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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943


BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(12): 2197-2203, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029203


Objectives: SSc-pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) is associated with worse response to therapy and survival when compared with idiopathic PAH. It is suggested that the vasculopathy in SSc may involve postcapillary pulmonary venules resulting in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). This may underlie the lower gas transfer and worse outcome on therapy. We sought to test whether CT signs of PVOD (CTS-PVOD) were frequent in SSc-PAH and whether they were associated with pulmonary oedema on therapy and worse survival. Methods: CT thorax of 66 SSc patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) were blindly scored by two radiologists for CTS-PVOD (⩽1 or ⩾ 2). Case note and radiograph review determined the presence of pulmonary oedema on therapy. Results: Fifty-nine patients (89%) had ⩽1 CTS-PVOD and only 7 (11%) had ⩾2 CTS-PVOD. Pulmonary oedema on therapy was relatively common in those with ⩾2 CTS-PVOD. On univariate analysis ⩾2 CTS-PVOD were associated with a trend towards worse survival. Conclusion: CTS-PVOD were less frequent in this SSc-PAH cohort than in previous reports but the presence of at least two of these signs is associated with pulmonary oedema on therapy and a trend towards worse survival on univariate analysis.

Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(4): 938-945, 2017 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351785


A proportion of people living with common variable immunodeficiency disorders develop granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the definition, diagnosis, and management of GLILD. All UK specialist centers were contacted and relevant physicians were invited to take part in a 3-round online Delphi process. Responses were graded as Strongly Agree, Tend to Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Tend to Disagree, and Strongly Disagree, scored +1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1, respectively. Agreement was defined as greater than or equal to 80% consensus. Scores are reported as mean ± SD. There was 100% agreement (score, 0.92 ± 0.19) for the following definition: "GLILD is a distinct clinico-radio-pathological ILD occurring in patients with [common variable immunodeficiency disorders], associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate and/or granuloma in the lung, and in whom other conditions have been considered and where possible excluded." There was consensus that the workup of suspected GLILD requires chest computed tomography (CT) (0.98 ± 0.01), lung function tests (eg, gas transfer, 0.94 ± 0.17), bronchoscopy to exclude infection (0.63 ± 0.50), and lung biopsy (0.58 ± 0.40). There was no consensus on whether expectant management following optimization of immunoglobulin therapy was acceptable: 67% agreed, 25% disagreed, score 0.38 ± 0.59; 90% agreed that when treatment was required, first-line treatment should be with corticosteroids alone (score, 0.55 ± 0.51).

Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum , Granuloma , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Instituições de Caridade , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico por imagem , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Consenso , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Sociedades Médicas , Reino Unido
J Clin Immunol ; 34(1): 68-75, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24136152


PURPOSE: Some patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD) syndromes develop bronchiectasis. In immunocompetent patients with bronchiectasis, key clinico-pathophysiological relationships exist between exacerbation frequency, lung function, health-status, infection and inflammation. It is not known whether such relationships are present in PAD. It is also not known how local and systemic inflammation in PAD compares with that in immunocompetent (non-PAD) bronchiectasis patients. METHOD: We assessed symptoms, exacerbation frequency, health-status, lung function, CT, airway and systemic inflammation and infection in 33 PAD patients and 20 immunocompetent controls with bronchiectasis. RESULTS: Despite less severe airflow obstruction, PAD patients had similar health-status impairment and greater airway (sputum log10 IL-6 2.71 vs. 1.81 pg/ml, p = 0.001) and greater systemic inflammation than immunocompetent bronchiectasis controls (serum log10 CRP 0.77 vs. 0.36 mg/l, p = 0.001). In PAD, cross-sectional markers of disease severity (CT and lung function) did not relate to inflammatory markers of disease activity, however there was a relationship between FEV1 decline rate and systemic inflammation (IL-6; r = 0.42, p = 0.036) and the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response was related to that in the airway. Correlation between generic SF36 and respiratory SGRQ questionnaires (r = -0.79, p < 0.001) suggests that much health-status impairment in PAD relates to respiratory involvement. Health-status was associated with dyspnoea (rho = 0.77, p < 0.001), respiratory infection frequency (rho = 0.48, p = 0.016), lung function (FEV1: r = -0.60, p = 0.001) and rate of lung function decline (r = 0.41, p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: The major findings of this analysis are that in patients with PAD, cross-sectional markers of disease severity such as lung function and CT extent of disease do not reflect disease activity as assessed by airway and systemic inflammation. In addition, there is a relationship between the rate of progression of lung disease and the severity of the systemic inflammatory response which itself is related to that in the airway. Much of the quality of life impact in PAD relates to respiratory involvement, specifically the severity of airflow obstruction, respiratory exacerbation frequency and dyspnoea. Finally, patients with PAD had greater airway and systemic inflammation than a control population with non-PAD bronchiectasis which may suggest a dysregulated airway immune response.

Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Bronquiectasia/complicações , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Testes de Função Respiratória , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
AIDS ; 19(15): 1601-6, 2005 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16184029


BACKGROUND: Correcting the Th2 shift in HIV/AIDS represents a potential intervention strategy. However data on interleukin (IL)-4 expression in HIV or AIDS are un-interpretable because of failure to distinguish between IL-4 and its splice variant and natural antagonist, IL-4delta2. OBJECTIVE: To determine Th1 [interferon (IFN)-gamma], IL-4delta2 and Th2 (IL-4) expression in whole blood and lung lavage from healthy volunteers and in HIV or HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional with prospective cohort. METHODS: Expression of IL-4delta2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, using unstimulated cells from whole blood and lung lavage, in 20 HIV-TB (pulmonary) co-infected patients, 20 matched HIV-positive controls and 20 HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Results were correlated with plasma viral load, CD4 cell counts, radiological scores and response to anti-TB treatment. RESULTS: Compared to HIV negative donors, stable HIV-positive donors did not have increased levels of mRNA encoding IL-4, IL-4delta2 or IFN-gamma in blood or lavage. By contrast, the HIV-TB co-infected donors had increased IL-4 and IFN-gamma in both compartments. However the antagonist, IL-4delta2 was increased only in lavage. Consequently the dominant form was IL-4delta2 in lavage, but IL-4 itself in blood. The lung IL-4/IFN-gamma ratio correlated with radiological disease extent. With anti-TB treatment, IL-4 levels did not change whilst IL-4delta2 levels increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: IL-4 and its natural antagonist, IL-4delta2 and are not upregulated in the absence of opportunistic infection. However in HIV-TB co-infection both cytokines increase in lung, but only IL-4 in the periphery. Further studies are required to determine if IL-4 facilitates systemic HIV progression.

Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Interleucina-4/biossíntese , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Processamento Alternativo , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-4/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 172(4): 501-8, 2005 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15901609


RATIONALE: Tuberculosis progresses despite potent Th1 responses. A putative explanation is the simultaneous presence of a subversive Th2 response. However, interpretation is confounded by interleukin 4delta2 (IL-4delta2), a splice variant and inhibitor of IL-4. OBJECTIVE: To study levels of mRNA encoding IL-4 and IL-4delta2, and their relationship to treatment and clinical parameters, in cells from lung lavage and blood from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: IL-4delta2, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels were measured by polymerase chain reaction and relevant immunoassays in 29 patients and matched control subjects lacking responses to tuberculosis-specific antigens. RESULTS: mRNA levels for IL-4 and IL-4delta2 were elevated in unstimulated cells from blood and lung lavage of patients versus control subjects (p < 0.005). In control subjects, there were low basal levels of IL-4 and IL-4delta2 mRNA expressed mainly by non-T cells (p < 0.05). However, in patients, there were greater levels of mRNA for both cytokines in both T- and non-T-cell populations (p < 0.05 compared with control subjects). Radiologic disease correlated with the IL-4/IFN-gamma ratio and sCD30 (p < 0.005). After chemotherapy, IL-4 mRNA levels remained unchanged, whereas IL-4delta2 increased in parallel with IFN-gamma (p < 0.05). Sonicates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis upregulated expression of IL-4 relative to IL-4delta2 in mononuclear cell cultures from patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A Th2-like response, prominent in T cells and driven by tuberculosis antigen, is present in tuberculosis and modulated by treatment, suggesting a role for IL-4 and IL-4delta2 in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and their ratio as a possible marker of disease activity. The specific antigens inducing the IL-4 response require identification to facilitate future vaccine development strategies.

Interleucina-4/imunologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Separação Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia