitive than conventional imaging for the detection of AE, and basal ganglia hypermetabolism was frequently encountered.

14.
Immunotherapy ; 11(5): 397-406, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626238

RESUMO

AIM: To assess Ig20Gly tolerability in pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiencies. PATIENTS & METHODS: Infusion parameters and tolerability were analyzed in pediatric patients (aged 2-5 years [n = 6], 6-11 years [n = 22] and 12-17 years [n = 22]) receiving Ig20Gly in two Phase II/III trials. RESULTS: Of 2624 Ig20Gly infusions, >99% did not require any rate reduction, interruption or discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs). Median maximum infusion rates and volumes/site were higher in patients 12-17 years of age (30 ml/h/site; 30 ml/site) versus 6-11 years (20 ml/h/site; 15 ml/site) and 2-5 years (18 ml/h/site; 14 ml/site). Rates of causally related systemic and local AEs (0.009 and 0.063 AEs/infusion) were low. CONCLUSION: Ig20Gly infused at relatively high rates and volumes was well tolerated in children.

15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(11): 1975-1976, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517606
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(12): 2060-2066, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no precise idea whether patients with chronic symptoms attributed to Lyme borreliosis (LB) have LB or another disease. METHODS: We evaluated patients consulting for a presumed LB with a holistic approach including presumptive treatment. We included symptomatic patients consulting for presumed LB. They were classified as confirmed LB when they met four criteria, and possible LB if three with a positive clinical response to presumptive treatment. RESULTS: Amongst the 301 patients, 275 (91%) were exposed to tick bites, and 165 (54%) were bitten by a tick. At presentation, 151 patients (50.1%) had already been treated with a median of one (1-22) course of antimicrobials, during 34 (28-730) days. Median number of symptoms was three (1-12) with a median duration of 16 (1-68) months. Median number of signs was zero (0-2). ELISA was positive in 84/295 (28.4%) for IgM and 86/295 (29.1%) for IgG, and immunoblot was positive in 21/191 (10.9%) for IgM and 50/191 (26.1 %) for IgG. Presumptive treatment after presentation failed in 46/88 patients (52%). Diagnosis of LB was confirmed in 29 patients (9.6%), and possible in 9 (2.9%). Of the 243 patients with non-LB diagnosis, diseases were psychological, musculoskeletal, neurological or other origin in 76 (31.2%), 48 (19.7%), 37 (15.2%) and 82 (33.7%) patients respectively. Patients with other diseases were significantly younger, having more symptoms, longest duration of symptoms, less clinical signs and less frequent LB positive serologies. CONCLUSIONS: Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of LB is worsening. Health authorities should investigate this phenomenon.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921138

RESUMO

NK-cell resistance to transduction is a major technical hurdle for developing NK-cell immunotherapy. By using Baboon envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (BaEV-LVs) encoding eGFP, we obtained a transduction rate of 23.0 ± 6.6% (mean ± SD) in freshly-isolated human NK-cells (FI-NK) and 83.4 ± 10.1% (mean ± SD) in NK-cells obtained from the NK-cell Activation and Expansion System (NKAES), with a sustained transgene expression for at least 21 days. BaEV-LVs outperformed Vesicular Stomatitis Virus type-G (VSV-G)-, RD114- and Measles Virus (MV)- pseudotyped LVs (p < 0.0001). mRNA expression of both BaEV receptors, ASCT1 and ASCT2, was detected in FI-NK and NKAES, with higher expression in NKAES. Transduction with BaEV-LVs encoding for CAR-CD22 resulted in robust CAR-expression on 38.3 ± 23.8% (mean ± SD) of NKAES cells, leading to specific killing of NK-resistant pre-B-ALL-RS4;11 cell line. Using a larger vector encoding a dual CD19/CD22-CAR, we were able to transduce and re-expand dual-CAR-expressing NKAES, even with lower viral titer. These dual-CAR-NK efficiently killed both CD19KO- and CD22KO-RS4;11 cells. Our results suggest that BaEV-LVs may efficiently enable NK-cell biological studies and translation of NK-cell-based immunotherapy to the clinic.

19.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(470)2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518613

RESUMO

Tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) represent ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy, but few have been identified thus far. We therefore developed a proteogenomic approach to enable the high-throughput discovery of TSAs coded by potentially all genomic regions. In two murine cancer cell lines and seven human primary tumors, we identified a total of 40 TSAs, about 90% of which derived from allegedly noncoding regions and would have been missed by standard exome-based approaches. Moreover, most of these TSAs derived from nonmutated yet aberrantly expressed transcripts (such as endogenous retroelements) that could be shared by multiple tumor types. Last, we demonstrated that, in mice, the strength of antitumor responses after TSA vaccination was influenced by two parameters that can be estimated in humans and could serve for TSA prioritization in clinical studies: TSA expression and the frequency of TSA-responsive T cells in the preimmune repertoire. In conclusion, the strategy reported herein could considerably facilitate the identification and prioritization of actionable human TSAs.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , DNA Intergênico/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Imunização , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/química , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteogenômica , Linfócitos T/imunologia
20.
Malar J ; 17(1): 387, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-malaria neurological syndrome (PMNS) is a debated entity, defined by neurological complications following a post-malaria symptom-free period and a negative blood smear. Four cases of PMNS are hereby reported and a review the literature performed to clarify the nosological framework of this syndrome. METHODS: A French teaching hospital infectious diseases database was investigated for all PMNS cases occurring between 1999 and 2016 and the PubMed database for cases reported by other institutions after 1997. A case was defined by the de novo appearance of neurological signs following a post-malaria symptom-free period, a negative blood smear, and no bacterial or viral differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Four patients from the database and 48 from PubMed, including 4 following Plasmodium vivax infection were found matching the definition. In the institution, the estimated PMNS incidence rate was 1.7 per 1000 malaria cases overall. Of the 52 patients (mean age 33 years), 65% were men. Malaria was severe in 85% of cases, showed neurological involvement in 53%, and treated with quinine in 60%, mefloquine in 46%, artemisinin derivatives in 41%, antifolic drugs in 30%, doxycycline in 8% and other types in 8%. The mean symptom-free period was 15 days. PMNS signs were confusion (72%), fever (46%), seizures (35%), cerebellar impairment (28%), psychosis (26%), and motor disorders (13%). Cerebrospinal fluid analyses showed high protein levels in 77% (mean 1.88 g/L) and lymphocytic meningitis in 59.5% (mean 48 WBC/mm3) of cases. Electroencephalograms were pathological in 93% (14/15) of cases, and brain MRIs showed abnormalities in 43% (9/21) of cases with white matter involvement in 100%. Fourteen patients were treated with steroids. The 18 patients with follow-up data showed no sequelae. The mean time to recovery was 17.4 days. CONCLUSION: PMNS is a rare entity englobing neurological signs after severe or non-severe malaria. It appears after a symptom-free period. PMNS occurred following treatment of malaria with a wide range of anti-malarials. The disease is self-limiting and associated with good outcome. MRI patterns underline a possible link with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) or auto-immune encephalitis. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax should be added to the list of pathogens causing ADEM.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico , Malária Cerebral/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Paris
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